Who was the most effective Roman emperor

Chapter (synoptic)

  • prolog

    The prologue of the Imperial Chronicle uses a number of introductory and historical topoi: exhorting the audience to pay attention to the work; Denigrating ignorant listeners who avoid every opportunity to expand their knowledge and serve their souls; Description of the book entitled crônicâ that of "popes and kings, good and bad, who lived before us and ruled the Roman Empire to this day" (from the bâbesen und von the chunigen, | baidiu guoten unt ubelen, | who would be before us | unt Rômisces rîches phlâgen | ounce of this hiutegen tac); Rejection of poetic invention in favor of truthful knowledge transfer.

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  • Romulus and Remus

    The city of Rome is founded by the brothers Romulus and Remus and ruled after them by the Senate. The Roman religion is represented by the seven idols (abot), one for each day of the week. (Here the story inserts an anticipatory digression referring to the temple of Saturn, the rotunda. This will one day be dedicated by Pope Boniface to the Christian God, Mary and all saints.) The Romans create a bronze map of their empire, the has bells that ring when one of their territories rises against their rule. One day, during a session of the Senate, the bell rings and announces that the Teutons are revolting.

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  • Caesar

    The episode about Julius Caesar marks one of the turning points in the narrative of the Imperial Chronicle. It marks the end of the Roman Republic, which is governed by the Senate, and the establishment of the Empire, an institution that was up ounce of this hiutegen tac (Prologue) is ruled by a number of monarchical rulers, of which Caesar was the first. The set pieces of the chapter Julius Caesar are both narrative and non-narrative: an account of the subjugation of the Germanic tribes by Caesar and his triumph over the Senate, Cato, Pompeii in the Roman Civil War; a sketch of the course of salvation history, based on the vision of the four beasts (Dn 7: 1-27) of the prophet Daniel; Origin of the myths of various Germanic tribes; Topography of Germany.

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  • Augustus

    The reign of the Emperor Augustus, who as rex pacificus, is represented, describes the great census of the empire for tax purposes and the founding of the city of Cologne by Agrippa; the birth of Christ, which falls during the time of his reign, is dealt with in a statement that the Savior came from heaven to free mankind from the tax levied by Augustus.

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  • Tiberius

    Tiberius (who is introduced as the founder of Regensburg) suffers from a disfiguring disease that is cured by the image of Christ being brought from Jerusalem by a follower of Veronica. Enraged by the Jews who did this arzât and healing, the emperor sends Vespasian and his son Titus with an army to destroy Jerusalem. The city is besieged, a famine breaks out (embedded in this account is the story of the escape of Josephus, the future historian of the Jews) and Jerusalem is destroyed, in which the prophecy of Christ is fulfilled and the Jews are punished by beginning their expulsion .

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  • Gaius Caligula

    The chronicle tells of a single incident from his reign: the outbreak of hellfire in Rome, which Jupiter is ready to put out if a human life is sacrificed to him. A citizen named Jovinus volunteers, but on the condition that he can first sleep with a woman of his choice. After he has satisfied his desires, he mounts a magnificent horse and rides headlong into the abyss of flames; immediately the fire is extinguished.

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  • Faustinianus and Claudius

    This story tells of separations and reunions, alienations and recognition within the ruling family.

    1. Claudius, the brother of King Faustinianus, is consumed by his forbidden desire for his sister-in-law Mechthild; she succeeds in warding off his advances until after the birth of her third son, the future Pope Clement. A bad dream convinces Mechthild that her children will not survive unless they learn books. Her two older sons, the twins Faustinus and Faustus, are sent to Athens to study; on the outward journey they are shipwrecked; the boys are rescued by a fisherman and decide to keep their origins and identities a secret by taking the names Niceta and Aquila; finally they reach a monastery that was founded by Zacchaeus. This pattern is repeated twice: first Mechthild, then Faustinianus, sets out to find their lost family members; both are shipwrecked, saved from the waves and live incognito under difficult circumstances; Mechthild works to earn money for a poor widow who gives her care for it; Faustinianus survives by selling firewood and dragging millstones like a mule, while at the same time earning a reputation for being learned and wise.

