How was the Roman economy structured?

The Romans' economy and their trade routes

I Table of Contents


III.I.I The smallholder farms
III.I.II The large companies
III.I.III Social and socio-economic marginalized groups
III.I.IV Social tension
III.I.V A Latin text: "Roman peasants"
III.III.I General
III.III.II The market system: the example of Rome
III.III.III slave trade
III.III.IV Maritime trade



II Introduction

As the title shows, this specialist thesis deals with the economy and the trade routes of the Romans. It is divided into two main parts in order to better understand the individual topics.

The aim of the first part is to provide an overview of the economic situation in the Roman Empire. An additional subdivision into the categories of agriculture, craft and trade is necessary because of the wealth of information - it is intended to provide additional structure and thus ensure a better overview. It should be noted that this part as a whole presents the historical facts on the margins and only occasionally deepens them in some places.

The “trade” part represents a transition function to the second part. It should be noted, however, that these two topics are basically treated separately in this thesis.

In terms of work, the second part, which deals in particular with the Roman road systems, is handled in the same way as the first. In contrast to the first, however, this part treats its topic in a more specialized and in-depth manner: various aspects are exemplified here.

Latin (original) texts are inserted in those places where they serve as useful additions. Additional explanatory graphics, tables, maps and sources are attached as an appendix. In the text, endnotes refer to the respective material.

Some topics that would be necessary for a deeper understanding of Roman economic history or would be a useful addition must be disregarded due to the lack of space (e.g. numismatics and banking or the various vehicles of the Romans).

I have decided to write a thesis on this subject because I am generally interested in economics, history, social sciences, but also geography and Latin. To deal with the “economy of the Romans and their trade routes” means to include each of these dimensions and to identify and characterize interdependencies among them. This challenge is certainly associated with a lot of effort and effort, but also with new experiences and (knowledge) knowledge.

Another reason for me to write this thesis is the lack of such kind of work on the internet. I would like to contribute to the fact that this topic is illuminated and made known and that this work is a start for it.

Matthias Motzkus in March 2002

III The economy in the Roman Empire

III.I Roman agriculture

Throughout antiquity, agriculture - before handcraft and trade - was the economic basis of the Roman Empire. It is assumed that at that time about 80-90% of the approx. 60 million inhabitants of the Roman Empire lived and worked in the country.1This is where the vast majority of the national product was generated.

Nowadays it is clear that on this basis alone the accumulation of capital would have been impossible, on which the social differentiation, the highly developed urban system, the costly political system and the structure of the trade routes of the Roman Empire rose. It is therefore obvious that a change must have taken place during this period that shifted the relationship between subsistence economy and capital accumulation. In the following it will be discussed whether such a change has actually taken place and, if so, to what extent it can be or was ascertained.

III.I.I The smallholder farms

Because at that time there were no really useful agricultural implements available2, but basically only the muscle power of humans and animals was available3, the smallholder family business was forced to operate subsistence farming, i.e. to use the goods produced mainly to cover their own basic food needs. In addition to the already difficult work, the growing Mediterranean climate became more and more unfavorable, especially for the grain that is so important for nutrition.4Since the yields of a normal harvest were on average only 4-6 times that of the sowing anyway5, there was generally no possibility of capital or property accumulation for the average smallholder.

So it happened over time that more and more farmers - especially in the south of Italy - had to convert their farms from growing grain to growing oil and wine.6 Since the cultivation of these products in the Mediterranean climate was much easier and thus more profitable than the cultivation of grain, the farmers were able to generate surpluses over time, which gave them the opportunity to sell their goods - initially on the local market, later also in export and Long-distance trade - to offer for sale.

