What useful software do translation companies use
UNIVERSITAS 3/09. ISSN newsletter In this edition
1 UNIVERSITAS 3/09 Bulletin ISSN In this edition In memoriam Dr. Hildegund Bühler 3 Hola presidenta! 6 Job satisfaction among interpreters 8 Authors' interview with Adam Thirlwell and Daniel Kehlmann 12 Review lecture on cross-operating system CAT tools 14 Statement of facts in copyright lawsuit 15 Customer of the year 17 Guidelines for cooperation between translators and translation service providers 19 Reviews 23 FIT-News 31 IT corner 32 The horror cabinet of translation 34 Association communications 35 The last 36 Member of the Fédération Internationale des Traducteurs
2 2 UNIVERSITAS Mitteilungsblatt 3/09 EDITORIAL Summer is coming, Hieronymus is approaching PS: The cover picture is from Rameez Sadikot / flickr.com Dear Colleagues, Shortly before the editorial deadline, we received the sad news that Dr. Hildegund Bühler died in Vienna at the age of 79. In their obituaries, Annie Weich, Ingrid Kurz and Gerhard Budin honor this outstanding scientist, linguist and honorary member of UNIVERSITAS Austria on behalf of the many colleagues who were able to learn from her, who worked with her and who were friends with her. For the first time, UNIVERSITAS Austria wants to bring particularly professional and reliable customers into the limelight and calls for the nomination of the customer of the year. The participation form can be found on page 17. Otherwise, this issue offers a very informative study by Maria Brandstötter on the job satisfaction of interpreters. Margret Millischer and Andrea Bernardini also look back on an event with Daniel Kehlmann and Adam Thirlwell on the subject of translation. There are also reviews, a description of the facts about a copyright lawsuit by Christian Springer and guidelines for cooperation between translators and translation service providers from the BDÜ, which can also be very helpful for us. Those who couldn't be there read a report by Sabina Illmer on page 14 about the event Cross-Operating System CAT tools with Thomas Musyl on June 5 at the Center for Translation Studies in Vienna. Furthermore, there are of course the traditional columns, in particular Hola Presidenta by Eva Holzmair-Ronge with insights into the work of the board. Don't forget: September 30th is Jerome's Day. This year the translation community is celebrating this day with the launch of the book Helfer, Verräter, Jaukler? The role model of translators in the mirror of literature, edited by Ingrid Kurz and Klaus Kaindl. More detailed information on the exact time will be made available shortly on the website and in the mailbox. I hope you enjoy reading it, Dagmar Jenner. IMPRINT The newsletter of UNIVERSITAS Austria, the professional association for interpreting and translation, is used for the exchange of information between the association members. Editor: UNIVERSITAS Austria, Professional Association for Interpreting and Translating, Interpreters and Translators Association Gymnasiumstraße 50, A 1190 Vienna, Tel. + Fax:, Secretariat: Martha Böhm Editor: Dagmar Jenner, Tel .:, Permanent collaboration: Vera Ribarich Coordination of reviews: Andrea Bernardini coordination advertisements: Helga Benigni-Cokan Please send contributions, requests, suggestions, letters to the editor to one of the above addresses, thank you! The newsletter appears quarterly. Editorial deadline for the next issue: November 1st. Graphics and layout: Sabina Kargl-Faustenhammer
3 UNIVERSITAS Bulletin 3/09 3 IN MEMORIAM DR. HILDEGUND BÜHLER When we visited Gunde Bühler for the last time at the beginning of June, she said without further ado and emotionlessly that she was coming to an end. Nevertheless, as in the past few years, we were able to talk to her about all sorts of things. Birgit Strolz about the institute then and now; Maria Verber on Gunde's childhood as the daughter of a couple of doctors in Graz; I talk about my New Zealand cousin, with whom the Bühlers made friends a number of years ago on a journey in the footsteps of the New Zealand explorer Ferdinand von Hochstetter, one of Gunde's ancestors; About the multilingual upbringing of diplomatic children or, quite simply, about our respective grandchildren because on her old day Gunde, the formidable scientist and university professor, who will commemorate Gerhard Budin in a separate tribute, became a very common grandmother in love: she proudly showed the photos of her admittedly very adorable grandchildren, one in Mödling and three in New York - she was very lucky to see them all in the last days of their lives. Like many of her fellow fates, Gunde was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in the middle of her life. The formerly particularly sporty young woman when she said goodbye in the forest cemetery in Kaltenleuthaben, the pastor spoke of mountaineering, cycling, ski instructor exams ... had to witness the decline of her physical abilities for decades. But Gunde's mental fitness remained unaffected by the illness, and her mental fitness did not leave her in despair, but rather drove her to devote herself even more to her linguistic research, in which she penetrated into areas that were previously unexplored. The prelude to her impressive scientific