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    2. At the direction of the apostle Peter, Barnabas comes to Rome to spread the Christian faith and wins Clement over. Clemens travels to the Holy Land with the intention of meeting the Holy Teacher. He and Peter are raptured and an angel shows them the destination of the souls of the deceased and reveals a prophecy according to which Clement will be martyred and achieve eternal life in heaven. Peter returns and meets Niceta and Aquila, who are in the power of Simon Magus and beg to be freed from their oath of allegiance.

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    3. After Peter has ordered the boys to renounce the false teacher, he rises up, accompanied by Zacchaeus, Clemens, Niceta, Aquila and others, and confronts the heretic. There follows a long dispute between Peter and Simon Magus, which culminates in the latter being exposed as a cheater.

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    4. Petrus takes the three boys on an excursion to the wondrous glass columns of Arantum, which turns out to be their mother's abode. She goes up to Peter and begs for alms; he realizes who the poor woman must be and that the boys who are in his care must be her children; through his mediation, mother and sons find each other again.

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    5. The following morning, Peter and his disciples go to the sea to pray. They are approached by a poor man who wants to argue with them about the claim that all human affairs are determined by fate (wîlsælde) are determined. The debate with Peter and the three boys (who do not recognize the interlocutor as their father, any more than he recognizes them as his sons) continues until the poor man tells them how he has lost his wife and sons . Peter, realizing who he is, offers to reunite him with his family immediately, on condition that he renounce his belief in fate and instead recognize the Christian God.

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    6. Reunited by Peter, the whole family is baptized according to the Christian faith. Simon Magus, annoyed by her great joy, deceives Faustinianus, but is once more convicted of deceit by Peter. Faustinianus, Mechthild and their sons return to Rome, leaving Claudias to rule on their behalf. After Faustinianus ‘death, Simon Magus, who constantly angered Peter, convinced Claudius to banish the apostle; the Romans, who are appalled that their ruler is associating with a magician and also fornication with their wives, poison him.

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  • Nero

    Nero, ‘the most vile man who was ever given life by a mother’ subjects the Romans to a rule based on cruelty and perversion, which culminates in the murder of the apostles Peter and Paul, instigated by Simon Magus. Both are willing to suffer martyrdom, but only on condition that Simon Magus prove his claim that he can be a god who can fly to heaven. The deceiver falls to his death from a high pillar, whereupon the angry Nero has the apostles executed; they are taken to heaven, whereas the emperor is punished by illness and commits suicide, whereupon his soul is carried to hell by demons.

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  • Tarquinius

    The account of the reign of Tarquin is a curious version of the story of the desecration of Lucretia.

    In a fit of superbia Tarquinius suggests a wager with Collatinus, a prince of Trier who became a Roman citizen and right-hand man of the emperor. The latter had boasted that his wife Lucretia was the best woman a Roman man could have; if Collatinus could prove the truth of his claim, Tarquinius would not see it as an insult to his own wife, the queen. Lucretia emerged as the clear winner in a competition that was supposed to test the respectability of the two women; Tarquinius admits that Collatinus was right.

    The queen finds out about the bet and is upset. She instigates her husband to destroy Lucretia's honor by blackmailing her into making love to her. Instead of submitting to his demand, Lucretia summons her entire family and reveals to her how the king compromised her honor before she sticks a dagger in her heart. Desperate, Collatinus goes into exile; a little later Tarquinius is also forced to flee from Rome to the countryside, where Collatinus tracks down him and kills him in revenge.

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  • Galba and Piso

    The very brief report of the dual rule of Galba and Piso states that they founded the cities of Capua and Pisa before they were murdered by Otto.

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  • Otto

    The chronicle records that Otto, who becomes ruler after murdering his predecessors Galba and Pisa, is again murdered by Vitellus.

