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Psychology [2nd, ext. and updated ed] 9783540790334, 3540790330, 9783540790327

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Springer textbook

David G. Myers

Psychology 2nd, extended and updated edition Translation Matthias Reiss German adaptation Svenja Wahl, Matthias Reiss With contributions by Siegfried Hoppe-Gra ff and Barbara Keller

With 947 illustrations and 50 tables

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David G. Myers German adaptation Dr. Svenja Wahl, Dr. Matthias Reiss (2nd edition) Dr. Christiane Grosser, Dr. Svenja Wahl (1st edition)

Translation Dr. Matthias Reiss, Angertorstr. 4, 80469 Munich, www.dr-reiss.com (2nd edition) ÜTT - Translator Team Tübingen, Sabine Mehl, Katrin Beckmann, Birgit P fi zer (1st edition)

Contributions by Prof. Dr. Siegfried Hoppe-Gra ff University of Leipzig, Faculty of Education, Karl-Heine-Straße 22b, 04229 Leipzig Dr. Barbara Keller, Bielefeld University, Institute for Protestant Theology Postfach 10 01 31, 33501 Bielefeld

First published in the United States by WORTH PUBLISHERS, New York and Basingstoke. Copyright 2007 by Worth Publishers. All rights reserved. First published in the USA by WORTH PUBLISHERS, New York and Basingstoke. Copyright 2007 by Worth Publishers. All rights reserved. ISBN-13 978-3-540-79032-7 Springer Medizin Verlag Heidelberg Bibliographic information from the German National Library The German National Library lists this publication in the German National Library; detailed bibliographic data are available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de. This work is protected by copyright. The rights established by this, in particular those of translation, reprinting, presentation, extraction of figures and tables, radio broadcasting, microfilming or duplication in other ways and storage in data processing systems, are reserved, even if they are only used in excerpts. A reproduction of this work or parts of this work is only permitted in individual cases within the limits of the statutory provisions of the copyright law of the Federal Republic of Germany of September 9, 1965 in the currently applicable version. In principle, it is subject to remuneration. Infringements are subject to the penal provisions of the Copyright Act. Springer Medizin Verlag springer.de © Springer Medizin Verlag Heidelberg 2004, 2008 Printed in Germany. The reproduction of common names, trade names etc. in this work does not justify the assumption that such names are to be regarded as free within the meaning of the trademark and trademark protection legislation and therefore may be used by everyone, even without special identification. Product liability: The publisher cannot accept any liability for information on dosage instructions and application forms. Such information must be checked for correctness by the respective user on a case-by-case basis using other literature sources. Planning: Dr. Svenja Wahl Project management: Michael Barton Layout and cover design: deblik Berlin Cover illustration: Master fi le typesetting: Fotosatz-Service Köhler GmbH, Würzburg SPIN: 11968856 Printed on acid-free paper

2126 – 5 4 3 2 1 0

In memory of Phyllis J. Vandervelde (1939–2005) confidante for four decades and indispensable help in writing all eight editions of this book, in deep gratitude for their dedication to showing extraordinary achievements

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Foreword to the 8th American Edition Two decades have passed quickly in the unstoppable flow of time since the first edition of this book was published. And what an exciting 2 decades it was. Hardly a day goes by without a feeling of gratitude for the privilege of being able to support teaching, for so many students, in so many countries and in so many languages. It is both an exciting honor and a great responsibility to be entrusted with the task of recognizing and passing on wisdom in this humanly important subject. What keeps me motivated is, on the one hand, my ongoing appreciation of psychology as a science and its ever expanding explanatory possibilities and, on the other hand, my obligation to the students and my fellow lecturers, with whom I can have many stimulating conversations thanks to this book. I like the mind-expanding learning that comes with my daily reading of the scientific psychological literature, and I like connecting with so many people (several hundred of whom have written to me to share their experiences and given me polite advice to have). This textbook is reprinted every 3 years. But even in the time between the editions, hardly a day goes by on which I cannot acquire new knowledge about the subject that is close to my heart and how it can be applied to everyday life. Every week I come across information about new discoveries, for example about the neuroscientific basis of our moods and memories, about the sphere of influence of the adaptive unconscious and about the formative power of our social and cultural context. So it's no wonder that this book has changed dramatically since the moment I sat down at my desk 23 years ago and began working on the 1st edition. Today scientific psychology is interested in a. for the interaction of system and environment and for gender and culture-specific differences, for our conscious and unconscious information processing and for the biology on which our behavior is based. We have now also looked for new ways to present the information, both in the book and on the book's learning website. These changes are stimulating. Trying to keep up with the new discoveries will fill my day and this connects me with many colleagues and friends. The thousands of faculty and millions of students around the world who have read this book contributed immensely to its development. Much of this happens spontaneously through letters, emails, and conversations. In this edition we have included more than 800 researchers and psychology lecturers, but also many students. This was done in an effort to collect accurate and up-to-date information about psychological content, but also about the didactic needs of lecturers and students of an introductory seminar. We are also happy about the constant feedback, because our future editions will be about developing an even better book.