career was her doctorate sub auspiciis presidentis on all of this, but please see Budin. One area in which I am more competent is the solidarity of honorary member Hildegund Bühler with Universitas. When the association was founded in 1953 in close association with the Vienna Interpreting Institute, there were two colleagues at the Graz Institute who joined it immediately or very soon: Sepp Färber and Hildegund Susani. For many years they represented Graz together or alternately on the board, Gunde even after she had moved to Vienna because of her marriage to Hanns-Hermann Bühler. This had far-reaching consequences, both geographically and in terms of time: the Viennese and Graz translators and interpreters pulled in the same direction from the outset in terms of professional policy and ethics, much earlier than the Innsbruckers, whose missionary work only really succeeded when our Viennese member Emmy, who died a few years ago Krausnecker taught there and tried to get closer to the Universitas. Another of Gunde's contribution to the success of the Universitas, which is still effective today, was the scientific management of the extremely successful FIT Congress in Vienna.Liese Katschinka, then Secretary General of the Universitas and later the FIT, who organisationally directed the Congress of Vienna, reports that to this day that of Hildegund Bühler's proposed scientific format is praised as exemplary. It is still worth reading the Congress files of that time today. Now Gunde, who had cancer a few years ago, has left her family and us forever. Her family Hanns-Hermann Bühler, also honorary members of the Universitas, for decades prominent conference interpreters and popular, albeit feared, teachers at the Vienna Institute, and they formed the most prominent linguist couple in Austria. We deeply admired the devotion with which he has looked after her over the past few years; her two sons Hermann and Konrad, of whose academic and then professional success the mother was so proud; and the already mentioned, also very promising grandchildren. Us, her friends and colleagues who will hold up the memory of a remarkable and brave woman. Annie Soft
4 4 UNIVERSITAS Bulletin 3/09 Farewell, Gunde! More qualified than me will write about your undisputed contributions to science and Universitas. I would like to highlight some personal memories from more than forty years. We got to know each other in the 1960s at the European Forum Alpbach, where you and Hans Hermann had already talked in the interpreting booth. At that time, for us young interpreters, you were the somewhat older, serious academics who, unlike us, did not spend the night but, as we called it, worked, i.e. went to bed early. In the years that followed, there were repeated joint assignments at IBM English seminars, in which I was able to discover a completely different, previously unknown quality of you on the happy evenings in which we language teachers had to actively participate: sportiness and a lot of sense for Fun and humor. In the 1980s and 90s, our joint appearances at various congresses followed in the early stages, and one can rightly say that, the pioneering days of interpreting, including in Washington, DC, Trieste, Belgrade and of course at the Xth FIT World Congress in Vienna 1984 under your scientific direction. And in addition to the professional contacts, there have of course been your many generous and always successful invitations at your home on the Doktorberg, at the Heuriger in Perchtoldsdorf and in the Höldrichsmühle, where our guild happily also with people from other professions / interest groups in Contact was made. You have mastered your illness in an incredibly positive and exemplary manner. Your sentence on the phone, which I still have in my ear, I am not fine, but I am fine, is an example of you. You wanted a quiet, dignified farewell and I think you got it. In this sense from my side and, as I know, also on behalf of many colleagues, Farewell, Gunde. You will be missed! Ingrid Kurz
5 UNIVERSITAS Mitteilungsblatt 3/09 5 A short personal obituary from a scientist There is hardly anyone to whom I owe so much in my professional life as Hildegund Bühler. It was she who, as a young student in 1981/82, interested me in terminology and science in general, and who immediately got me excited. It was she who accompanied and supported me as a mentor from then on, through my studies as well as from 1990 as a young lecturer, first under her wing, but also later in the course of my university career until long after her retirement. Like many women at the time, Hildegund was involuntarily employed in the field of science, research and teaching. I experienced her habilitation in 1987 as a doctoral candidate, and as students we were very proud of our professor back then, i.e. for being awarded the Venia legendi to Hildegund in the subject of translation studies in the then humanities faculty, a few years before the first chair at the institute at that time for translator and interpreter training at the University of Vienna. At this point in time she was no longer a stranger to the professional world, on the contrary, some of Hildegund's publications come from the early 1980s, which are cited as standard works in the research literature