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  • Vitellus

    Vitellus besieged Rome, which is in the hands of the followers of Otto, the previous ruler whom Vitellus had murdered. The episode focuses on the story of Odnatus, who voluntarily and publicly burns his hand with which he tried in vain to kill Vitellus and thus brings him to make peace with his opponents; but when the armistice expires, Vitellus is buried alive.

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  • Vespasianius

    Vespasianius, the conqueror of Jerusalem, is ostracized by the Romans for not wanting to accept the title of ruler at first; together with his son Titus he defeats King Milianus of Babylon and takes his brother Hylas prisoner, only to return to Rome for his final triumph.

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  • Titus

    Vespasian is followed by his son Titus, who embodies the ideal of a just ruler. However, his strict interpretation of the law makes him unpopular with the Romans and they plot a plot against him. In a dream he is warned of the murder plot and Titus outwits the conspirators, puts them on trial and has them beheaded. A bronze column is erected to commemorate this event.

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  • Domitianius

    King Domitian, a notorious "enemy of God" follows his brother Titus to the throne and ruthlessly oppresses the Christians. He sacked the city of Benevento, tortured and beheaded believers, and then turned his attention to the evangelist John, who arrived in Rome to convert people to the faith. When quoted before the king, the evangelist not only refuses, but affirms the power of the Trinity. Domitian orders that John should be boiled in oil, a punishment that, thanks to divine protection, he survives unscathed. He is then exiled to the island of Patmos, where he writes the Book of Revelation. God beats Domitian with leprosy, which leads to his exile from Rome at the behest of the Senate. The horse on which he flees from the city throws him off and disappears, never to be seen again, into the Tiber; the demons torment his soul.

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  • Nerva

    King Nerva is approached by a master craftsman who promises to make him an object that will give him eternal rum; the king readily agrees and orders his chamberlains to provide him with everything the craftsman needs to make the item. The craftsman works day and night until the masterpiece is perfect, after which he promises to entrust his secret to the king, provided that he keeps it to himself. Nerva agrees, and soon everyone gathers to admire a massive bronze horse created for the royal courtyard. The craftsman asks that a strong man be placed in the horse's stomach and burned: it is a machine that needs fuel to function. Horrified, Nerva refuses and tells the craftsman that his skill should be sufficient to get it to work inside himself. Despite the pleading pleading of the craftsman, the king cannot be dissuaded, for the king cannot disappoint the crowd that has appeared to attend the spectacle. The impostor is locked in and the machine is set on fire from below, the horse hops and jumps across the yard, frightening the spectators trying to get to safety. When the craftsman dies, Nerva has the mechanism inside the horse destroyed and is praised by the people for his wisdom.

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  • Trajanus

    The episode tells of a widow who does not allow Trajan, considered the ideal of honesty and integrity, to go to war before he does justice to her murdered husband. Ultimately, God rewards Trajan for his righteous actions, with Saint Gregory voluntarily suffering seven diseases in order to redeem the emperor's soul from hell.

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  • Philip and Decius

    Philip rules as an exemplary Christian, but is murdered together with his son (who is also called Philip) by the pagan Decius. He ascends the throne and begins immediately to persecute the Christians and to martyr Pope Sixtus and the Saints Laurentius and Hippolytus; his reign of terror extends as far as Ephesus, where the seven sleepers seek refuge in a cave, where they remain until the era of Theodosius.

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  • Diocletianus and Maximianus

    The dual rule of Diocletian and Maximian is related to the martyrdom of three saints: Vitus, Pancras and Mauritius. The emphasis is initially on the latter, and the Chronicle presents an unusual portrayal of the martyrdom of the Thebaic Legion, who refused to fight Christians. Mauritius, army leader of the Moors, is dismayed when he learns of the persecution of Christians in Rome and gathers an army of 6666 men, to whom he informs of his intention to go on a pilgrimage for God. On their arrival in Rome, Mauritius and his army are received by Maximian, who wants to sign them for his campaign against the Christians in France; they refuse to enter the city and instead camp outside the walls. In addition, they practice their religion so ostentatiously and vociferously that the Romans ask Maximian to intervene; he responds by first executing every tenth legionnaire and then, as this decimation further kindles their religious fervor, he has them all killed by the sword. The reign of terror against the Christians continues until Diocletian is murdered and Maximian, who fled to England, takes his own life.