III.I.II The large companies

Many of the small farmers who now produce surplus also switched to livestock farming, so that over time more and more large farms (latifundias) emerged. Often the production range of these was increased by adjacent mills, brickworks, forges, quarries, etc. More and more slaves and day laborers were used to cope with the work on the house and farm.7

The Punic Wars (especially the 2nd, 218-201 BC) made the expanded land ownership possible, which on the one hand created new land through confiscations and on the other hand promoted the slave trade.8 Due to increasing urbanization, agriculture was soon no longer able to fulfill its task of supplying the cities, which were growing in size and area, so that more and more goods were being imported than exported. For example, the grain, which still functions as a staple food, was partially imported from Egypt and other countries in order to meet the high demand of the cities.9Nevertheless, some specialties, such as fine wines, oils, olives and garum (a spicy fish sauce) were still exported in large quantities.10Trade itself is an essential part of Chapter III.III and is dealt with in ibid.

III.I.III Social and socio-economic marginalized groups

But there were also small farmers who could not manage to develop into large farms. The structural features of rural areas that are disadvantageous for them11made it necessary to secure one's own livelihood by recruiting from other (neighboring) estates. Alternatively, people often moved to the cities to discover the (often supposed) attractions of urban space12to use.

Another factor that was responsible for the formation of socio-economic marginalized groups was the (2nd) Punic War mentioned in the previous section: The Roman army consisted largely of peasants who no longer fought local battles, but battles farther and farther away (e.g. in Greece, Spain, Africa etc.)13. Many of these fell in the battles, died of illness or exhaustion. The farmer's wife at home was often unable to feed the family adequately, despite the help of the children. This was another disadvantageous structural feature, a push factor. The last resort was often to move to the cities (especially Rome) in the hope of finding work and social security there (cf. [12]). Because of the Punic Wars, many farming families moved to the cities. The areas that became “free” as a result were often bought up by rich nobles. Often the prisoners of war were forced to do slave labor, so there were enough workers to manage the huge latifundia.

The one with increasing marginalization caused by push and pull factors14The migration or rural exodus caused over time a labor shortage in rural areas, which indirectly meant that the purchase of slaves became increasingly cost-intensive. Attempts were made to compensate for this deficiency with various forms of leasing, but this was not very successful.

As it was often the case that the owner of a large farm lived in the city as a politician or businessman and the business was run by an administrator (vilicus)15(the technical term for this is "absentee landlordism")16, the economic possibilities of the large farms were continually not being used and the yields remained relatively low17(which was another factor in the formation of social and socio-economic marginalized groups). Because, although production continued for the market, on the other hand, investments were made again - especially by the landowners18, viewed as a whole, one cannot speak of a capitalist economic system for the Roman estate economy.

III.I.IV Social tension

The conflicts between the rich (patricians) and the impoverished population (proletarii) gave rise to social grievances: The families who had become unemployed moved, as already mentioned, to Rome or to comparable “big cities”. But even there they usually did not find any employment that secured their livelihood. The state supported them with free grain deliveries19, but it was precisely these that drew more and more farmers from the country to the city.

Over time, a growing discrepancy developed between luxury addicts, lavish rich and poor citizens living on the edge of the subsistence level. The author Pliny the Elder laments the extravagance of his contemporaries and their greed for luxury goods:

"... minimaque conputatione miliens centena milia sestertium annis omnibus India et Seres et paeninsula illa (scil. Arabia) imperio nostro adimunt: tanti nobis deliciae et feminae constant!" (Pliny the elder, naturalis historia).20

"According to the lowest estimates, India, the Serer and the Arabian peninsula withdraw 100 million sesterces from our state every year: that's how much luxury and women cost us!"21

The first politician who tried to alleviate these grievances and to help the citizens was the tribune Tiberius Gracchus.22He wanted to give the landless peasants back settlement areas through land reforms in Italy or in the provinces, but failed because of the resistance of the large landowners in the Senate. Only in the years 103-100 BC The victorious general Gaius Marius succeeded in asserting himself against the will of the Senate: at least for his soldiers and some farmers he won back land as a reward.23

III.I.V A Latin text: "Roman peasants"

The following text reports on the hard and difficult work of the peasants and their slaves and maidservants:

"Agricolae Romani vitam magnis cum laboribus agunt. Iam mane dominus e lecto surgit et cum servis anquillisque ad laborem properat. Femdom Cum Ancillis In Villa Laborat; dominus cum servis in vinea laborat. Servi vites ponunt. Aliis olivas colligunt et fiscinis in aulam portant. Tertia hora dominus cum Syro servo aliisque servas in silvam properat; magno cum laboratories arbores caedunt. Multas horas in silva laborant. Tum dominus cum servis sub arboribus considit; cibis recreantur. Sed nona hora cuncti e silva ad villam properant. Equi magnam arborem e silva in aulam trahunt. Tum servi alio loco laboratory technician. Muro parvo aulam circumdant. Tandem vesper familiam laboribus liberat. Cuncti in villam conveniunt. Domina cum ancillis familiae cenam bonam ready. "24


The Roman peasants lead a life with great toil. The landlord gets up from his bed early in the morning and quickly goes to work with the slaves and maids. The lady of the house works with the maids in the house; the landlord works with the slaves in the vineyard. You [aka: the

Slaves] plant grapevines. The others collect olives and carry the baskets to the house. At the third hour25 the master of the house hurries into the forest with the slave Syrus and the other slaves; with great effort they fell trees. They work long hours there [aka: in the forest]. Then the master of the house and the slaves sit down under the trees; they refresh themselves with food. But at the ninth hour26they all walk quickly from the forest to the house. The horses pull a large tree from the forest to the house. Then the slaves work in another place. They surround the courtyard with a small wall.

The evening finally frees the family from the stresses and strains. Everyone gathers in the house. The lady of the house prepares a good meal for the family [together] with the maids.

It should be noted here that the Latin word familia describes more than the small group of father, mother and children known to us today under the term “family”. At that time, familia also included all workers and roommates in a house. The domina (the lady of the house), the children and the slaves were subordinate to the pater familias, the father of the family.27

The word familia is often translated as “household” or “property”. The "[...] suggests that the Roman familia was also an economic entity."28

III.II The craft

The various fields of activity of the craftsman developed out of the needs of rural life29. The familia (see III.I.V) produced most of the things it needed itself - but special knowledge and skills were required for special work and products.30Over time, more and more skilled trades developed, so a specialization became noticeable.

In ancient times there was a relatively extensive handicraft in Rome, which, however, never became as important for the Roman economy as agriculture. The craft sector benefited from the increasing number of orders in the fields of weapons technology, the construction of private and public buildings and the construction of water pipes, etc., but the companies in general did not get any bigger, no industry emerged (although there was a division of labor and specialization were).31

Overall, the skilled trades made a rather low profit with a relatively high number of employees.32One of the main reasons for this relationship was that there were still sales difficulties, especially in the early days of the republic, as the transport system was not yet well developed: At that time, land transport was still very expensive - due to the lack of passable roads - so it was worthwhile for them most products don't. The sea route was cheaper, but it contained dangers and risks, especially because of the lack of navigational knowledge and piracy.

Because agriculture was considered the most respected form of capital investment33, the rich invested in land, but not in craft businesses.

III.III The trade of the Romans

III.III.I General

In contrast to agriculture, trade had until about the 3rd century BC. BC - both in the local and in the supra-regional area - hardly any meaning. Only the minting of coins, the increasing contacts with other peoples and colonies and the high demand for food of the big cities (especially in Rome) caused by the rural exodus of the population have completely renewed and “stimulated” the hitherto backward economic structure of the Roman Empire ". The trade balance became passive, i.e. more was imported than exported.34

III.III.II The market system: the example of Rome

The Kaiserfora, large market halls, were located around the Roman Forum. The Trajan's markets and the Septua Iulia (a 400m long and 60m wide commercial building in Rome) also had a wide range for the time. The staple foods such as grain were imported from the latifundia outside the city, in addition, grain was imported from Egypt in times of need.35Cosmetics from Judea, glass and pottery from the Rhine region, spices from Asia, oil from Spain, Gaul and North Africa as well as enamel dishes from today's Belgium determined the market from afar, because these luxury goods were particularly popular with the rich (cf. . III.I.IV.)

