What's after a quarter of meth
5 facts about crystal meth
Long-term negative consequences are more common with regular consumption. For one thing, methamphetamine is addictive in the long run. Studies indicate that dopamine deficiency in the striated body of the brain is responsible for this: Methamphetamine releases dopamine from the nerve cells, so that supplies are quickly exhausted . In high doses, the substance permanently dampens the presynaptic ends of the axons in the striped body, which are responsible for the transmission of nerve signals, which presumably contributes to the development of addiction and possibly ensures that withdrawal symptoms last comparatively long. Addiction researchers are intensively investigating the role of dopamine in this area of the brain, but the precise connections have not yet been fully clarified. For example, it remains a mystery whether the effects in the striped body result from the death of nerve cells or from a change in the dopamine balance.
A permanently reduced dopamine content in the striped body also occurs in Parkinson's patients, and as recent research shows, long-term methamphetamine use increases the risk of Parkinson's disease significantly . In contrast to the chemically related amphetamine, methamphetamine is also toxic to nerve cells - methamphetamine may activate apoptosis signaling pathways and thus trigger programmed cell death.
Methamphetamine also appears to cause long-term damage to the rest of the body, particularly to the cardiovascular system. Data show that regular use significantly increases the risk of arteriosclerosis and other vascular diseases and changes the heart in the long run . Researchers also suspect that the risk of heart attacks increases at the same time.
A significant proportion of all methamphetamine users are affected by mental disorders and illnesses. In a 2004 US study, a third of the users examined had been prescribed psychotropic drugs at least once, and a quarter had been in inpatient treatment for mental illness. Psychoses in particular are more common with methamphetamine than with other drugs and ten times as often as in the general population. Methamphetamine use is also associated with depression and suicide attempts; depending on the study, between a quarter and more than half of users show symptoms .
On the other hand, many experts now doubt one frequently mentioned side effect: the so-called meth mouth. Consumers should get tooth decay faster and lose their teeth over time because the drug can cause dry mouth and teeth grinding, among other things. However, more and more scientists are pointing out that prescription drugs with these side effects do not lead to tooth loss.
How do you make methamphetamine hydrochloride in the laboratory?
There are six common synthetic routes for methamphetamine salts. Two of them produce a 1: 1 mixture of both enantiomers and are based on phenylazetone, a common industrial chemical that today requires approval. With this compound you only need to replace the oxygen with a methylamino group, and there are two very simple options for this: on the one hand, Reductive amination, which was quasi the "classic" method of the drug cooks until the US government made access to the necessary chemicals much more difficult, and on the other hand the so-called Leuckart-Wallach reaction with methylformamide.
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