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  • Severus

    The report on the reign of Severus pays special attention to his dealings with the Bavarian Duke Adelger, who is known for his disloyalty and disobedience.

    The attempts by the Romans to humiliate Adelger - the Senate decreed that his tunic should be shortened to above the knee and his hair cut off at the front - were thwarted when Aldeger's men followed the 'new fashion' and followed suit. The result is the temporary restoration of good relations between Rome and Bavaria.

    The friendship between Severus and Aldeger is short-lived, however: Aldelger is once again accused of infidelity; he is obliged to report personally to the Romans and defends himself by telling the parable of the deer that destroys the garden; Severus invades Bavaria, is defeated and, when he admits Rome's defeat by the Bavarians, is killed by the warrior Volkwin.

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  • Helvius Pertinax

    The chronicle tells how the king kills a prince named Julianus in a wrestling match and in return is killed by the prince's entourage.

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  • Hadrianus

    Hadrianus rebuilds Jerusalem after its destruction by the pagan king Cosdras and renames the city 'Helia'. For this act of hubris he is punished by God in Damascus, where he is killed.

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  • Lucius Accommodus and Alaric

    The account of this reign focuses on the rivalry between Lucius Accommodus, whom the Romans chose to rule to fill the power vacuum that arose after the death of Helius Adrianus, and a heir to the throne named Alaric. The winner of Damascus learns of Lucius ’election while he is on his way home from the Middle East and goes to Apulia to await further developments. The victorious army reaches Rome and is celebrated with a triumphal procession, but when the Senate demands an oath of allegiance to Lucius, the supporters of Alaric leave the city to join their leader. He turns to his allies, who are preparing troops for a huge force that is marching against Rome; Lucius' comrades, for their part, raise a huge army of their own followers. Alaric's troops march into the city and put their opponents to flight; in the following carnage and chaos, Lucius is killed.

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  • Achilles

    Achilles, who is rebuilding the city of Rome on a massive scale and in great splendor, is killed by Postumus in revenge for the murder of his father.

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  • Gallienus

    King Gallienus is the cleverest doctor in Rome and a ruthless persecutor of Christians. He escapes a poison conspiracy because he is a wîser philosophus Foresee danger in the stars; he takes revenge on the Romans by poisoning the waters of the Tiber. Thirteen thousand citizens die before a doctor finds the cause; Galienus is forced to seek refuge in Syria, where he is killed.

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  • Constantius

    King Constantius has a son with his concubine Helena, who later becomes Emperor Constantinus. When Helena comes to Rome to legitimize her relationship and her offspring, news reaches the king that a rebellion against him is in progress; together with his son he succeeds in pacifying the empire.

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  • Constantine

    Just like the reigns of Julius Caesar and Charlemagne, the reign of Constantine was also one of the turning points in the representation of Roman history within the Imperial Chronicle. In cooperation with Holy New Year's Eve, the Pope, Constantinus introduced Christianity as the official state religion; the later founding of Constantinople and the decision to reside there resulted in the bipolarity between the Latin western empire and the Greek eastern empire, which played an important role in historical reporting up to the rise of Charlemagne.

    1. King Constantinus is converted to Christianity as New Year's Eve (whose healing arts are revealed to the emperor in a dream through Saints Peter and Paul) heals him from an illness. Conversion is not enough and Constantine begins to introduce Christianity as the state religion. Through a series of decrees, which are issued over a period of seven days (and which at the same time form a reference for the introduction of the Roman pagan religion under Romulus and Remus), Constantine and Silvester forbid idolatry and lay the structures for civil and ecclesiastic Government and declare Rome to be the center of the entire Christian Church. The legislative program culminates in the consecration of Constantine ‘as Roman emperor by the Pope.