The supply in Rome was organized by the cura annonae: it determined the trading partners and drew up lists of the goods that were needed, it placed the orders, etc.36

III.III.III slave trade

Especially in the centuries before the birth of Christ, the slave trade played an important role in the economic structure of the Roman Empire: Above all, the Gauls sold prisoners of war and debt slaves to Italy, and many innocent people - some of them as victims of piracy - were found in the eastern Mediterranean the market.37 But also later, the slave trade was quite important for the Roman economy.

With a few exceptions, e.g. Seneca, the Romans saw slaves as things. It was therefore common for there to be slave markets where one bought one's "goods" or offered them for sale. In the cities the slaves were generally better off than the work slaves on the large estates or in the mines. She often had the opportunity to work for rich Romans as cooks, hair artists, secretaries, teachers or musicians.

38 As time went on, the slave trade diminished as moral and ethical standards were increasingly applied, but it continued for many centuries.

III.III.IV Maritime trade

For the peoples on the edge of the Mediterranean Sea, trade and shipping were a necessity. The Greeks and Phoenicians, for example, had been operating since the 7th century. v. Chr. Sea trade. But it was not until the Punic Wars that Rome became a major sea power with a merchant fleet. This became very popular with the Romans, because in antiquity the sea route was a faster and cheaper means of transport than overland transport - but it was not as safe as the land route, because unlike on the Roman roads there were no police-like security troops. pen that had been able to protect against enemy attacks. In the 1st century pirates managed to temporarily bring the entire Mediterranean under their control.39

IV The Roman road system

For the peoples on the edge of the Mediterranean Sea, trade by sea and land was of central importance. These peoples used it to transport products such as copper, salt and luxury goods; Most of these products came from the interior of Spain, the Danube region or other trading areas.40

But it was only during the imperial era, more precisely under Emperor Augustus, who created the pax romana or pax augusta, that the Romans had the opportunity to conduct trade and long-distance trade via land and sea in a secure manner: with the new one Peace flourished the economy, which now gave rise to the expansion of roads and sea trade. The Roman imperial administration ensured safe sea routes and passable ports; One of their great achievements is the expansion and maintenance of a network of highways through the entire Roman Empire.41

This was also one of the main instruments of the Romans in the conquest, domination and Romanization of Italy as well as an important factor in the economic structure. The larger imperial roads, which got their name primarily after the builder (e.g. Via Appia, Via Aemilia, Via Flaminia, Via Claudia Augusta) were called viae publicae, provided that they led through solum publicum, public land. Viae vicinales was the name given to country and field roads.

The Roman road network, which by the end of the Roman Republic had already been developed in essential parts of the Mediterranean countries, already had a strong echo in the ancient world, and many poets of Roman antiquity, in addition to exuberant praise, also realized that the roads are or were to be regarded as an expression of domination. Because although the journey by sea was far more comfortable, troops were often sent by land to theaters of war on the borders of the empire. And the emperor was able to rule the empire from Rome to a certain extent with letters carried by messengers. The fact that sea trade was severely restricted or no longer possible in the winter months also added importance to the Roman road network.

IV.I Road construction and quality

"Primus labor inchoare sulcos

et rescindere limites et alto egestu penitus cavare terras; mox haustas aliter replere fossas

et summo gremium parare dorso, ne nutent sola, ne maligna sedes et pressis dubium cubile saxis. tunc umbonibus hinc et hinc coactis et crebris iter alligare gomfis.

... opusque texunt cocto powder sordidoque tofo "

(Statius, Silvae IV 3. 40ff.)

