Why do castles have stained glass windows

window

This article was published on March 19, 2013 as a Spotlight presented.

window

The old Germanic house didn't have any window in the modern sense, but wall openings and skylights, which were used to lead air and light into the room and to provide an exit for the smoke from the stove.

History

There are no windows from the Stone and Bronze Ages, as no structure has survived anywhere. However, they are indicated, and conspicuously close together, in the painted house urn in Stockholm and can also be seen here and there in the depictions of the Marcomannic huts on the Marcus Aurelius column. They were closed with wooden flaps, and there was no window glass before the Middle Ages.

In the Middle Ages, windows with decorative locks were found early on in palaces and churches; initially mostly filled with openwork stone slabs, not only in Italy and Spain, but also in France, England and Germany. The Germanic churches in particular were distinguished by their rich and fine patterns; the oldest examples, which have mostly disappeared in Germany, have left behind many late pieces of such panels on Romanesque tower windows, especially those with cross openings. In Denmark very early examples made of wooden panels with perforations are mentioned.

Presumably these breakthroughs were soon made by small ones Panes of glass closed, as was long customary in the Orient. In the case of Gregory of Tours (* 538/539; † 594), bronze windows with glass panels were spoken of. As is well known, similar glass windows have already been found in Pompeii; but such luxury was later reserved only for churches. Colored glass windows are already praised by Bishop Venantius Fortunatus of Poitiers (* around 540; † between 600 and 610) on a church in Lyon with the name versicoloribus figuriswhich may only mean ornament. Something similar is mentioned of the cathedral in Paris. Exceptionally at that time at the abbot's apartment in Tours.

On the other hand, it can be assumed that the closing of the windows in secular buildings, even in royal halls, was generally only effected by wooden inner shutters or carpets, since we don't know anything better here, even in the early Middle Ages. Outer shutters on churches, on the other hand, came up early, probably because glass window locks were mostly lacking, i.e. for the time when the churches were not in use, a lock against rain and storm could not be dispensed with. Even stone ones can still be found (Torcello), especially the perforated stones for the hinges are often outside next to the window openings. [1]

Temples and churches

In the pre-Christian temples, windows appeared only as small holes, probably made in the roof. These can also be found in the stave churches gluggar in a round shape, about 1/2 foot in diameter, in the upper wall of the central nave as the church's only sources of light. Also in the gable triangle came a gluggr in the form of a window with a round arch sometimes in front (Urnes, Hopperstad in Sogn.).

In the stone churches, too, the windows were only small and placed sparingly, one or two in the south wall to allow the sun to enter and at the same time to avoid drafts through the church; because the front door was on this wall. At first the church windows were open; later they were covered with a translucent fabric and later with glass (glergluggr). [2]

Northern Europe

The smaller draw holes bore the names in Old Norse gluggr, vindgluggr, vindauga (of auga meaning "light opening, particularly rounded"), which meant the larger light and smoke opening ljōri (maybe with lat. lura = "Opening on the sack" related). The smaller draw holes were made in the walls or the lower side surface of the roof. The larger light and smoke opening had its place in the roof ridge and was fitted with a board (speld, fjöl) or a frame covered with a thin, transparent animal skin (skjagrind, of skjar = "the thin skin that surrounds the newborn calf") closed with a slide. Wall openings provided with glass (glergluggr, vindauga) are mentioned for the first time in Denmark in 1086, but remained reserved for public buildings for a long time. [3]

British Islands

Although the art of glassmaking was already practiced in England in the 7th century - according to Beda Venerabilis[4] When Frankish glassmakers came to England in 676 to make stained glass windows for St. Peter's Church, Monkwearmouth (Durham) - the glazing of the windows remained limited to church buildings for several centuries. Only in the 13th century does she know the King's Hall. Whether the Anglo-Saxon house is anord. ljóri has had a corresponding closable smoke hole is unsafe.

The fact that Middle English is a French word for it (lover) seems to speak against such an assumption. In contrast, unglazed light and air openings were generally widespread, some of them square (eagduru, see Danish. dial. dor = "Roof window"; norway. dial. anddor = "Air hole in the barn wall"), partly perhaps of a round shape (eagthyrel, of thyrel Hole). The names of these openings seem to refer to them as peepholes that were made in the side walls.

gallery

swell

Individual evidence