What is left like that? My initial vision of this textbook on psychology, however, has not changed from the 1st to the 8th American edition (ie the 2nd German edition): to write a book that is within the strict framework of science, but at the same time a comprehensive view offers to people and thus appeals to the heart and mind. It was my goal to write an up-to-date introduction to psychology, paying special attention to the interests and needs of students. It is important to me to help and explain the students on their way to understanding the important phenomena in their lives and to teach them to be amazed. At the same time, I also want to convey the critical spirit of research with which psychologists work in their field. It is my conviction that the study of psychology enables you to put the reins of critical thinking on intuition, to reduce self-righteousness through empathy and to confront self-delusions with understanding. I agree with Thoreau, who said that "everything living can be expressed effortlessly and naturally in normal language," and therefore try to loosen up the academic knowledge of psychology with engaging reports and vivid stories. I am the sole author of this book and therefore try to present the history of psychology in a strictly scientific manner on the one hand, but also based on my personal feelings on the other. I love to think about the relationship between psychology and other areas of knowledge, such as literature, philosophy, history, sports, religion, politics or popular culture. And I enjoy making people think, I like to play with words, and I like to laugh. Although this new edition has been supplemented with additional stories, the tone of the previous versions, but also much of their content and structure, is retained. But this also applies to the 8 goals - the guiding principles - which brought the previous 7 conditions to life: 1. Present the research process as an example. It is particularly important to me not only to present research results to the students, but also to let them participate in the research process. Many parts of the book aim to arouse the reader's curiosity. He is invited to see himself as a participant in classical experiments. In some chapters there are stories about one or the other investigation, which initially seems mysterious, but then gradually reveals its secret as each piece of the mosaic finds its right place. 2. Teach critical thinking. I like to present research processes as intellectual detective work and would like to exemplify the inquiring and analyzing spirit of research. A student may focus on developmental or cognitive psychology or on statistics - in either case, he or she is made familiar with critical reasoning and its positive effects. He will also discover how to use empirical

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Foreword to the 8th American edition

evaluate contradicting ideas or how to refute claims with a high audience impact. I think z. For example, things that you read a lot about in the rainbow press: This ranges from subliminal influences, to extra-sensory perceptions and alternative therapies, to astrology, to hypnotic regression into a previous life and to repressed and rediscovered memories. Organize facts into concepts. It is not my intention to fill students' intellectual drawers with facts; instead, I want to point out the big concepts in psychology and teach students to think psychologically. At the same time, I would like to introduce you to the ideas of psychology that are worth thinking about. In doing so, I always try to follow Albert Einstein's sentence, who said: "Everything should be kept as simple as possible, but not simpler." Be as current as possible. Hardly anything dampens the interest of students as much as the feeling of being served outdated knowledge. Therefore, in addition to the traditional studies and concepts, I also present the most important new developments in the field. Almost 500 references in this edition are from the years 2004 to 2008. Present principle and application together. With the help of anecdotes, case histories and the presentation of hypothetical situations, I repeatedly establish the connection between basic research, its application and the conclusions drawn from it throughout the book. In those areas in which psychology can shed light on pressing human issues - be it racism and sexism, health and happiness or war and violence - I have not hesitated to let the shine of psychology shine. Promote understanding by repeatedly addressing overarching topics. Many chapters deal with a specific question or thought that runs through and holds the whole chapter together. The chapter "Learning" conveys the idea that bold thinkers can become intellectual masterminds. "Thought and Language" deals with human rationality and irrationality. In »Clinical Psychology: Mental Disorders«, empathy and understanding for the lives of those affected are to be conveyed. Because the book was written by only one author, certain topics such as behavioral genetics and cultural differences run like a red thread through the entire book. Promote learning steps. Examples from everyday life and rhetorical questions should help the students to actively process the learning material. Concepts that have already been introduced are often used in later chapters, which consolidates the process of learning and remembering. In 7 chap. 5, for example, students learn that a large part of our information processing takes place outside of consciousness, a concept that is further elaborated in the following chapters. [The didactic elements that were used in this book to make learning easier for you are explained in detail in Section 7 »Successful Learning«, p. XIII.]

8. Convey respect for the similarities and differences between people. Especially in the newly revised 7 chap. 3 ("Plant, Environment and Human Diversity") and beyond that throughout the book, the reader will come across passages in the text that speak of humanity as a family: It is about the biological heritage we all share, the mechanisms of vision and learning, the motivation of hunger, the way people feel, and last but not least, the feelings of love and hate. This also creates a better understanding of the dimension of our diversity, also of our individual differences in development and abilities, temperament and personality, health and illness; It is also about our culture-specific differences, which are reflected in attitudes and expressions, in bringing up children and caring for the older generation, but above all in the priorities that we set in our lives.

What's new? Despite the great continuity, there are changes on every single page. In addition to the updates throughout the book and the 900 new references - that's almost a quarter of the bibliography - I made the following major changes in the 8th edition of Psychology:

More on cultural diversity and the diversity of gender roles This edition presents an even more fundamental intercultural view of psychology: This is evident in the findings from research, but also in the text and photo examples. Treatment of the psychology of women and men is thoroughly incorporated. I also plan to offer a country-independent psychology to our student readers worldwide. Therefore I am constantly looking for research results as well as text and photo examples all over the world; I do this with the knowledge that my potential readers may live in Melbourne, Sheffield, Vancouver or Nairobi. I can easily find examples from America and Europe because I live in the United States, have contact with friends and colleagues in Canada, subscribe to several European magazines, and live in the UK at certain times. For example, this edition contains 145 examples that clearly relate to Canada and Great Britain; Australia and New Zealand are mentioned 82 times. Due to the increasing number of immigrants and increasing globalization of the economy, we are all citizens of a shrinking world. Therefore, American students also benefit from information and examples that convey a more internationally oriented world awareness. And when psychology tries to explain human behavior (not just American, Canadian or Australian), then the wider the variety of studies presented, the more comprehensive our picture of the people on this earth is. My goal is to confront all students with the world beyond their own culture. Hence are

IX Preface to the 8th American edition

continue to welcome suggestions and recommendations in this direction from all readers. Our revised 7 chap. 3 (»Plant, Environment and Human Diversity«) is intended to support students in appreciating cultural and gender differences and similarities and taking into account the interplay between the plant and the environment. In addition to the chapter table of contents, the opening page for each chapter now contains a short literary text from different cultural perspectives. These excerpts from books by Maya Angelou, Judith Ortiz Cofer, Jhumpa Lahiri, Faiz Ahmed Faiz, Gwendolyn Brooks and others offer a different perspective from another culture related to the topic of the chapter. In addition, many new photos show the diversity of cultures within North America, but also around the world. In addition to the significant intercultural examples and research findings presented in the texts, these new photos with their informative captioning of figures embellish each individual chapter and broaden the students' horizons as they apply psychology as a science to their own world and the worlds around Want to apply earth.