“The first job is to start furrows and tear down boundaries and, with deep excavation, completely hollow out the earth; then the work (follows) to fill the ditch in some other way and to prepare a bed for the road surface,

so that the floors do not sway,

so that the base is not too tight and reacts differently when the stones are pressed into the bed. Then (the work follows) to hold the path with wackerstones gathered from here and there and many anchors ... The building is united with burnt dust (earthenware?) And black tuff. " 42

The Romans usually built a road on the initiative of the state. As a rule, the residents (or the communities concerned) had the obligation to bear the costs of such an enterprise. Often the residents also had to do the work on the construction of the road, accommodation and road stations as well as rest houses and distance indicators (milestones) (see Chapter IV.II.). Most of the time, however, the respective emperor provided soldiers as labor and provided half of the construction costs.

Depending on the orographic43Given the circumstances, this work was sometimes very laborious. In difficult terrain, for example, "the removal of elevations to avoid steep inclines (conplanatis montibus), rock blasting for the route (caesis rupibus), path widening (dilatis itineribus) and bridge building (pontibus institutis)" 44necessary.

The highways, which can still be recognized today as gravelly bulges, were built on a foundation of solid stones. As a rule, two further layers of coarse rubble and fine gravel were settled on top. The streets outside the villages were also curved outwards so that the rainwater could drain into the rain gutters provided for this purpose. Since the wheels, mostly shod with iron tires in the soft gravel, could absorb more violent bumps, traveling across the country was much more pleasant than driving around town. It is therefore not surprising that Seneca or Cicero wrote letters during their journeys or that the Emperor Claudius had dice boards put up in his traveling car to “indulge in his beloved game”.45 In settlements and localities as well as in special exceptions (e.g. on steep, slippery climbs and areas at risk of flooding), the roadway was also paved with stone slabs, so-called silices. One disadvantage, however, was the noise from the passing cars, which caused the

To the Romans at this time it must have seemed very uncomfortable and unusual, as the Emperor Tertullian also expressed at the end of the 2nd century AD:

“If we think it roars from heaven, then it is a chariot; if the thunder starts to roll, we take it for the roar of a car. "46

In addition, the already poorly sprung wagons could only drive very slowly on the cobbled streets so that the wagons and their cargo were not damaged.

As already indicated, the road construction was z. Sometimes associated with considerable physical and material exertion. The construction of bridges, for example, often took several years, because they were built so solidly that many ancient bridges can still be actively used today. Where bridges could not be built, the ferry service still provided the opportunity to translate.

The first tunnels for road traffic also have their origins in antiquity. The architect L. Cocceius Auctus built two tunnels on behalf of Agrippa, one between Naples and Puteoli (also known as Crypta Neapolitana) and the other as a connection from Cumae to Lake Avern (length 1km, width approx. 3.20m).47

The construction of mountain passes also proved necessary, as the rapid relocation of troops over mountains was necessary for tactical reasons. The expansion of these roads was often limited to what was absolutely necessary.

IV.II Distance measurement / surveying

The newly laid routes were already measured while the roads were being built. For this purpose, one placed on the side of the road (usually 2-3 meters away)48Distance indicator (milestones) on. These stone pillars, up to 3m high, usually not only provided information about the distance to the nearest location, but also about the builder, the financier, and often also about the executors or the supervisors. This is shown by many excavations and finds, as in the case of the milestone of Cannae di Battaglia (southern Italy).

"LXXXIX (milia passuum Romam) / Imp (erator) Caesar / divi Nervae f (ilius) / Nerva Traianus / Aug (ustus) Germ (anicus) Dacic (us) / pont (ifex) max (imus), tr (ibunicia) pot (estate) / XIII, imp (erator) VI, co (n) s (ul) V, / p (ater) p (atriae) / viam a Benevento / rundisium / pecun (ia) sua fecit ".49

Translated, its inscription reads:

"79 miles to Rome / Emperor Nerva Traianus Augustus, / son of the deified Nerva, / victor over the Teutons and Dacians, / highest state priest, / holder of tribunician state authority for the 13th time, / six times acclaimed as victorious general, / five-time consul, / Father of the Fatherland / had the road from Beneventum / to Brundisium built at his own expense. "50

These milestones are important documents on Roman road construction today. Because at that time they had another important function in addition to the distance-indicating function: in the late imperial era, milestones were often set up without any actual building work being carried out, in order to demonstrate devotion to the rapidly changing emperors51. In addition to an aid for travelers to better estimate the routes, they were also a good information and / or propaganda tool.