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    2. Constantinus pagan mother Helena receives the news that her son has converted to Christianity and that his religious policy is permeated with horror. In an exchange of letters, she explains to him that she is planning to destroy Rome. On the advice of New Year's Eve, Constantine proposes a synod in which both Christians and pagan experts should debate religious doctrine and true faith.

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    3. During the first two days of the Synod of Turaz [Tours], New Year's Eve consistently resolves all issues in a series of discussions with leading Jewish clergy.

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    4. The second day of the argument ends with New Year's claim that the God of Christians is able to kill as well as to bring the dead back to life. The following day the Jews bring a wild bull to the synod; when their leader whispers something in the ear of the bull, the bull falls dead. The Jews declare this to be a miracle and a sign of the superiority of their God. On the fifth day after the animal lay dead for three days, New Year's Eve challenges the Jews to prove the superiority of their god one more time by bringing the bull back to life. The Jews counter this with a challenge of their own: New Year's Eve should invoke the Christian God with the same goal; if he succeeds, they will convert. The Pope obeys and the bull is brought back to life. The miracle finally settles the dispute and a mass conversion of unbelievers follows, including Helena, the emperor's mother, first and foremost.

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    5. Constantinus hands over responsibility for the starving city of Rome on New Year's Eve, while he himself travels east with a company of Romans. The plan is to retake Troy, but an angel instructs him to establish his permanent abode in Constantinople. From here he rules the empire until his death.

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    6. Meanwhile, a dragon threatens the citizens of Rome, causing many of them to question their beliefs. New Year's Eve defeats the dragon, locks him up in a cave and seals it so that he can never do more damage. The Pope continues to spread Christianity and administer the city of Rome until his death.

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  • Julianus

    Julianus is raised by a pious and honest widow who entrusts him with all of her money. When he withholds it from her, the devil comes to her aid in the form of the idol Mercury: the idol pretends to be a saint and persuades Julianus to put his hand in his mouth and swear his innocence, traps him and only lets him go on the condition that he refund the widow's money and make a pact with the devil himself.

    Julian becomes the regent, reintroduces the pagan religion in Rome and martyrs Paul and John. Then he instigates a cruel war against the Christians in Greece and martyrs a prince named Mercurius. This becomes an instrument of divine vengeance: in response to a prayer of Saint Basil, he rises again and murders Julian; after the deed is done, he goes back to his grave and blood miraculously drips from the spear with which he killed the ruler.

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  • Heraclius

    Heraclius is told by a heavenly voice to go to war against the pagan king Codras and to regain the Holy Cross that he has removed from Jerusalem. Harclius succeeds in doing this, but cannot enter the city of Jerusalem until he walks through a gate in exemplary humility barefoot and in simple woolen clothing.

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  • Narcissus (Crescentia)

    The reign of the fictional emperor Narcissus actually deals with the legend of Cresentia, the virtuous and long-suffering wife of Dietrich, the son and successor of Narcissus.

    1. Heraclius' successor is his brother, the older childless Narcissus. His prayers for children are answered and his wife Elisabeth gives birth to twins. Both are called Dietrich and by the surnames scône and undone differentiated according to their light and dark appearance. When Narcissus dies, it is decided that the son who marries first should succeed him to the throne. The choice is left to Cresentia, the daughter of the King of Africa, whose hand both lockpicks are trying to win. She prefers the 'ugly' Dietrich to his brother and he becomes ruler.

      Cresentia's decision testifies to her good knowledge of human nature, because when her husband puts her in the care of his brother to take part in a campaign abroad, he takes diabolical revenge on her for the offensive rejection and tries to induce her to fornicate. Cresentia deceives the 'beautiful' Dietrich by getting him to build an elaborate tower where, as she says, they can live out their passion without being noticed. Instead, she locks him up there until her husband returns. After his liberation, the 'beautiful' Dietrich spreads malicious rumors and persuades his vassals and his brother to condemn Cresentia, which they do by throwing her into the Tiber, where she is supposed to drown.