A revised and thoroughly thought-out didactic concept In addition to the new literary texts on the first page of each chapter, this edition contains the following new reading aids: 4 Newly numbered learning objectives introduce the individual sections of the text and can serve as a guide for the student when reading. 4 In the new summary of the learning objectives, which can be found at the end of each section, the learning objectives are repeated and presented in a clearly legible short summary.4 The summary of the learning objectives also contains at least one question under the heading »Think further«, through which the students should learn to apply the concepts they have learned to their own experiences. 4 At the end of each chapter, there are also 3 to 5 questions under the heading »Test your knowledge« (the answers can be found at www.lehrbuch-psychologie.de), which record how well the student has mastered something and which him or her encourage people to think big.

Approach of the levels of analysis This edition now contains a systematic treatment of the biological, psychological and socio-cultural influences on our behavior. An important new section in the prologue introduces the level of analysis approach; this creates the prerequisites for later chapters, and new illustrations with the analysis levels help the students in most chapters to understand the terms in the biopsychosocial context.

More sensitivity for the clinical point of view With the helpful support of colleagues from clinical psychology, I have paid more attention to the clinical point of view for various terms within psychology in this edition; of which v. a. the chapters on "Personality", "Mental Disorders" and "Therapy" benefit. For example, in the “Stress and Health” chapter I now deal with problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies. And the “Intelligence” chapter now contains several references to how intelligence tests are used in clinical settings.

Psychology as a Profession In the appendix you will find an appendix written by Jennifer Lento, »Psychology as a Profession«, which can serve as a guide for students who want to specialize in psychology studies or in the context of professional training. The topics dealt with in this appendix include the advantages of a degree in psychology and a degree in psychology, the professional development opportunities available to a psychologist and the job market for graduates and post-graduate psychologists, career opportunities within the disciplines of psychology (e.g. clinical psychology, Psychology in counseling, administration and school, forensic psychology and sports psychology) and tips on preparing well in advance for those who want to do a doctorate.

Improved "Critical Inquiry" section I have set myself the goal of encouraging students to think critically in a natural way throughout the book; this is even more true of the stories that are intended to encourage active learning of the key concepts of psychology. In addition to the new learning objectives and the Summary of Learning Objectives to encourage critical reading to develop an understanding of key terms, the 8th Edition includes the following opportunities for students to develop and practice their critical thinking skills. 4 7 chap. 1 takes a unique approach to critical thinking in introducing students to research methods in psychology. The fallacies of our everyday intuition and common sense are emphasized and the necessity of psychology as a science is emphasized. Critical thinking is introduced as a key concept for this chapter (7 Section 1.1.2). The discussions on statistical inference are intended to encourage students to think again and apply simple statistical principles to such arguments (7 Section 1.5). 4 The boxes »Critically Asked« can be found throughout the book and are intended to demonstrate to students a critical approach to some key questions in psychology as a model. Take a look, for example, at the new box "Critically asked: ADHD - the pathologization of savagery or a real disorder?" (7 beginning of chapter 6).

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4 stories in the style of detective novels, scattered throughout the text, are intended to induce students to think critically about key questions in psychological research. 4 “Apply this” and “Think about it” prompts should keep the students active in each chapter. 4 Critically examining comments on psychology in the rainbow press are intended to stimulate interest and provide important didactic contributions to reflect critically on everyday topics.

Acknowledgments If it is true that those who walk with the wise become wise themselves, then because of all the wisdom and advice I have received from my peers, I can barely walk. Because of the support I've received from thousands of consultants and reviewers over the past two decades, this book is better and better

has become more precise than a single author could have written (at least I did). My editors and I always keep this in mind: We are all smarter than any of us. I continue to be indebted to each of the professors whose influence I have recognized in the previous 7 editions, as well as the numerous researchers who have so willingly given their time and skills to help me make my own Accurately represent research. This new edition also benefited from the creative input and help of Jennifer Peluso (Florida Atlantic University) in revising the chap. 9 ("Memory") and 10 ("Thinking and Language") benefit. My gratitude extends to the many colleagues for their critical suggestions, corrections and creative ideas on the content, didactics and format of this new edition [detailed 7 acknowledgments in the appendix]. David G. Myers

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Notes on German editing As part of the German editing, the textbook should be adapted to the experience and background knowledge of the German readers. For this reason, some examples from everyday American life were transferred to German conditions. For example, illustrative anecdotes about American stars like Michael Jordan have been replaced by corresponding examples of German athletes. But also with the presentation of subject areas that are treated very differently in the two countries or that are based on different national legislations, the presentation has been expanded to include the German perspective. For example, the ICD classification used in Germany was added to the diagnosis of mental disorders, which David Myers, as an American author, does not mention. If possible, statistical information on population characteristics was supplemented by corresponding German or European figures. In the American introductory textbooks on psychology, clinical psychology is usually placed in the foreground as an application subject. In order to do justice to the importance of other large application subjects, two additional chapters have been added to the German edition: Chapter 19 "Educational Psychology" was written by Siegfried Hoppe-Graff, Chapter 20 "Work and Organizational Psychology" by Barbara Keller.

