How is DNA different from chromosomes
Structure of the chromosome and DNA
The chromosomes are the carriers of the genetic make-up.
The most important component of chromosomes for inheritance is DNA.
As Centromere is the name given to the constriction of a chromosome. The centromere divides the chromosome into two legs, often of different lengths, also called chromatids.
A cell is the smallest living unit. It can grow and multiply and it gives its offspring the same information that it carries within itself. This means that their offspring are also able to grow and multiply.
DNA plays an important role in the storage and transmission of information.
The DNA is the store of the genetic information of every cell. It contains the blueprint for all the proteins that an organism can produce. These include, for example, the enzymes without which no chemical reaction could take place in a living being. Enzymes also play a decisive role in reading genetic information, as well as in all repair and replication mechanisms.
The basic building blocks of DNA are the so-called nucleotides, which are composed of a phosphate group, a sugar part and an organic base.
(In the case of DNA, the sugar is deoxyribose, hence the name DNA of D.esoxyribonuclein acid, deoxyribonucleic acid.)
DNA is a long, thread-like molecule. The spatial structure of DNA is a double helix. The basic structure of DNA is a chain of repeating sugar - phosphate groups with variable side chains, the bases. The two strands of DNA are held together by hydrogen bonds between the so-called complementary bases. The complementary base pairs are adenine and thymine (A - T) and cytosine and guanine (C - G).
The double helix of DNA is held together by hydrogen bonds. Adenine and thymine form a base pair. 2 hydrogen bonds can form between them.
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