What's wrong with being judgmental




The lexical judgmental expressions[1] naturally have a wide extension. You own on langue-Level value meaning or an evaluative meaning component, can evaluate in all subject areas and classify the evaluated objects on a positive-negative scale. The norm of the assessment (direction) can usually be deduced from the context. Conversely, of course, all lexically evaluating lexemes serve as a signal for contextually evaluating lexemes and their direction of evaluation.

This chapter only lists lexical value concepts that do not themselves have a meaning component that suggests an evaluation criterion.[2] Lexically evaluating terms with reference to an evaluation criterion are listed in the following chapters together with contextually evaluating lexemes according to evaluation criteria.

The terms of value are assigned to lexeme groups on the basis of their lexical value meaning without taking into account the overall direction of evaluation of the respective review, which may differ slightly or completely from the lexical value meaning of the individual word or the individual word group due to the grading, attribution or negation of the value term in question.

The assignment is based on a four-level rating scale:

·      lexically valuable,

·      lexically (moderately) positively evaluating,

·      lexically (moderately) negatively judgmental,

·      lexically very negative judgmental.

Since it is difficult for some lexemes to decide who belongs to the first and last two groups, no further differentiation was made within the second and third groups.[3]

The following lexeme groups can be separated from one another:

·      generally positive or negative terms,

·      terms that are positive or negative based on the impression of the reviewer,

·      Concepts of value with lexicalized aesthetic evaluation;

also the special group of

·      Metaphors that generally evaluate positively or negatively without indicating an aspect of evaluation.



2.1) GENERAL evaluative lexical value terms


2.1.1) Judging positively

ZIMMER (1986, 141) complains that the critics use vocabulary that leave no room for consideration, e.g. unique, skillful, stupendous, fascinating, convincing, unrivaled, captivating, gripping, virtuoso, original, great and so do the negations. Almost all of the terms mentioned can be found in the text corpus, but the consistent extreme evaluation suggested by ZIMMER's statement cannot be confirmed. The number of proofs for (moderately) positive evaluations far outweighs the number of high-quality proofs; the same applies to the negative judgment area. Lexically valuable

The references show the following lexemes:

excellent, grandiose, brilliant, brilliance, excellent, outstanding, wonder, wonderful, wonderful, wonderful, great, great, great, shiny, shine, shine, splendid, furious, full-ended, perfect, flawless, perfect, excellent, inf. strong, great, class, go delicious, precious, gem; also: unsurpassed, climax, gifted (Author), highly developed.



Kempowski understands excellentto portray the horror lurking in the idylls [...] (ZEIT 10/7/88, MODICK about KEMPOWSKI)

[Quote from the work] That would be a more excellent It was over. (FAZ 13.6.88, SEGEBRECHT about RÜCKER)


In the novel "Gouverneur" (1982), the author has one of the irreversible separation of lovers grandiose Monument set. (FAZ 3/29/88, SHORT about LEUTENEGGER)

The reader falls into the wake of one grandiose Monotony. (SZ 10/22/88, EGGEBRECHT via RANSMAYR)



The adjective also confirms that norms are exceeded brilliant[4] or the noun derived from it brilliance:



There is also some pupil-like molehairing as well brilliant Prussian tempo. (SZ 16.1.88, KAISER about BECKER)

But he [= Enzensberger] does it [= taking prejudices against literature into account] [...] as more brilliant Private person [...] brilliant Time and literary critical activity [...] (SZ 15.11.88, KAISER on ENZENSBERGER)

Goetz parodies the tone of voice of a government spokesman with the same brilliance and malice like that of a [...] (FAZ 9/24/88, WITTSTOCK via GOETZ)



Also mean a top rating excellent[5]and outstanding:



[...] that he [= Allemann] for example something like stuttering or getting tangled up within a thematic-associative field excellent understands how to stage [...] (SZ 28.5.88, DREWS about ALLEMANN)

So a successful novel? A outstanding composed, well observed, cleverly staged piece of literature. (ZEIT 12/9/88, HAGE via NIEDERHAUSER)



It is valuable with regard to the ability of the author if he is certified that he is a wonder could accomplish.