Since the literature cited by David Myers is largely English-language texts, you will find German-language references at the end of each chapter. These are mostly textbooks that give a comprehensive overview of the topic dealt with in the respective chapter and should enable you to get into the topic in more depth. Another note: For better legibility, only the (more familiar) masculine form is used in the text in the text, of course, it also includes feminine persons. The naming of students, test subjects, etc. certainly corresponds better to the real conditions, especially in psychology, but would have damaged the flow of the text. Whether you are just getting to know psychology or are already familiar with it - we wish you lots of fun and success on your journey through the exciting field of psychology! Matthias Reiss Svenja Wahl

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Learning Successfully Psychology teaches us to ask the right questions and think critically when reviewing contradicting ideas or popular science claims. Psychology deepens our understanding of how we perceive, think, feel and act as human beings. So psychology teaches you much more than efficient learning methods. Still, the Myers wouldn't be a good psychology textbook if we didn't give you a few tips for the optimal use of the text and effective work techniques.

How do I learn with the Myers? Learning with a method: SQ3R A simple working technique for the course comprises the following principles: get an overview, ask questions, read, look through again, think about it (in English: survey, question, read, review and reflect or SQ3R). First, get a survey of what you are about to read, e.g. B. on the basis of the introduction to the chapter and section headings. Make a note of the main topic of a section as indicated in the learning objective at the beginning. This will keep you focused on something as you read and study. Keep the learning objective in mind as a question that you try to answer as you read the section. Typically, a single section of a chapter will be just the amount of text you can absorb without getting tired. Treat each section as if it were the entire chapter. Read actively and critically. Ask questions. Take notes. Think about conclusions from this: How does what you've read support or challenge your assumptions? How convincing are the findings? How does this relate to your own life? At the end, look through again (review) and think about it (reflect). To make the structure of a section more firmly anchored in your mind, go through the text and the definitions of the key terms in the margin column again. Read the text under the heading "Learning Objectives" at the end of each section. Ask yourself questions using the material under the Test Your Knowledge heading at the end of each chapter; and maybe take the questions that are available as Internet bonus material at www.lehrbuch-psychologie.de on the individual chapters. Take a look at your notes and see what you have highlighted in the text. Then stop and let it sink in. Better yet, summarize the information for a friend or give a lecture to a fictional audience. Get an overview, ask questions, read, look through again, think about it. We have structured the chapters so that you should find it easier to use the SQ3R technique. The chapters are divided into 3 to 5 sections of legible length that can be edited in one session.

Learning with a system: Didactic elements The didactic elements listed below are intended to make working with the textbook easier for you and to make learning fun. Learning goals. Throughout the text you will find learning objectives to help you concentrate on the essentials while reading. And at the end of each large section, the “Learning Objectives” box will help you review what you've read. Definitions. Throughout the book, you can find definitions of important concepts in the margin column. The term is always highlighted in blue in the text. In addition to the German technical term, the English translation is also listed. Glossary. At the end of the book (blue part) all definitions are summarized again in a glossary. We have also included the translations of the technical terms there, so that you have a small German-English psychology dictionary available for quick reference. Quotes. In addition to the definitions, you can also add a number of

find a wealth of other information, including Examples, provocative questions and quotes. Central statements and mnemonics. They are with an exclamation mark

provided on the edge and highlighted in red letters. Critical inquiries. These boxes provide a model for you to critically approach some important topics in psychology. These are often controversial topics. Under the microscope. These boxes introduce you to selected concepts in psychology. Keep thinking. Such an application-related question on

At the end of each learning goal box, the aim is to help you think again about the essential topics and relate them to your own life. If you develop a personal connection to the topics, you will be able to remember what you have learned better. If the subject matter has a personal meaning, it is easier to remember. Test your knowledge. These questions, which you will always find at the end of the chapter, are intended as a self-test that you can use to determine whether you have understood what you have read. The answers to these questions can be found at www.lehrbuch-psychologie.de. Timeline: A timeline with the central themes of psychology and its history can be found on the inside of the cover.

Myers: Psychologie, 2nd edition Your guide to this textbook

1 2 3 4 5

Trailer: The chapter starts with this introduction

6 7 8 9 10 11

You can find quotes, exercises, additional information in the margin column

Important: highlighted mnemonics

12 13 14

Clear - figures and tables

15 16

Finger tabs: for quick orientation

17 18 19 20 A

n Book content is relevant for both undergraduate / bachelor's degree and main / master's degree programs

Take an active approach to the learning material: consider the learning objectives at the beginning of each section. You can find an example solution at the end of the section!

Navigation: with page number and chapter number

Glossary: ​​in the margin column for learning, from p. 947 for reference

Critical inquiries: Controversial issues clearly presented

Under the microscope: information for those who want to know exactly

Think further: this is where you apply your knowledge!

