What is a learning model

A teaching-learning model for teaching and learning

The relationship between teaching and learning

A teaching-learning model

Teachers need and have models for teaching-learning processes, because nobody teaches “without a model”. The question is how implicitly or explicitly these models determine the respective teaching and how public and transparent the models and ideas are.

"Nobody teaches without a model."

A teaching-learning model is a theoretical construct created by teaching-learning experts for the professionalization of teaching with the aim of ensuring that learners learn effectively and well. Models are object-like, pictorial, symbolic or conceptual representations that order, structure, and categorize our encounters with the world. Models are thought-provoking spaces and aids in theory development and are a means of communication. Models simplify, shorten, idealize, are preliminary, are not true but appropriate, are negotiable, have limits, apply to an area and have a specific purpose.

However, many common teaching-learning models are mere teaching models, i.e. they focus on teaching, i.e. on what the teacher does. A teaching-learning model must, however, center on learning and the relationship between teachers and learning. So the question is how the learning processes and the teaching processes interact.

Learners enter the learning environment of the lesson with prior knowledge, with previous experience and with a stock of competencies and leave this learning environment with more knowledge, more skills and with expanded and improved competencies (competence orientation). Learning takes place in a learning line (learner orientation), i.e. in a chronological sequence of learning steps.

"The relationship between teaching and learning is crucial."

The learners work on learning materials at the appropriate place by working on calculated, challenging tasks (calculated challenge), evaluating information, dealing with the technical content and developing competencies in the process. This creates learning products (learning product orientation) of a material type (e.g. table, mind map, text, sketch, image, diagram, experiment, ...) or of an immaterial type in the form of knowledge, cognitive structures, judgments and values. This is the central learning step and all previous ones lead to it, all subsequent ones build on it. The learning products created bear a personal signature (personalization) or that of the group and are discussed and negotiated in the plenary (co-construction). A learning step in which networking and transfer take place completes the learning line. (A detailed description can be found in Leisen 2013 and Studienseminar Koblenz 2015.)

The sequence of steps can also be formulated as a three-step process, but includes the cognitive actions mentioned.

Sequence of learning steps as a three-step

The sequence of steps described includes a learning unit. It does not always have to and cannot always be a 45-minute lesson. The sequence of steps is often spread over several lessons, but can also refer to a short learning sequence. The model allows branches to exist, steps to be repeated or skipped. But some phases are indispensable for competence-oriented teaching: The creation of a learning product and the negotiation of the same, as well as securing and consolidating what has been learned. In this way, knowledge and action develop sustainably in the sense of the understanding of competence as "an active handling of knowledge and values."

The teaching-learning model differentiates between the functions of teaching and learning, assigns teachers and learners their respective roles and tasks, and models the relationship between teaching and learning processes. The teacher's services consist in the control of the learning processes.

"The teacher's performance consists in controlling the learning processes."

Control 1: tasks

Good assignments are the engine of conducive learning environments. Assignments include work assignments, learning materials and methods. The latter significantly control the learning process and materialize the learning environment.

Control 2: learning materials, methods and media

In the middle of learning, learners work on learning materials, produce learning products and discuss them. With the learning materials (e.g. objects, experiment materials, pictures, drawings, texts, audio texts, films, comics, speech bubbles, reports, ...) that are used by methods and media (e.g. teacher lecture, experiment, film, factual text, class discussion, multimedia learning environment, Internet research, Podcast, expert interview, ...) are accompanied, the teacher controls the learning processes materially.

The controls 1 and 2 are mostly "desk products" of the teacher, are prepared and have a material character. Controls 3 and 4 are always situational and personal.

Control 3: moderation

"The moderation is always personal, but has to meet professional standards regardless of the personality of the teacher."

The learning process is verbally accompanied and personally controlled by the teacher in accordance with the learning step. Your professional skills are responsible for integrating the learning materials and learner contributions into the learning process in a moderating manner and negotiating them in the discourse. The moderation is always personal, but has to meet professional standards regardless of the personality of the teacher.

Control 4: feedback

Teacher-led reflections on the learning processes (meta-reflections) and qualified feedback from the teacher are important in the learning process in order to develop awareness of skills, learner personality and self-confidence. The feedback goes to the individual learners, but also to the entire learning group. The teacher collects feedback from the learners in order to gain awareness of the effectiveness of their own teaching.

Learning products as the centerpiece

The cooperative creation of the learning products is particularly effective. In this way, the learners are brought into the active handling of knowledge and values ​​(competence orientation). The production as well as the exchange of the presented learning products always takes place in the interaction with others (co-construction).

"Learning products are the" heart "of the teaching-learning model."

Interaction and exchange in the group and between the groups are self-regulating, learning and clarifying. Learning products always bear the personal signature of the learner or the group. They differ in terms of creativity, production method, design, quality, scope, correctness, attractiveness, ... There is an added value in the various learning products that must be extracted in the presentation and exchange.

"A good diagnosis is part of professionalism."

A good preliminary diagnosis of the learning requirements and an accompanying diagnosis in the sense of a "teaching-learning radar" are essential for successful teaching. How do you want to give feedback to a student if you don't know about his ideas, his concepts, his prior knowledge? How do you want to increase your competence if you do not consider the learning requirements, if you do not recognize the potential of the various learning products and if you do not perceive the potential of the learning group?

The running diagnostic radar

The accompanying diagnostics largely determine the moderation and the feedback and the feedback to the learners. Which ideas are important for further learning and when and how are they taken up? What feedback does which student receive about their contribution, the learning group about their work? Where do learning difficulties and barriers arise, which are eliminated in what form and when? Where do problems arise in the task and how are they solved depending on the situation? A decisive condition for the success of teaching in heterogeneous learning groups is the permanent diagnosis of the learning status, the learning progress and learning obstacles. The "diagnostic radar" must be permanently in operation.