The author does the narrative wonder a self-reflection of art that does not remain self-referential. (TIME 29.87.88, CRAMER via BURMEISTER)



Over-fulfillment of the norm (HANNAPPEL / MELENK 1979, 161) is also caused by splendid (three documents) and wonderful[6] or. wonderful[7] attested. These three lexemes are not included in the group of purely aesthetic evaluating lexemes (see section 2.3 below) because - as the Duden lemmas show - this assignment cannot be clearly made. Wonderful and wonderful are largely lexicalized and no longer necessarily by wonder to be derived, as also stated in DUDEN.

UNTERFORSTHUBER (1982, 67) comments on the syntagmatic of splendid:



The distribution of splendid corresponds to that of the very similar in meaning wonderful.

Also splendid can only be described as conditionally aesthetically evaluative. In many cases it is considered a way of boosting Well and behaves accordingly. In it it's like other words excellent, outstanding or splendid similar. In contrast to these, however, in splendid to see the aesthetic rating as dominant.



The dominance of the aesthetic rating at splendid cannot be verified by the documents found.[8] There is a substitution with for every document Well and with beautiful possible:



[...] as splendid They [= the poems] work anyway. (SZ 5/29/88, DREWS via ALLEMANN)

[...] but then the author immediately reconciles with them splendid Details [...] (ZEIT 12/9/88, HAGE about NIEDERHAUSER)

This novel captivates [...] because Ransmayr with strict, splendid rhythmic language unfurls the large pictures without fear [...] (SZ 22.10.88, EGGEBRECHT about RANSMAYR)



The frequent use of splendid In Joachim Kaiser's Aichinger criticism in the SZ 1987, no unequivocal aesthetic evaluation can be deduced either, the evaluation can always be qualitative:



One can only point out that one hundred simple, frightened, plaintive, enigmatic pages of Ilse Aichinger splendid shy and splendid safe in the world are [...] with splendid big metaphors [...] then she leaves that splendid Non-voices, unadjusted, unmolested. [...] (SZ 3.12.87, KAISER about AICHINGER)



Kaiser used the high-quality, prefixoid-like headline for the same review Wonder-[9]whose function is reinforced by the alliteration:



wonder-Words (SZ 3.12.87, KAISER about AICHINGER)



For wonderful is the same as for splendid. UNTERFORSTHUBER (1982, 66) also states that in some cases “it is impossible or difficult to decide whether wonderful aesthetically or qualitatively evaluates [...] ”.



Wonderful the description of a common ski trip [...] (ZEIT 12/9/88, HAGE about NIEDER-HAUSER)

Here [...] can [Roth] wonderful be vivid. (SZ 9/17/88, LAEMMLE via ROTH)

How wonderful - and how exactly. (TIME 12/9/88, KILB via BECKER)

[...] two wonderful Word creations [...] (ZEIT 5.8.88, VON BECKER on ALLEMANN / SCHMIDT)

The wonderful The author's humor [...] (ZEIT 4.3.88, MODICK about C. ENZENSBERGER)

The wonderful literary features of the novel include a message. (SZ 5.10.88, MANTHEY via WALTER)



The adjective also reflects the over-fulfillment of norms and thus a very positive judgment Great[10] contrary:



Because the entrepreneurial clan of the winter stages itself in front of the narrator's eyes Great as if by itself. (ZEIT 10/7/88, BAUMGART via WALTER)

In one of the greatest Cotta remembers passages of a speech by the poet [...] (FAZ 17.9.88, SCHIRRMACHER about RANSMAYR)

[...] the language power of a great Stylists [...] (ZEIT 4.3.88, MODICK about ENZENSBERGER)

In the great In the opening narrative, the motifs of freedom and memory are masterfully linked. (SZ 6.7.88, VON SCHIRNDING about TASSONI)

