Are elements a liquid at room temperature
Periodic Table of the Elements (PSE)
The shell-like structure of the electron shell of atoms ensures that the chemical properties of elements show great regularities. Since in many chemical compounds only the outer electrons - the valence electrons - participate in the bond, elements with the same outer orbitals also show similar chemical properties. If the elements are arranged according to the degree of filling of the individual orbitals, a system is created from which one can also guess the chemical properties. This system is that Periodic Table of the Elements (PSE). Historically, the system arose out of chemical considerations, when nothing was known about the orbital structure.
On this page I would like to give an overview of the periodic table of the elements. My intention on this page is to explain the structure of the periodic table and to explain some selected aspects in more detail.
Some elements are provided with a link. Some of the links lead to the description of a whole group of elements and not to the individual element. This is why there are often multiple references to the same pages.
The periodic table at a glance
This table shows the basic structure of the PSE. All elements in which the outermost orbital is an s or p orbital are entered here. The orbitals are indicated in the top line. The main shells are shown in the left column. The d and f orbitals are filled with a delay. 3d orbitals after the 4s orbitals, 4f orbitals only after the 6s orbitals. The d and f metals are only indicated in this table. They are detailed below. The number of elements in the individual groups is based on the quantization of the angular momentum of the electrons.
|Bowl||s orbital||f orbital||d orbital||p orbital|
|3.||N / A|
|4f metals||5d metals||Tl|
|5f metals||6d metals|
The names of the radioactive elements appear in red letters.
The elements highlighted in green are gaseous at room temperature,
the elements highlighted in blue, bromine and mercury, are liquid at room temperature.
All other elements are solid at room temperature.
This table lists the transition metals in which a d orbital is partially filled. This group includes the magnetic elements iron (Fe), cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) and the noble metals such as copper (Cu), silver (Ag) and gold (Au).
Lanthanides and actinides
Finally, the following tables list the elements that are characterized by partially occupied f-orbitals.
The Lanthanides (actually lantanoids = lanthanum-like) or 4f metals are very similar to the elements scandium (Sc) and yttrium (Y) and are called with them rare earth designated. Except for promethium (Pm), they are all stable (i.e. not radioactive). The element gadolinium (Gd) is magnetic at temperatures below 16 degrees Celsius.
|4f metals = lanthanides or lanthanides|
The group of Actinides (actually actinides = actinium-like) contains only radioactive elements. The notorious elements uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) are found here.
|5f metals = actinides or actinides|
© 1999-2020 Joachim Schulz - Only real on www.Quantenwelt.de
Last change: 04/24/2010
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