How many Nigerians live in the UK
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Since 1861 Great Britain had begun to colonize what is now Nigeria. The British ruled in this area very different peoples with completely different societies and religions. This later gave rise to many conflicts.
Status: 03/22/2014 | archive
The Haussa tribe lived and lives in the north; they have been Islamic and strictly feudalist for centuries. Here the emirs were the absolute rulers. The Ibo in the south were originally field farmers and did not even have chiefs - their social structure was shaped by clans. Many of them accepted the Christian faith of the colonial rulers.
Starving children in the Biafra war
Great Britain had granted Shell a monopoly on oil exploration until 1957, which enabled the group to secure the most profitable fields. In 1960 Nigeria became independent. The Biafra War began seven years later: military coups escalated the conflict between the Haussa and the Ibo people. The Ibo wanted to become independent, but the military government fought with all possible means, also supported by Great Britain - after all, most of the oil fields were in the Ibo country. For three years, 1967 to 1970, the Ibo were able to maintain their own state, Biafra, against the overwhelming power of the central government, then it became part of Nigeria again by force. Since 2011, the Islamic group Boko Haram has been terrorizing Christians in northern Nigeria with raids and bomb attacks and wants to force them to leave the Islamically dominated area. Studies have shown that Boko Haram is supported by parts of the government and administration - a new civil war cannot be ruled out.
1900 to 1945 - Lessons learned from the collapse
Around 1900 the roles between the European states and their colonies were clearly divided. The technical progress that led to the industrial revolution was limited to the industrialized nations. The colonies supplied the cheap raw materials and had to buy the products of the industrialized nations.
In the period after the First World War, this distribution of roles was maintained until 1929 on "Black Friday" the world economy was shaken by a catastrophic fall in the price of the New York Stock Exchange. The free fall in stocks was followed by unemployment - it brought hunger and misery to industrialized countries overnight. One in four workers in the United States was unemployed in 1932. The governments of the industrialized countries came under pressure, they imposed protective tariffs in order to make their countries independent of the fluctuations in the world market. The world trade volume shrank by 60 percent. But this approach accelerated the crisis. The withdrawal of American loans destroyed almost every second job in Germany.
Propaganda speech by Goebbels National Socialists
The democratically elected government was unable to cope with the economic and social catastrophe, and the radical parties of the Communists and National Socialists gained support. Finally, the National Socialists gained legal power and established their dictatorship - but right-wing extremist governments also came to power in many other European countries.
The Bretton Woods conference and its aftermath
Conference attendees in Bretton Woods
The victorious powers of World War II believed that the establishment of right-wing dictatorships in many European countries was facilitated by mutual isolation - they wanted to prevent this for the future. Therefore, 730 delegates from 34 nations met in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, USA in July 1944 for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference. The American Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau assured the financial experts from the participating countries that the US dollar could be exchanged for a corresponding amount of gold at any time. The dollar became the reserve currency to which the other countries pegged themselves with a fixed exchange rate of their currencies. The institutions that were founded back then still exist today: The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is supposed to give indebted states a helping hand so that the crisis in one country does not spill over to others. To do this, however, the countries concerned have to adhere to strict conditions for their economic policy.
Second annual meeting of the World Bank
The World Bank is to use targeted development aid to prevent excessive differences in prosperity that could lead to political tensions. After all, the WTO, the World Trade Organization (formerly GATT), is supposed to promote the development of free world trade by reducing tariffs. Globalization, i.e. organized international economic cooperation, was thus specifically promoted after the Second World War, not only to supply the industrialized countries with cheap products from emerging countries, but to guarantee the prosperity of the countries worldwide.
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