The joke that great Enzensberger's irony only arises when he calls his hero [...] onto the stage [...] (FAZ 4.10.88, SCHIRRMACHER about ENZENSBERGER)

Great Blatter's prose is above all where it [...] (SZ 9.11.88, BÖHMER on BLATTER)

He's got this book big Great started [...] (TIME 7.10.88, LÜDKE about HÄRTLING)



In the following example, the reviewer rates the reviewed book negatively, but the author's role model is very positive:



The role models are great, [...] probably too Great for the narrative means available to the author. (TIME 3/25/88, KLIER about SCHOLTEN)



The last two examples show how the reviewers use the adjectives large and Great Use high quality as stylistic variants. Large has an evaluative meaning component in addition to other polysemous positions of meaning in DUDEN[11]:



A greater Roman: Christoph Ransmayr's “The Last World”. (TIME 7.10.88, HAGE about RANSMAYR)

A great Piece of autobiography. [...] The book, which began autobiographically with the story of its author's suffering, shocking, touching, yes large [...] (TIME 7.10.88, LÜDKE about HÄRTLING)

Size, also intoxicating literature [...] (ZEIT 19.8.88, HORSTMANN about EIGNER)

This is size Prose. (TIME 08/12/88, RADDATZ about KIRSCH)

[...] she [= the "Sauwald prose"] is like Jean Pauls one greater Monologue of ideas and objections [...] (ZEIT 10/7/88, HOHOFF on DICK)

[...] with wonderful huge Metaphors (SZ 3.12.87, KAISER on AICHINGER)

Otto F. Walter lays one huge A novel of critical Swiss self-examination before [...] (SZ 5.10.88, MANTHEY about WALTER)

This author [...] has what it takes Great. (SZ 15.10.88, FRANKE about KRAUSS)



In the following example, it remains unclear whether the adjective large is used judgmentally or not. However, the overall review suggests a very positive rating:



Cotta and we find out with him in Ransmayrs great Panorama from the end of the world. (SZ 10/22/88, EGGEBRECHT via RANSMAYR)



In contrast to this, the following document shows a use of large without lexical value meaning, contextually even rather negative judgment:



After the huge, embarrassing gestures: the small, fine moments. (TIME 3/25/88, KILB via HAHN)



The highest rating is also expressed by the adjective glittering[12], the verb shine and the noun Masterpiece[13] whose first element near the prefixoid has an augmentative function (BÖHEIM 1987, 206).



Because in this novel Stefan Schütz shows that [...] he does one in parts shiny Can write prose [...] (FAZ 25.6.88, FULD about SCHÜTZ)

[...] a deception, by Ransmayr glittering staged. (TIME 7.10.88, HAGE about RANSMAYR)

[...] to demonstrate how glittering, cheerful, radical and sweaty Enzensberger writes [...] (SZ 15.11.88, KAISER about ENZENSBERGER)

His prose shines also here with intelligence [...] (FAZ 28.9.88, HINCK about BEYSE)

For the shineI hold a piece of the tape [...] (FAZ 21.4.88, HINDERER about CÄMMERER)

His essays are among those shinepieces of contemporary prose [...] (FAZ 4.10.88, SCHIRRMACHER about ENZENSBERGER)



Are also very high quality splendid and furious[14]:



I imagine that Kofler's grumbling disapproval was, figuratively speaking, the valve of a Papin pot in which a splendid Mixture of bile, heart blood, alcohol and Tristitia seething. (SZ 9/14/88, KRAMBERG via KOFLER)

The furious Message from an unscrupulous world [...] (ZEIT 25.11.88, WINKELS on GENZMER)

[...] one furious Vision of doom of the struggle of mythical figures against a worn-out society. (FAZ 6/25/88, FULD via SCHÜTZ)



The reviewer rates it very positively accomplished[15] and emphasizes the perfect, flawless quality of the valuation object.