Fit for the exam? Exam questions - and the answers on the Myers learning website

Read More

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Learning on the Net: Additional Materials We make additional materials available to you on an interactive learning website on the Internet. Simply log in with your email address and password at www.lehrbuch-psychologie.de and use the following tools: 4 »Test your knowledge«: Here you can see the sample answers to the exam questions that are listed at the end of each book chapter . Are you correct in your answer? 4 Summaries: Get a quick overview of the chapter contents. Short summaries present the main topics of the individual chapters in an understandable way. Repeat the contents of each learning unit in this way. 4 Memocards: Index cards are tedious to create, but extremely helpful for learning and testing knowledge. You will find the complete glossary of the book on our electronic memocards, with the technical terms on one side and their definition on the other. Learn and test for yourself whether you have the terms to hand. 4 German-English memocards: Vocabulary drills are also possible. It is becoming more and more important to be able to read English texts in psychology studies too - use these memocards to check whether you have mastered the technical terms in English. 4 quiz questions: And another tool to help you check your knowledge. In times of “Who Wants to Be a Millionaire” and other TV quiz shows, this will sound very familiar to you. There are 2 multiple-choice quizzes for each chapter. Test yourself: if you've read the Myers carefully, you should definitely be able to answer the quiz questions. And with the help of the many examples, you will also learn how to apply the concepts. 4 links on special topics: Have you found a taste for the content of psychology? Whether you want to know more about psychology as a science and profession, about emotions, personality or work and organizational psychology - we have put together and commented on a whole series of links for you. Start your search on the net with us.

Efficient Working Techniques in Studies The time and effort you devote to studying psychology should enrich your life and broaden your horizons. Although many of the important questions in life go beyond psychology, some very important ones are even covered in an introductory seminar to psychology. Through careful research, psychologists have gained insights into the brain and thinking, depression and joy, dreams and memories. Even the unanswered questions can enrich our lives by making us feel again how mysterious "things are that are too wonderful for us" to be understood. In addition, studying psychology can help you learn how to ask and answer important questions - how to ask critical questions when weighing competing thoughts and assertions against one another. If you want to enrich your life and broaden your horizons (and get good grades) you need to be effective

to study. As you can see in 7 chap. 9, you have to actively process information if you want to keep it. Your thinking is not like your stomach, which only wants to be filled passively; it's more like a muscle that gets stronger with exercise. Countless experiments show that people learn and remember content better if they put it in their own words, repeat it and then look through it again and repeat it again.Here are 5 tips to help you use these insights to work effectively.

5 Study Techniques Learn in bites. One of the oldest findings in psychology

is that practicing over time leads to better retention than concentrated practice. You will remember content better if you divide your reading into several periods of time - maybe 1 hour a day, 6 days a week - instead of doing everything in one long reading marathon. Splitting your study sessions over multiple periods of time requires a disciplined approach to time management. For example, instead of trying to read an entire chapter in one study session, consider just reading one section and then moving on to something else. Actively listen in lectures. The psychologist William

James said more than 100 years ago: "No reception without reaction, no impression without ... expression." Listen to the main ideas in lectures. Write them down. Ask questions during and after the event. Process the information actively in a course, but also when you are studying for yourself; then you will understand and remember them better. Learn something again. Psychology tells us that if you learn all over again, you keep something better. The more often students read a chapter and the fewer courses they miss, the better their exam grades (Woehr and Cavell 1993). Students often shy away from learning again and overestimate how much they know. Real learning requires more than just understanding something at the moment. You may understand a chapter the moment you read it, but if you allow extra time to read it again, review your knowledge, and review what you think you know, you will actually learn the contents and keep your new knowledge longer. Focus on the main thoughts. It is helpful in re-

To pause at regular intervals and to get the main ideas clear so that you know how all the facts and research findings fit together into one big picture. In order to understand and appreciate the lessons psychology gives us, it is e.g. For example, it is important to read about the research that forms the information base. But it's also important to look out for the big concepts and topics that psychologists build from these little findings. The major topics of this book include: For example, the following: 4 Critical thinking and scientific scrutiny help us think better about many things. 4 We gain a deeper understanding when we consider a phenomenon from a biological, a psychological and a sociocultural

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look at the turistic level. Everything psychological is biological at the same time. But our behavior is often influenced by our environment and our culture. 4 Facility (our genes and our biological makeup) and environment (the culture and the world around us) work together to shape our characteristics and behaviors. 4 We are creatures of our culture and our sex; but we are much more alike than we are different. 4 Much of our human information processing takes place unknowingly, beyond the radar screen of our consciousness. Be a skilled exam writer. If you have multiple choice (MC) questions in an exam, don't confuse yourself trying to imagine how each answer could be correct. Instead, try to answer the question as if it were a fill in the blanks. First, cover up the answers, remember what you know, and complete the sentence in your mind. Then read through the answers given in the exam and find out the answer option that best fits your answer. If an exam contains both multiple-choice questions and free answer options, turn to the latter first. Read the question carefully and work out exactly what the instructor wants to know. On the back of the paper, write down a list of items you want to write about and outline them. Then, before you move on to writing, skip this task and go through the MC questions. (As you do this, you can continue to ponder the free text questions.

Sometimes the more objective MC questions let deeper thoughts arise.) Then read through the open questions again, think again about your answer, and start writing. When you're done, proofread your work to remove spelling and grammatical errors that make you seem less competent than you really are. **** If you read about psychology, you will learn a lot more than just effective work techniques. Psychology shows us how to come to important questions - how to ask critically while weighing competing thoughts and popular claims. We will learn to appreciate the way we perceive, think, feel and act as human beings. Our understanding of life expands and our empathy improves. With the help of this book, we hope that we can do our part to help you move towards that goal. The university professor Charles Eliot said a century ago: "Books are the calmest and most enduring friends and the most patient teachers." We would be delighted if this also applies to this textbook and if the Myers becomes a valuable companion on your journey through psychology. We wish you a lot of fun and success.