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    2. Crescentia is rescued by a fisherman and ends up at the court of a duke, where her good origins, despite her pathetic appearance, are recognized and she is supposed to teach the children of the court and advise the duke's accountant. Her status draws the wrath of the Duke's deputy, who seeks revenge for the loss of his dwindling influence by courting her and demanding sexual favors. After she rejects him, he assaults her and falsely accuses her of having killed the duke's child, whose bleeding body he placed in her lap. She is thrown into the water again.

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    3. Crescentia is saved by Saint Peter, who gives her the ability to heal those who openly confess their sins. The remainder of the story describes her return to Rome, where she forgives and heals those who previously wronged her. Everyone who harmed her - the Duke and his deputy as well as the Dietrich twins - were sick with leprosy the moment she was thrown into the water.

      Although the Duke desperately wants to be healed, he is unwilling to admit his sins and initially withholds his complicity in Cresentia's mistreatment; after being asked again, he admits his wrongdoing, is healed and stands up for his substitute; The process repeats itself, but when the Duke learns that his deputy has been cheated, he rejects Cresentia's petition for mercy and sentenced the man to death. Cresentia is sent to Rome to heal the king and the process repeats itself and results in the confession and healing of the original culprit, the 'beautiful' Dietrich, whose salvation was already assured by his brother's solemn vow to forgive him. Throughout this whole sequence of wonderful healings, Cresentia traveled and acted incognito. After the final healing, the king opens her tunic through a cut at the back, sees the birthmark between her shoulder blades and recognizes it. The chapter closes with a new agreement in Rome: Cresentia stipulates that both she and her husband should enter a monastery in order to dedicate their lives in seclusion to God; The concern for the kingdom is transferred to the brother, the 'beautiful' Dietrich, who ascends the throne that was originally denied him.

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  • Justinianus

    The brief account of Justinian's reign focuses on his relationship with his wife Tharsilla, which taught him a lesson on superiority minne across from intended granted, as a principle on which a good ruler should build relationships with his princes. Convinced of the correctness of his wife's teaching, the king summons his princes, whom he has previously tyrannized and forced to obey by his strict and haughty regiment. He ensures their constant affection and loyalty by pampering them with hospitality and gifts. In an ironic conclusion - ironic because it seems to undermine the newly established status of a just ruler - the chronicle tells how Justinianus sleeps with the wife of another man and is then murdered by the angry husband.

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  • Theodosius

    Theodosius, of Greek descent, is presented as a godly emperor who does good works and is gripped by holy zeal. The account of his reign is determined by two stories, which take place in different places and which tell of the struggle and the ultimate triumph of the Christian faith over its opponents: the legend of Astrolabius and Eusebius in Rome and that of Arius and the seven sleepers in Ephesus .

    Astrolabius, one of two noble brothers who did not follow the emperor's invitation to renounce idolatry, is enchanted by a statue of Venus, swears allegiance to her with his ring and is cast under his spell by Satan. In his torment, he turns in despair to Eusebius, a pious Christian who gained experience with black magic in his youth and is still able to summon the devil. Touched by Astrolabius' plight, Eusebius proves the divine power in a series of victories over the forces of evil: he conjures up the devil, who also appears immediately, and orders him to lead him into the depths, where he escapes a cunning, which aims to fix in by being in verbo domini identified the correct one of two rings; eventually he gets the devil to accompany him back to earth and solve the statue's mystery: a herb placed under it gives it the power of seduction. The herb is immediately removed, the pagans who testify to this are immediately converted and the column on which the statue stands is consecrated to Saint Michael.

    At the same time, the false doctrine of Arianism that denies the resurrection of the body is spreading. When the Christian leaders desperately turn to Theodosius asking him to banish the heretics in order to preserve the honor and integrity of the faith, the emperor convenes a synod in the hope of winning their souls and increasing the number of believers . The Arians took the opportunity to demonstrate strength by having fifty thousand of them come to Ephesus, where a large crowd gathers to see how the dispute ends. But Arius is afraid, stays away from the meeting and is found dead in his toilet, struck down by God.