His tragedy unites the completed Rhetoric [...] with dramatic refinement. (FAZ 7.12.88, WIRSING via HACKS)

[...] and they [= the final verses of a poem] emphasize an achievement of the poet Krolow, which this volume still has more accomplished as the previous collections of poems show: the age style namely [...] (FAZ 1.10.88, UEDING about KROLOW)



The last example shows that the comparative is possible even with very positive adjectives.

A synonym too accomplished is perfectly:



[...] and it [= the intention] sometimes works out that way perfectly [...] (FAZ 1/30/88, UEDING via ECKART)

But this work [...] is so rich and also so within its self-designed framework perfectly [...] (ZEIT 4.3.88, MODICK about ENZENSBERGER)



Another name for perfect quality is flawless:



So also lies in apparently flawless Narrative passages a thin veil of applied arts over the text [...] (ZEIT 7.10.88, BRAND over KONEFFKE)

The latter sentence is moreover because it is so beautiful flawless and it is clear, repeated many times [...] (SZ 15.11.88, RATHJEN on LAEDERACH)

The concept is flawless [...] (TIME 4/22/88, RATHJEN via POLITYCKI)



Basically it could be the series of high quality adjectives perfect, perfect, flawless by Perfect[16]continue, but the reviews show a different evaluation direction for this adjective. In Kaiser's criticism, contextually understandable is a negative evaluation:



[Beginning:] Quite a lot perfect Sentences. [...] Nevertheless I call out that this last Lettau volume, in which some wonderful things are next to a lot Perfect-Indeed, a little disappointed. (SZ 30.3.88, KAISER about LETTAU)



On the other hand, rates very positively excellent[17]:



So much for the Excellent. (FAZ 26.2.88, WEINZIERL about FRIED)



With strong[18], Great[19]and class[20] There are also very positive colloquial or youthful expressions under the reviews:



[...] two really Strength Heimat verse [...] a great Piece later Anakreontik ("Thrakischer Nachklang") (ZEIT 12/9/88, KILB about HENSEL)

[...] maybe that greatest - the most successful, most convincing - invention of Allemann [...] (SZ 29.5.88, DREWS about ALLEMANN)

[...] the Jandlclass [..] (TIME 5.8.88, VON BECKER on ALLEMANN)



Is very positive at a high level of style delicious[21]:



[...] "and are pretty close to us and yet very far." delicious "Pretty" - [...] (FAZ 4.11.88, HARTUNG about BERGER)



Also emphasizes the valuable precious[22] and Gem[23]:



That is what their lyrics do precious [...] (TIME 4/22/88, NEUMANN about AICHINGER)

The description of a joint ski trip is wonderful, a narrative one Gem! (ZEIT 12/9/88, HAGE via NIEDERHAUSER)



The noun evaluates very positively Highlightsif - as in the first example - it is used without further attributes.


[...] and some scenes are real Highlights [...] (SZ 30.4./1.5.88, LEDANFF via THENIOR)

Stylistic Highlights of the text are certainly the passages about [...] (SZ 17.9.88, FISCHER about SPÄTH)



The noun no longer has a very positive effect if it is used in the dramaturgical sense orwith regard to the structure of the reviewed work is used:



Above all, the hustle and bustle is scenic in a few Highlights limited. (SZ 30.4./1.5.88, LEDANFF via THENIOR)



The ability and talent of the author is rated very positively by the prefixoid formation gifted. FLEISCHER (1975, 291) comments on the augmentative[24] used prefixoid high-, it “does not combine with adjectives whose meaning relates to a term that has been evaluated negatively [...], and also especially with participatory adjectives [...].” The prefixoid “conveys a speaker evaluation of recognition”. (KÜHNHOLD et al. 1978, 203) The augmentation through high- - comparable to that made by the grade particles very - the term that has already been positively assessed talented (see below Section thus causes the very positive rating.



Gerd-Peter Eigner is one such mediator, and one gifted on top of that. (TIME 08/19/88, HORSTMANN via EIGNER)



Concerning talent, the formation of prefixes also counts highly developed very positive.