Christiane Grosser Matthias Reiss Svenja Wahl

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Chapter overview Prologue: A short history of psychology - 1 1 Thinking critically with scientific psychology - 17 2 Neuroscience and behavior - 55 3 Plant, environment and the diversity of people - 101 4 Development - 149 5 Perception: sensory organs

– 213

6 Perception: Organization and Interpretation - 257 7 Awareness 8 Learning

– 291

– 339

9 Memory - 379 10 Thought and Language - 429 11 Intelligence

– 467

12 motivation

– 511

13 emotion

– 547

14 personality

– 587

15 Social Psychology - 635 16 Stress and Health - 691 17 Clinical Psychology: Mental Disorders - 743 18 Clinical Psychology: Therapy

– 795

19 Educational Psychology - 841 20 Industrial and Organizational Psychology - 885

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Table of Contents Prologue: A Brief History of Psychology. . . . . . Roots of psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre-scientific psychology. . . . . . . . . . . Scientific psychology is born. Development of scientific psychology. Modern psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Great topics in psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . Three central levels of analysis in psychology. . . Fields of work in psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

1

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2 3 5 7 9 10 11 13

1

Think critically with scientific psychology. .

17

1.1 1.1.1

Do we need scientific psychology? . . . . . . Limits of intuition and common sense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scientific thinking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scientific method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Case study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Questioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Observation in a natural environment (field observation) Correlation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correlation and Causality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Illusory Correlations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perception of order in random events. . Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cause and effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Therapy evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Independent and dependent variables. . . . . . . . . . . . Basics of statistical reasoning. . . . . . . . . . . . Data description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inferential statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frequently asked questions about psychology. . . . . . . . . . . .

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18

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18 22 24 26 26 27 29 30 32 34 35 36 36 37 38 40 41 43 45

1.1.2 1.1.3 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.6

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3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.1.6 3.1.7 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.6

Twin studies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adoption Studies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Studies on temperament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heredity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plant-environment interaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Molecular Genetics: A New Challenge. . . . . . . Evolutionary Psychology: How to Understand Human Nature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evolutionary explanation of human sexuality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Criticism of the evolutionary psychological approach. . . . . . . . Parents and peers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parents and early experiences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peer influence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cultural influences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cross-cultural differences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cross-time changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture and self. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture and parenting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gender development. . . . . . . . . . . . Gender Similarities and Differences. Biological foundations of gender. . . . . . . . . . . Social influences on gender. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plant and environmental considerations. . . . . . . . . . . .

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104 107 109 110 112 112

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118 120 122 123 126 128 129 130 131 133 136 136 139 141 145

4

Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2

Prenatal development and first weeks of life. . . . Procreation and conception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prenatal Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Skills of the newborn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Toddlers and childhood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bodily development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cognitive development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adolescence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bodily development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cognitive development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transition to adulthood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adulthood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bodily development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cognitive development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two important issues in developmental psychology. Continuous and gradual development. . . . . Stability and change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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150 150 151 153 155 155 158 166 178 179 181 184 187 189 190 196 201 209 210 210

2

Neuroscience and Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4

Neural communication. . . . . . . . Neuron. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How nerve cells communicate. . . . How neurotransmitters affect us. Nervous system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peripheral nervous system. . . . . . . . . . Central nervesystem . . . . . . . . . . Endocrine system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Research tools. . . . . . . . . . . Older brain structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerebral cortex. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To divide the brain in two. . . . . . . .

57 57 60 60 65 66 66 70 71 72 75 80 90

3

Plant, environment and human diversity. . . . . . 101

5

Perception: sense organs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

3.1

Behavioral Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Genes: Our Codes for Life. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2

Basic principles of sensory perception. . . . . . . . . . 215 sleepers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Sensory adaptation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

3.1.1

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XXII

Table of Contents

5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4

See. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light energy input. . . . . . . . . . . . . Eye. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Visual information processing. . . . . . Color vision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Listen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stimulus input sound waves. . . . . . . . . . . . . Ear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deafness and Deaf Culture. . . Other important senses. . . . . . . . . . . . . Sense of touch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sense of taste. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sense of smell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Position and movement of the body in space

6

Perception: organization and interpretation. . . . 257

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.4 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 6.5 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3

Selective attention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perceptual illusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . Perception organization. . . . . . . . . . . . . Form perception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depth perception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movement perception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Constancy of perception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perception Interpretation. . . . . . . . . . . . Sensory deprivation and restored eyesight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perception adaptation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perception set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perception and the human factor. . . . . . . Is there any extrasensory perception? . . . . . . . What is Extra Sensory Perception? . . . . . . . Premonitions or imaginations? . . . . . . . . . . Extra-sensory perception put to the test

7

Awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

7.1 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.2.4 7.2.5 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.4 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 7.5

Awareness and information processing. . . . . . Sleep and dreams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biological rhythms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sleep rhythm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What do we need sleep for? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sleep disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dreams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hypnosis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Facts and misinformation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Is hypnosis an altered state of consciousness? . Drugs and awareness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Addiction and addiction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Psychoactive substances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Which factors influence drug use? . Near death experiences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

Learn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

8.1 8.2 8.2.1

How do we learn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 Classic conditioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Pavlov's experiments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343

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221 222 223 227 231 235 236 237 240 245 245 250 251 254

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258 261 263 264 265 269 270 275

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275 277 278 282 286 286 286 288

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292 295 295 296 302 307 309 315 316 319 322 322 324 331 336

8.2.2 8.2.3 8.3 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3 8.3.4 8.3.5 8.3.6 8.4 8.4.1 8.4.2

Current enhancements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Areas of application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operant conditioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Skinner's experiments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shaping (behavior shaping). . . . . . . . . . . . . . Punishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current enhancements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Areas of application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of classic and operant conditioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Observational learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bandura's experiments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Areas of application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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348 351 354 354 355 360 362 364