    His followers recognize their error and repent. On the same day, Serapion, one of the seven Christians who fled the wrath of Decius and slept in Mount Celeon for many generations, wakes up and makes his way to the emperor's camp. After some confusion, everyone understands what happened and Theodosius asks God for another miracle of resurrection. Serapion leads the crowd to the mountain, where the walls collapse and the six men appear, hair and clothes unchanged and with faces that shine like the morning star. One of their group, Malchus, proclaims the true resurrection and admonishes Theodosius to lead a good Christian life. There is great jubilation among the people.

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  • Constantinus Leo

    After an interregnum and the associated civil war, Constantinus Leo, a virtuous Christian, is elected Roman ruler. When he fell seriously ill, the Greeks saw a chance to assert their claim to the Roman Empire. The weakened Constantinus insists on accompanying the army he sends to Constantinople, where he negotiates with the Greeks: the army will not attack and in return receives the remains of Saint Stephen. Constantine is miraculously healed by the saint and brings the relic to Rome, where it is buried next to those of Saint Lawrence.

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  • Zeno

    The episode focuses on the deeds of Zeno's protégé Dietrich. Originally from Greece, Zeno decides to return to Constantinople forever and leaves it to an agent named Etius to rule Rome on his behalf. When Zeno learns that Etius has installed Odoacer as Roman king, he sends Dietrich - the grandson of Dietrich von Meran, who came to Zeno's court as a scourge and was raised by him like a son - to subdue the upstart who were in Ravenna suffer a devastating defeat. After taking the city of Rome, Dietrich soon sets up a reign of terror and throws Pope Saints John, Boethius and Seneca in prison. For his wickedness he is punished by God, who decides that Dietrich should burn in Etna until the day of judgment.

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  • Constantius

    The Greek-born Emperor Constantius and his mother Herena fall victim to treason in Rome: they are driven from the city, blinded and disfigured by the followers of a murdered Roman prince, whom Constantius could not do justice due to his powerlessness.

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  • Charlemagne

    Like the reigns of Julius Caesar and Constantinus, the reign of Charlemagne marked a turning point in the history of the Roman Empire. In this case, this turning point is constituted by the fact that Charlemagne is the first kaiser… ze Rôme von Diutisken land is consecrated by the Pope at the end of a long pause during which the Romans decide not to accept any more rulers from Greece after the bad experience with Constantius.

    1. Charlemagne and his brother Leo are sons of the Frankish King Pippin. Leo is sent to Rome for training and becomes Pope. A heavenly voice prompts Charlemagne to follow his brother there. Pope Leo and the majority of the Romans beg the young man to become their ruler and so, although he hesitates at first, he receives a crown and insignia. After a short time in which the Romans turn against Leo, blind him and ban him, Charlemagne returns to Rome with an army to punish the perpetrators and help his brother to get his post back; the Pope consecrates Charlemagne as emperor.

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    2. The newly ordained emperor, in collaboration with the Pope, enforces his legislation: the laws of Constantine, long neglected, are reaffirmed; ecclesiastical hierarchies and revenues are regulated; a "dress code" for laypeople is established. The report on the legislation of Charlemagne is followed by a list of his military campaigns against various opponents, such as the pagans of Galicia, whom the emperor defeated with an army of virgin girls.

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    3. Charlemagne has committed a grave sin and refuses to confess it to anyone. He asked for advice from Saint Aegidius, who gave him a wonderful absolution without the need for confession: in response to the saint's prayer, a letter appeared on the altar in which it was written that the emperor was bestowed with the grace of God.

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  • The Germans

    1. Louis the Pious is hailed as a just and pious ruler in a report that emphasizes his legislative action and honest conduct in court.

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    2. Lothar I wages war against the rebels in Bavaria, led by Duke Otto and Margrave Hermann.

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    3. Ludwig argues with his brothers Karl and Pippin until he is asked by Pope Hadrian to restore the laws of Charlemagne.

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    4. The virtuous wife of Charles III. falsely accused of adultery and rehabilitated by taking an oath of cleansing; she and her husband take religious vows.