[...] sophisticated lyrical sensitivity [...] (SZ 15.11.88, KAISER about ENZENSBERGER) Lexical (moderate) positive judgment

The following words belong to this group:

flawless, sophisticated, (of) rank, demanding, counting, important, appealing, attraction, sophisticated, good, quality, well-groomed, correct, agree, distinguish, preference, advantage, added value, event, discovery, useful.

Indicate the success of the artistic effort: succeed, succeed, succeed, prove oneself, hit, throw.

Assess the artist's ability: can, know to, understand, be able, achieve, master, be at home, strength, ability, ability to nuance, sense for ..., talent (have), narrative talent, talent (have), gifted.


In contrast to flawless is impeccable[25] to be classified as somewhat less valuable.



A is created here impeccable researched [...] time picture. (SZ 5.10.88, STROMBERG via ZELLER)



The derived adjective evaluates the rank or quality positively sophisticated[26].



[...] what inserts with sophisticatedr time diagnosis does not exclude. (FAZ 3.5.88, HINCK about KELTER)



Related to this evaluation (cf. DUDEN lemma) is the noun rank.



Through the Mansfield world your [Emphasis d. Rez.] World [...] to interpret [...] that makes it rank and the charm of this book. (SZ 5.10.88, SCHMITT via MOOG)

With the novel "The gentle law", the conclusion of his Freiamt trilogy, Silvio Blatter has finally proven that he is a narrator of rank is [...] (SZ 9.11.88, BÖHMER about BLATTER)



The derived adjective makes the quality just as positive demanding[27] rated.



"Controlled" is more demanding Reading material that should be approached carefully and patiently [...] (FAZ 9/24/88, WITTSTOCK via GOETZ)

Demanding Word art here becomes an alibi for everything that "The Last World" cannot offer in any other way [...] (SZ 10/22/88, KAISER on RANSMAYR)

Because in this novel Stefan Schütz shows [...] that he can write a sometimes brilliant prose, exciting and demanding [...] at the same time. (FAZ 6/25/88, FULD via SCHÜTZ)




The verb indicates that something has value and is therefore evaluated positively counting.



[...] with [...] poems that counting [...] (SZ 29.5.88, DREWS about ALLEMANN)



On the importance[28] The reviewers like to refer to a book. ZIMMER (1986, 119) also remarks that much of what the critics like important, weighty or significant is.



“Jesus in Osaka” or “The Flight into the Heart” are therefore important Examples of contemporary German prose. (SZ 1.6.88, SCHMITT about HERBURGER)

[...] and they are [...] special importantbecause contentious texts. (TIME 12/9/88, AHRENDS about WOLF)



BÖHEIM (1987, 73) refers to the derived adjective in the transition area to be characterized delightful. For the underlying noun Charm[29] the corpus shows at least six documents. Because the noun Charm evaluates only moderately positive, it is possible for the reviewer to make weighing judgments that also include negative aspects (see examples 1-5).



(1) It is true that at times this can be done without difficulty delightful Noticing the idiosyncrasy of his prose [...] (SZ 15.11.88, FALCKE on BEYSE)

(2) Schenk's poems draw theirs Charm primarily from the art of storytelling [...] (FAZ 25.5.88, HINDERER about SCHENK)

(3) [Quote) No doubt: Even here, the border to the arts and crafts is close, but straight walks have their own peculiar ones Charm. (FAZ 6.2.88, WEINZIERL about MÜLLER)

(4) That can be Charm to have; in the long run it seems tiring and quietly boring. (FAZ 2.12.88, OBER-MÜLLER about SCHUTTING)

(5) It is precisely at this point that the Charm and recognize the problematic of Brigitte Burmeister's prose. (FAZ 7/18/88, BIELEFELD about BURMEISTER)

(6) Through the Mansfield world your [Emphasis d. Rez.] World [...] to interpret [...] that makes the rank and the Charm this book. (SZ 5.10.88, SCHMITT via MOOG)