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367 369 371 372

9

Memory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379

9.1 9.1.1 9.2 9.2.1 9.2.2 9.3 9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.3.4 9.4 9.5 9.5.1 9.5.2 9.5.3 9.6 9.6.1 9.6.2 9.6.3 9.6.4 9.6.5 9.7

The memory phenomenon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Encoding: transferring information to memory. . How we encode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What we encode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Save: keep information. . . . . . . . . . . . Sensory memory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Working memory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Long-term memory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The storage of memories in the brain. . . . . . Get: Find information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . To forget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Encoding failure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Memory collapse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Failure of the retrieval. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction of memory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effects of Misinformation and Imagination Source Amnesia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real and false memories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Children as eyewitnesses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repressed or constructed memories of abuse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Memory training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

Thinking and language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429

10.1 10.1.1 10.1.2 10.1.3 10.1.4 10.2 10.2.1 10.2.2 10.3 10.3.1 10.3.2 10.4 10.4.1 10.4.2 10.4.3

Think . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Decision making and judgment. Belief bias. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Language structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Language development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thinking and language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influence of language on thinking. . . . . Think in pictures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thought and Language in Animals. . . . . . . . Can animals think? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Do animals have language? . . . . . . . . . The example of the monkeys. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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380 382 385 385 388 394 394 395 396 397 404 409 410 411 412 416 417 419 419 421

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430 431 433 436 442 446 447 448 455 455 458 460 460 462 462

XXIII Table of Contents

11

Intelligence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467

11.1 What is intelligence? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.1 Intelligence as a comprehensive or as different specific skills? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.2 Intelligence and Creativity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.3 can intelligence be measured neurologically? . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Intelligence measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.1 Origins of intelligence measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.2 Modern tests of mental ability. . . . . . . . . 11.2.3 Principles of the test setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Intra- and inter-individual intelligence differences. 11.3.1 Stability or Change? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.2 Intelligence extremes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 Genetic and environmental influences on intelligence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4.1 Genetic influences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4.2 Environmental influences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4.3 Group differences in intelligence tests. . . . . . . . 11.4.4 Problems of bias in intelligence tests. . . . . . .

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469 476 478 481 481 484 486 490 490 492

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494 495 497 499 505

12

Motivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511

12.1 12.1.1 12.1.2 12.1.3 12.1.4 12.2 12.2.1 12.2.2 12.3 12.3.1 12.3.2 12.3.3 12.3.4 12.3.5 12.4 12.5

Points of view of motivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instincts and evolutionary psychology. . . . . . . . . . Urges and Incentives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optimal arousal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maslow's hierarchy of needs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hunger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hunger physiology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hunger psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sexual motivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physiology of Sexuality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Psychology of Sexuality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sexuality in Adolescence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sexual orientation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sexuality and people's values ​​The need to belong. . . . . . . . . . . . Achievement motivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

Emotion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547

13.1 13.2 13.2.1 13.2.2

Emotion theories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emotion and body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emotions and the autonomic nervous system. . . . Physiological similarities between specific emotions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physiological differences between specific emotions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cognition and emotion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emotion and expression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonverbal communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expression of emotions in a cultural context. . . . . . . Facial expression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emotion and experience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anxiety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Be happy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13.2.3 13.2.4 13.3 13.3.1 13.3.2 13.3.3 13.4 13.4.1 13.4.2 13.4.3

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512 513 514 514 515 517 518 520 525 525 528 529 532 539 541 544

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553 554 560 560 564 566 569 570 573 575

14

Personality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587

14.1 14.1.1 14.1.2 14.1.2 14.1.4 14.2 14.2.1 14.2.2 14.2.3 14.2.4 14.3 14.3.1 14.3.2 14.3.3 14.3.4 14.4 14.4.1 14.4.2 14.4.3 14.4.4 14.5 14.5.1 14.5.2 14.5.3

Psychoanalytic approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exploration of the unconscious. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neofreudian and psychodynamic theories. Recording of unconscious processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evaluation of the psychoanalytic approach. . . . . . Humanistic approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abraham Maslow's Concept of Self-Realization Carl Rogers ’person-centered approach. . . . . . . . . . . Capturing the Self. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evaluation of the humanistic approach. . . . . . . . Trait approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exploration of Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acquisition of features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The five-factor model ("The Big Five"). . . . . . . . Evaluation of the trait approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social-cognitive approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reciprocal (mutual) influence. . . . . . . . Personal control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recording of situation influences on behavior. Evaluation of the social-cognitive approach. . . . . . . . The self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The benefits of self-esteem. . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture and self-esteem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Self-serving bias. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

Social psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635

15.1 15.1.1 15.1.2 15.2 15.2.1 15.2.2 15.3 15.3.1 15.3.2 15.3.3 15.3.4 15.3.5 15.3.6

Social thinking. . . . . . . . . Attribution of behavior. . . Attitudes and actions Social influence. . . . . . . . . . Conformity and obedience. . Group influence. . . . . . . . . Social relationships . . . . . . Prejudice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aggression. . . . . . . . . . . . . Conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interpersonal attraction. . . Altruism. . . . . . . . . . . . . Make peace . . . . . . . . . . .