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    5. Arnolf (identifiable as Arnolf of Carinthia) founds the Sankt Emmeram monastery near Regensburg.

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    6. Ludwig the child succeeds his father Arnolf on the throne as a minor and finally dies when he falls from a tower.

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    7. Konrad I has to fight enemy incursions from the Hungarians and when he is incapacitated due to an illness, his princes try to dethrone him.

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    8. Henry I, with God's help, inflicts a crushing defeat on the Hungarians and subjugates Bohemia.

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    9. Otto I subjugates the Milanese and triumphs over the Hungarians at Augsburg (a reference to the battle on the Lechfeld, which is not named).

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    10. Otto II leads a fateful military offensive against the Greeks in Calabria, where he is betrayed by the Romans.

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    11. Otto III. defeated two rebellious Rhineland counts, Dietrich and Willehalm, with the support of Würzburg Bishop Hugo. He avenges the martyrdom of Albrecht, the Bishop of Prague, on the Slavs.

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    12. Henry II, an exemplary ruler and would be gods servant, converts the Bohemians, Poland, Wenden and Hungarians and founds the diocese of Bamberg. After his death and his burial in the Bamberg Cathedral of St. Peter, miracles happen on his grave.

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    13. Konrad II is in constant conflict with Stephan of Hungary until the two make peace.

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    14. Henry III. fights against the Hungarians to reinstate their disempowered King Peter and interferes in a controversial papal election by appointing his candidate Swidger (Suitgar) von Bamberg at a synod in Rome. Conflicts with the Hungarians flare up again when they drop Peter again.

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    15. Henry IV caused unrest in the empire because of his vicious behavior; finally the princes arrested him in Speyer and chose his son, the "young Heinrich", to be king. Much of his reign history, however, is taken up by an account of the victorious crusade to the Holy Land and Babylon, led by Duke Gotfrit (Godfrey of Bouillon).

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    16. The Pope and most of the church princes oppose the election of Henry V; finally the conflict is settled (in an indirect commentary on the resolution of the investiture dispute), Heinrich is anointed emperor and his excommunication is lifted.

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    17. Lothar III. (from Supplinburg) has to deal with a rebellion led by the (Staufer) brothers Konrad and Friedrich as well as a contested papal election, which involved Lothar in a campaign to southern Italy.

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    18. Conrad III. is chosen by the princes to succeed Lothar; the story of the chronicle breaks off in the middle of a report about Konrad's participation in the crusade against Sangwin (Zengi) in Edessa.

      First ('Bavarian') extension (version C)

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    19. Frederick I subjugates Milan and Lombardy before taking the cross. He dies on the way to the crusade.

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    20. Friedrich, the eldest son of Friedrich I, is chosen to succeed his father on the throne and continue the crusade to the Holy Land; he dies on the way home.

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    21. Heinrich VI., One of the younger sons of Frederick I, is elected king. He thwarted an attempt on his life, had the conspirators executed, but spared his wife, although she was instrumental in planning the attempted murder.

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    22. Philipp, another son of Frederick I, is elected king in Aachen; his election is contested by Otto von Braunschweig. Philipp is murdered in Bamberg by Otto von Wittelsbach.

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    23. Otto IV, Philip's (Welfischer) rival, succeeds him to the throne. His initial luck turned when his nobles gave him up in favor of Friedrich ‘the child from Apulia’ and drove him away.

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    24. Emperor Frederick II conquers the Holy Sepulcher and returns to rule from Palermo. He appoints his son Heinrich as King of Germany, but when he rebels against his father with a touch of unreason and demands scourges from every city, Friedrich has to intervene: he demands that the scourges be freed, returns to Germany and sends his cowardly son into exile in Italy.

      Second ('Swabian') extension (Version C, Hs. Zeil)

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    25. Interregnum - Rudolf I. The electors cannot agree on a ruler; the search remains unsuccessful until God intervenes and obliges them to accept Rudolf von Habsburg. Law and order are restored under his reign; the story breaks off in the middle of the portrayal of Rudolf's campaign against the king (Ottokar) of Bohemia.

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