What should I know before I move out
First own apartment: checklist for first-time tenants
Out of Hotel Mama and into your first own apartment: Sounds good, but it means a lot of effort and costs. A step-by-step guide for the way to your own four walls.
"As long as you put your feet under my table ..." - Anyone who moves into their first apartment no longer has to listen to this saying. But on the way there, prospective tenants have to overcome a few hurdles.
The first apartment of your own: Search and find
Four walls of your own do not make a home for a long time. So that prospective tenants feel comfortable in their first apartment in the long run, they should think a few things about what is important to them when it comes to living. These questions help to make the search more targeted:
1. How much apartment can I afford?
A cash drop should be the first step. Because as beautiful as the apartments look in the ads, if you can't pay the rent, you end up feeling depressed. However, if you enter your rent limit in the search criteria, you will also get suitable results. It must be remembered that it is not just about rent, additional costs and living costs must not be forgotten.
In order to find out how much money is available, income and expenses must be compared. In most cases, people move into their first own apartment when they are about to start their apprenticeship or study, which is usually only associated with a very low income. Students and trainees have the opportunity to have their financial resources increased by the state - by means of BaföG (funding according to the Federal Training Assistance Act) or BAB (vocational training subsidy). If the prerequisites for this are not met, housing benefit can be applied for under certain circumstances.
By the way: People under the age of 18 can usually only move out of home with the consent of their parents. Because up to the age of 18 the parents have the right to determine the place of residence and are responsible for those who wish to move out. Young people with plans to move out should therefore first try to get their parents on board with their plans - especially since going it alone could fail at the latest at the lease: This is only valid for minors if their parents also sign.
2. Do you prefer to be alone or in a shared apartment?
Renting an apartment alone can be a huge financial burden. A shared apartment might be the solution. Because there the rent for the common rooms such as kitchen, bathroom and living room is shared. But only those who are willing to compromise should decide to live in a shared apartment. If you live alone, you don't have to consult with anyone.
3. How should the apartment be?
Not all apartments are the same. Anyone looking for a new apartment should know what they are looking for. Do you prefer urban or rural? With a garden or a balcony? Do you prefer the attic or the first floor? Does the bathroom have to have a window and / or a bathtub? The size, the number of rooms and the layout also play an important role. Anyone who has or would like to have a dog or cat should include this in the search in advance. It should also be clarified whether a parking space or a garage is necessary.
Apartment found: convince the landlord
If one or the other potential apartment is included in the search, prospective tenants must contact the provider - this is either the landlord himself or an administrator or broker who is looking for tenants on behalf of the landlord. The next step is usually to view the apartment. This gives them the opportunity to find out everything that interests them about the rental apartment.
When viewing the property, prospective tenants should pay close attention to the condition of the apartment - for example, whether there are scratches in the parquet, whether the door handles are defective or whether it is pulling through the window. Defects should be addressed immediately and, if necessary, recorded in writing later in the apartment handover protocol.
In addition, prospective tenants should also pay attention to whether the layout and size of the apartment suit their own needs, and whether there are conditions that could disturb them in the long term - such as the noise of vehicles passing loudly through the walls, or that into many In the afternoon there was hardly any sun in the room. So that nothing is overlooked or forgotten with all the impressions, it is often worthwhile to bring a second person with you.
In the course of viewing the apartment, the prospective tenant is often asked questions. Some landlords also have a so-called tenant self-assessment completed. Prospective tenants are not obliged to do so. Often, however, the chances are reduced if it is not used. However, there are questions that tenants don't have to answer honestly - such as sexual preferences or religious affiliation.
Rental agreement and handover
If the landlord has decided on a prospective tenant, he can ask for a few more information, such as the financial situation. In addition to proof of salary, a credit report is often required for this. Prospective tenants are not obliged to disclose this information. In practice, however, the submission of such information usually increases the chance of the landlord accepting it. Another option to provide security for the landlord is if the parents or a bank guarantee.
Once all the formalities have been clarified and the prospective tenant and landlord agree, the next step is to sign the lease. The most important information in brief:
- The amount of the rent deposit must not exceed three months' cold rent.
- As a rule, a notice period of three months applies.
- The tenant only has to bear certain ancillary costs, and only if they are contractually agreed. The costs for maintenance and administration are not included.
- Tenants only need to renovate under certain circumstances.
When the apartment is handed over, the tenant receives the keys for the apartment and should go through the apartment room by room together with the landlord. The number of keys, the meter readings (gas, water, electricity) and any defects in the apartment should be recorded in a handover report.
Organize a move
Many young tenants manage to move on their own: It doesn't spare the muscles and costs time - but it often saves money. With just a little heavy furniture and a few helpful friends, it's often easier to move. However, if the new place of residence is further away, or the apartment is on the fourth floor, tenants can save themselves a lot of effort with a moving company.
First apartment of your own: plan your first furnishing
Microwave, can opener, towels: you often only notice when you are in your new apartment that something is missing - precisely when you need it. It is therefore worthwhile to take an inventory before moving in. Anyone who moves in with their partner or in a shared apartment should discuss with their future roommates who will bring what and what is still missing.
A stove and a refrigerator are a long way from making a kitchen. If you want to cook and bake properly, you need many other kitchen utensils in addition to pots and pans. If guests are also to eat, there should be enough crockery for everyone. Crockery sets are therefore usually offered for four or six people.
A certain basic equipment is also advisable in other rooms. What is actually needed, however, is very individual.
Something that should definitely not be missing in a well-stocked household is a basic set of tools. In order not to get bogged down in the hardware store, it is often worthwhile to buy tool cases that are already packed. But be careful! Look carefully what is in it so that you don't end up paying too much.
Authorities and insurance companies
When you move into your first apartment, a few important things still need to be done. One of the first steps should be to register with the residents' registration office with the new address. This must happen within 14 days of moving in, otherwise you may be fined. For the change of registration, the tenant needs a confirmation from the landlord. Students or trainees in particular would like to leave their main residence with their parents for the time being. You still need to register with the new address - in this case as a second home. Depending on the municipality, a second residence tax must then also be paid.
Anyone who moves into their first apartment of their own has to deal with the subject of insurance to a certain extent. The following insurance should be taken out after moving in:
- Private liability: Private liability insurance covers all damage caused to others. For example, damage that happens when moving, such as a scratch on the wall in the stairwell. Those who still live with their parents are also insured through them. After moving out, everyone must insure themselves. Exceptions can be apprentices and students in their initial training. Parents' insurance can remain in place even if they have separate residences. This should be found out from the provider.
- Household insurance: The contents insurance covers all damage to "movable" objects in the home - furniture, electrical appliances, clothing and also cash - that are caused by external influences such as storms, fire or lightning strikes. As a rule, an optional glass insurance can also be taken out here. This can be useful if, for example, there is a stove with a ceramic hob in the apartment.
Deduct moving from the tax: Then it is possible
A move for professional reasons can be deducted from the tax. This affects the following costs:
- double rent of up to half a year
- Transportation costs
- Repairs of transport damage
- Travel expenses for looking for an apartment
- Travel expenses on the day of the move
Those who do not move for their job do not go completely empty-handed: If craftsmen have been hired for certain work, the pure working time costs can be claimed.
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