16

Stress and health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691

16.1 16.1.1 16.1.2 16.1.3 16.2 16.2.1 16.2.2 16.2.3

Stress and illness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress and stressors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress and heart disease. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress and susceptibility to illness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health promotion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coping with Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dealing with stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Change of behavior that is harmful to health

17

Clinical Psychology: Mental Disorders. . . . . . . 743

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589 590 594 595 597 603 603 604 605 605 607 609 610 613 614 619 619 620 625 626 627 628 629 629

636 637 639 644 644 651 658 658 664 673 675 682 685

693 693 698 701 706 707 712 720

17.1 What are mental disorders? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745 17.1.1 Definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745 17.1.2 Explanatory approaches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 747

XXIV

Table of Contents

17.1.3 17.1.4 17.2 17.2.1 17.2.2 17.2.3 17.2.4 17.2.5 17.3 17.3.1 17.3.2 17.3.3 17.4 17.4.1 17.4.2 17.4.3 17.5 17.6

Classification of mental disorders. . . . . . Problems and dangers of labeling. . . Anxiety disorders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder phobias. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Obsessive-compulsive disorder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Post-traumatic stress disorder . . . . . . Explanatory approaches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Affective disorders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Major depression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bipolar disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanatory approaches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schizophrenia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Symptoms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subtypes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanatory approaches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personality disorders. . . . . . . . . . . . . Prevalence of mental disorders. . . . . . . .

18

Clinical Psychology: Therapy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795

18.1 18.1.1 18.1.2 18.1.3 18.1.4 18.1.5 18.2 18.2.1 18.2.2 18.2.3 18.2.4 18.2.5 18.3 18.3.1 18.3.2

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Psychotherapies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Psychoanalytic Therapies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Humanistic therapies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Behavior therapy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cognitive therapies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Group and family therapies. . . . . . . . . . . . . Therapy evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How effective is psychotherapy? . . . . . . . . . . . Which therapy for which disorder? . . . . . . . . . . What are the benefits of alternative therapies? . . . . . . . . . . . Similarities between different forms of therapy. . Culture and values ​​in psychotherapy Biomedical therapies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drug therapies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stimulation of the brain: electroconvulsive therapy. . . transcranial magnetic stimulation. . . . . . . . . . . . 18.3.3 Psychosurgery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.4 Prevention of Mental Disorders. . . . . . . . . . . .

19

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749 753 756 757 758 758 759 762 767 767 768 769 779 779 781 782 788 791

797 797 801 802 807 810 813 813 818 819 822 824 826 827 and 832 835 837

Educational psychology: overview and selected topics. . . . . . . . . . . . . 841

19.1 Overview of Educational Psychology. . . . . . 19.1.1 Subject matter and task. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1.2 History of German-speaking educational psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1.3 Educational psychology in practice: the field of school psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.2 Importance of Parental Upbringing. . . . . . . . . . . . 19.2.1 Does parental upbringing play a role? . . . . . . . . .

. . . 842 . . . 842 . . . 845 . . . 847 . . . 849 . . . 849

19.2.2 Which parenting style is most favorable? . . . . . . . . . . 19.3 Educational Influences on Internalization. . . . . . . . . . moral rules and norms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.3.1 Hoffman's theory of the influence of parental upbringing on internalization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.3.2 Review, Criticism, and Extensions of Hoffman's Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.3.3 Pedagogical conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.4 Aggression and violence among children and adolescents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.4.1 Played and serious aggression. . . . . . . . . . . . 19.4.2 Bullying among children - a special form of violence 19.4.3 The early starter model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.4.4 Longitudinal observations on parental influences on the genesis of problem behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.5 New tasks and challenges in educational psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.5.1 Effects of childcare outside the family. . 19.5.2 Models to explain school performance differences. .

. 852 of . 859 860. 863 866 . . .

867 869 870 872

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20

Industrial and organizational psychology. . . . . . . . . . . 885

20.1.1 20.1.2 20.2 20.2.1 20.2.2 20.2.3 20.3 20.3.1 20.3.2 20.3.3 20.4 20.4.1 20.4.2 20.4.3 20.5 20.5.1 20.5.2 20.5.3

Work motivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Job satisfaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work and stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress and stressors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work-life balance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Changed working conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New technologies: when are innovations successful? Working hours and workplace: more flexibility. . . . . . . . Unemployment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Psychology in Organizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organizational form and organizational structure. . . . . . . Teams, groups and quality circles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leadership. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work and Personality: Choice and Impact. Personnel selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Who is making progress and when? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work and personal development. . . . . . . . . . . .

Attachment . . . . . . . . Psychology as a profession glossary. . . . . . . . Thanks. . . . . About the author . . . Bibliography Bibliography. Directory of names. Subject index. . .

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887 894 898 898 900 903 904 905 907 908 916 916 918 921 925 925 930 935

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939 940 947 969 973 974 1024 1028 1050

Prologue: A Brief History of Psychology Roots of Psychology - 2 Pre-Scientific Psychology - 3 Birth of Scientific Psychology - 5 Development of Scientific Psychology - 7

Modern psychology

–9

Major topics in psychology - 10 Three central levels of analysis in psychology Fields of work in psychology - 13

– 11

Other cultures, other perspectives I dream of a world where no one can hold the other down, where love blesses the earth and peace adorns the paths. I dream of a world where everyone knows how sweet freedom is, where greed no longer sucks on souls, no avarice eats our day like powdery mildew.

I dream a world where black and white, no matter what you are, partakes of the earth's gifts and is free - where wickedness has to lower its head and joy, pearl shimmer, does not leave people in their troubles. I always dream of this world of mine.

Langston Hughes, from »I dream of a world«, Zurich: Althea, 2002 (original 1945)

2

Prologue: A Brief History of Psychology

Prologue: A Brief History of Psychology

"I have ceaselessly endeavored not to mock, complain or despise the actions of people, but to understand them." Benedikt Spinoza ("Theological-Political Treatise", 1677)

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