(7) The story with the succinct title "One" spells out through the Charm a simple, but all the more precise language [...] (ZEIT 4.11.88, WEISS about GSTREIN)



Has a moderate positive effect upscale[30], even if the evaluation in the following example is based on the noun Editor's Poetry rather negative:



Thinking poems like "Bloch stays: Bloch" I rather count among them upscale Editor's poetry [...] (ZEIT 12/9/88, KILB about HENSEL)



Of course, there are also documents among the documents Well-Predications[31] (see above Part 1, Chapter 3), which as isolated predications are not very informative[32], such as in the following document:



The novel is of its kind Well. (SZ 11/15/88, GRIMMINGER about MÖCHEL)



But the reviewer's system of values ​​or norms must be understood contextually.[33] The direction or intensity of the evaluation is often varied by grading.



[...] and she is one quality Observer [...] (FAZ 2.12.88, OBERMÜLLER about SCHUTTING)

[...] exciting quality, poems sparkling with [...] vitality (SZ 28.5.88, DREWS about ALLEMANN)

This was achieved very nicely in the novella "Der Aufklärungsmacher" [...]; Less Well in “Ultima Thule. A return. "(SZ 11/15/88, FALCKE on BEYSE)

So a successful novel? An excellently composed, Well observed, cleverly staged piece of literature. (ZEIT 12/9/88, HAGE via NIEDERHAUSER)

Anyway, it seems to me, is in the "gypsy ballades" Well jumped over the improbable into the true. (FAZ 12/30/88, SCHULZ about SCHNURRE)

The fact that after reading it, above all, some Well Actual scene ideas remain, proves [...] that the trends appear in the small scene book in their accompanying phenomena Well educated. (SZ 30.4./1.5.88, LEDANFF via THENIOR)

And inevitably, here too, as everywhere in art, that is all that is lost Wellmeant against that Wellmade. (TIME 7.10.88, BAUMGART via WALTER)



The terms stand for the quality or the value of a work, but also the talent of the author quality and groomed (see BÖHEIM 1987, 72).



Lettau's tendency to be literary quality to force to a certain extent [...] (SZ 30.3.88, KAISER about LETTAU)

Your qualities are no less than those of the later [...] (ZEIT 02.26.88, HACKL about TASSONI)

[...] and [he] is inscribing well-groomed German [...] (FAZ 13.6.88, SEGEBRECHT about RÜCKER)



With correct the extra-linguistic reference object is assessed as "corresponding to expectations, suitable or appropriate" (BÖHEIM 1987, 73). The verb judges similarly voices.



Schnurres choice of the "historical present" [...] was a more correct Handle [...] (FAZ 12/30/88, SCHULZ about SCHNURRE)

[...] every detail Right. (TIME 9.9.88, RADDATZ via BOOCK)



There is an implicit comparison in the use of the words distinguish, Preference[34], advantage.



Walser, that draws him aswell out, more sensitive and far more sensitive than the usual platform user [...], of course saw the dilemma. (TIME 9/16/88, LÜDKE about WALSER)

It is a Preference of the novel that [...] (FAZ 3/29/88, WEGNER on GRÖPER)

[...] the concise, title-giving opening text shows all of them Benefits of the talent of Herta Müller [...] (FAZ 6.2.88, WEINZIERL about MÜLLER)

[...] the stories [take] a clearly lyrical tone. Unfortunately, this is not always theirs advantage. (FAZ 9.7.88, WITTSTOCK via ANDERSON)

The whole novel benefits from this thought - and not his advantage. (FAZ 3/15/88, HANK via DEAN)



Conceptual borrowings from Marx's theory takes the following review:



Through his irony, Späth always gains a linguistic-aesthetic one in the stories added value for the reader. (SZ 17.9.88, FISCHER about SPÄTH)



An outstanding achievement becomes the eventbeing a good author metonymically[35] to discovery:



[...] entranced between the joke of language and the thirst for thought, reading becomes event. (TIME 3/25/88, WEISS via KIESERITZKY)