At that time, the milestones always indicated the distance from a location. This made it easier to use the itineraries that were often carried along at the time52.

Since the distance between two settlements was always shown on the ancient maps, it was possible to estimate the distance covered as well as the distance to be covered at any time when passing a distance indicator.

At the fork in the road there were also smaller consecrated districts, where one thanked the gods of the road with a gift or an inscription for the good progress of the journey or asked for benevolence for the distance still to be covered. If two streets met, the biviae were donated there, the triviae at three bifurcations and the quadruviae at large crossroads.53

IV.III Street directories and cartography / maps

As already described in the previous section, the Roman travelers always measured the distances with the help of milestones and the Itineraries. The information on the Itineraries was based on milestone registers that were kept in a central location (Rome or a provincial capital).54 There were different itineraries, e.g. B. the Itinerarium Antonini, which only contained the routes with the names of the stations and distance information. The Itinerarium Burdigalense also explains with the terms mansio, mutatio and civitas.55The Tabula Peutingeriana, for example, has explanatory signs for mansio - mutatio - civitas instead of names.

It can be assumed that at that time the route user in addition to his list of places and distances also a map to clarify the geographic situation (in this case probably mainly orographic56Descriptions), especially since, despite the few surviving maps from antiquity, so much has been found out about ancient cartography that, in addition to drafts of earth maps, there have also been individual representations of countries.57Since too little is known about ancient cartography in general, it will not be discussed further here.

IV.IV trade routes

Since the first roads were built in the Roman Empire, the trunk road network has expanded continuously. It no longer only spanned the Roman Empire, but soon extended from Scotland to all of France and Spain, from North Africa to Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Asia Minor, Greece and the catchment area of ​​the Danube, the so-called “Danube provinces”.

In addition to the well-known Viae in the Roman Empire, there were also other trade routes. One of the most famous long-distance trade routes was the Silk Road at that time. It was the only land connection between the Roman Empire and the Far Eastern market. The much sought-after Chinese silk, precious metals, tea and other luxury goods were transported over a distance of more than 6000 km via the intermediate stations in India and Arabia.58

V Bibliography

V.I literature

ƒ Bringmann, K .: Roman history - from the beginnings to late antiquity. Munich 1995

ƒ Schlüter, H, Steinicke, K .: LATINUM. Course for Latin lessons starting later. Goettingen 1992

ƒ Ploetz, C. (ed.): The great Ploetz. The data encyclopedia of world history. Freiburg i. Br., 1998

ƒ Ralph Lewis, B .: What is What - The Ancient Rome (Vol. 55). Hamburg 1974

ƒ Brameier, U. (ed.) i.a .: Terra. Spaces and structures. Gotha, 1999 ƒ Bender, H .: Roman roads and street stations. Stuttgart 1975

ƒ Schmid, H.-D .: Questions to History 1 - Empires on the Mediterranean. Frankfurt, 1983

ƒ Ternes, C.-M .: The Romans on the Rhine and Moselle, Stuttgart 1975

V.II Internet pages

ƒ http: //sneaker.cfg-

ƒ http: //sneaker.cfg-

ƒ http: //machno.hbi-




1Bringmann, K .: Roman History - From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity. Munich 1995, p. 80f.

2In ancient times there were plows, but they could only loosen the soil. See Fig. 1

3Schlueter, H., Steinicke, K .: LATINUM. Course for Latin lessons starting later. Göttingen 1992, p. 28

4In arid Mediterranean regions (e.g. central and southern Italy), agriculture was e.g. Sometimes extremely labor-intensive, because both the cultivated and the fallow fields often had to be plowed and chopped so that the soil could store the moisture. After: Bringmann, K .: loc. Cit., P. 80f.

5For comparison: nowadays one sowing brings about 30-40 times the yield.

6Schlüter, H., Steinicke, K .: loc. Cit .. p. 28

7Schlüter, H., Steinicke, K .: loc. Cit .. p. 28

8Ploetz, C. (ed.): The great Ploetz. The data encyclopedia of world history. Freiburg i. Br., 1998, p. 300

9Ralph Lewis, B .: What is What - The Ancient Rome (Vol. 55). Hamburg 1974

10Ploetz, C. (Ed.): Loc. Cit., P. 300

11In social and political science, one speaks of so-called "push factors", such as unemployment, life on the edge of subsistence level, exploitation and oppression by large landowners, harvest risk due to weather influences, etc.

12(Alleged) attractions of urban space: so-called "pull factors, e.g. job opportunities, infrastructural facilities and social security

13Schlüter, H., Steinicke, K .: loc. Cit .. p. 79

14Marginalization: "Displacement of population groups to the fringes of society, who there often live on the edge of the subsistence level". From: Brameier, U. (ed.) And others: Terra. Spaces and structures. Gotha, 1999

15Schlüter, H., Steinicke, K .: loc. Cit .. p. 28

16Ploetz, C. (Ed.): Loc. Cit., P. 233

17Ploetz, C. (Ed.): Loc. Cit., P. 233

18At that time, the Roman landowners and large landowners invested primarily in their political careers and social representation (e.g. at funerals); often these things cost huge sums of money. After .: Ploetz, C. (ed.): Loc. Cit., P. 233

19Schlüter, H., Steinicke, K .: loc. Cit .. p. 80

20Quoted from: website

21 To: website 9

22Schlüter, H, Steinicke, K .: loc. Cit .. p. 80

23Ploetz, C. (Ed.): Loc. Cit., P. 245ff.

24Schlüter, H., Steinicke, K .: loc. Cit .. p. 24

25about 9 a.m.

26around 3 p.m.

27Schlüter, H., Steinicke, K .: loc. Cit .. p. 14f.

28Schlüter, H., Steinicke, K .: loc. Cit .. p. 14f.

29 Website 11


31Ploetz, C. (Ed.): Loc. Cit., P. 233f.

32Ploetz, C. (Ed.): Loc. Cit., P. 233f.

33Bringmann, K .: loc. Cit., P. 80


35Ralph Lewis, B .: loc. Cit., P. 27

36 Website 13


38 Schmid, H.-D .: Questions to History 1 - World Empires on the Mediterranean. Frankfurt, 1983 14

39Schlüter, H., Steinicke, K .: loc. Cit .. p. 84

40Schlüter, H., Steinicke, K .: loc. Cit .. p. 22

41Schlüter, H., Steinicke, K .: loc. Cit .. p. 23


43Orography / geomorphology is the description of the earth's surface, in this case e.g. mountain ranges, rivers, deserts, bays, etc.

44Bender, H .: Roman roads and road stations. Stuttgart 1975

45Bender, H .: loc. Cit., P. 8

46Bender, H .: loc. Cit., P. 7

47Bender, H .: loc. Cit., P. 9f.

48Bender, H .: loc. Cit., P. 11

49Quoted from: Bender, H .: loc. Cit., P. 11

50Quoted from: Bender, H .: loc. Cit., P. 11

51Bender, H .: loc. Cit., P. 12

52Itineraries are or were "route descriptions with place names and details of the distance between two places". Quoted from: Bender, H .: loc. Cit., P. 12

53Bender, H .: loc. Cit., P. 14

54Bender, H .: loc. Cit., P. 13

55mutatio: Place where you only change the riding or draft animals.

mansio: A place where, in addition to fresh riding and draft animals, you could also get a meal and probably rest longer or spend the night.

civitas / vicus: Settlement or street village, after: Bender, H .: loc. Cit., P. 15ff. 21

56Orography / geomorphology is the description of the earth's surface, in this case e.g. mountain ranges, rivers, deserts, bays, etc.

57Bender, H .: loc. Cit., P. 13

58 Website 22