to this day. In fact, she was the first to work out some aspects of translation studies, which was just developing at the time, as we know it today, be it for interpreting, translating or terminology. In her research work as well as in teaching, she always paid attention to the applicability of the research results and was thus ahead of her time. She has also carried out exciting research projects, such as a project funded by the Fund for the Promotion of Scientific Research (FWF) between 1980 and 1982 to process the estate of Prof. Eugen Wüster, who had died a few years before. We are still using the results of this research in terminology to this day and continue to do so. Hildegund also broke new ground as a teacher and introduced unconventional teaching methods for the time that are taken for granted today. She was never just a teacher who only conveyed knowledge, she always paid attention to her role as a coach, as we would say today, in the personal development of young students. And it is precisely for this that very, very many students at the time are grateful to her who have long been involved in professional practice and who are happy to pass these experiences on to young people themselves. For the rest of my life, I will remember with great fondness the countless technical discussions that I have had with her for over 25 years. We also published together, drafted study plans and developed visions for specialist translation and terminology. Despite all the research, teaching and administrative tasks at the university, there was always time for private conversations, where she inquired about the children and my wife, and for family meetings. One of her pre-eminent qualities was her limitless modesty. With this, too, she was always a role model for me as well as for many other colleagues. She will always have a firm place in my heart, and like many others I am happy to have the privilege of having got to know and appreciate a person like Hildegund and to be able to work with her for many years. Gerhard Budin
6 6 UNIVERSITAS Bulletin 3/09 HOLA PRESIDENTA! Eva Holzmair-Ronge Eva Holzmair-Ronge is a translator and conference interpreter for English and French and President of UNIVERSITAS Austria. Time goes by very quickly. With this issue I am already presenting my half-yearly report for 2009, whereby our members do not have to worry about profit warnings and price losses. We are actually in a really good position, as it has recently been said. This year's exam contributed to this. Just like two years ago when the then newly elected board took office, we also called a retreat after this election. It took place on June 21st and was contested by a cheerful group of women, as our only male board member pinched (he also had a lot to do with the preparation of another event, but more of that later). We carpooled from Graz and Vienna to the Sieghartskirchen area, where Alexandra Jantscher-Karlhuber organized a wonderful, almost three-hour circular hike followed by a table at Gasthaus Böhm. Despite all prophecies of doom from the weather frogs (please no biology comments on how this should work) we were allowed to enjoy a lot of sun and pleasant temperatures. The photo shows us after the hike and before the actual retreat at Gasthaus Böhm. Welded together by walking together in constantly changing groups, we went to work in a separate room at Gasthof Böhm. We did it so vehemently and exuberantly that a suburban casanova from the birthday party taking place next door, which was obviously nowhere near as funny, often shook his head to see how it was possible for women to have such a good conversation on their own. But that was only one Skirmishes on the sidelines. We concentrated on the strategic course for the term of office of the current board of directors, which reads: Continue and expand on what has been tried and tested (PR, maintain contacts with journalists, cooperation with sister associations and translational training centers, community interpreting initiatives, advanced training, etc.), but also new accents set, for example a revision of our professional and honorary rules, stronger activation of the association members (e.g. through language-specific newsgroup networking in virtual space) and possibly a redesign of the website. With these plans in hand, we went home in the evening, informed those who stayed at home about the results and will tackle specific projects at the next board meeting at the beginning of September. A new type of project for our association was soon afterwards the advanced German course for interpreters, jointly organized by UNIVERSITAS Austria, AIIC-Region Austria and ÖVGD and spatially supported by the ZTW. Our interpreting committee, headed by Christian Koderhold, prepared, organized and looked after him in a leading role. The team, which was strengthened from the outside by Denise Tschager, really did an extraordinary job. So far we have had experience with one-day or two-day training events, but a five-day seminar including excursions and a social program was a different matter. There is a lot of work involved. In the last days and weeks before the seminar in particular, there was a huge increase in e-mail and telephone contacts, but our team remained calm even in the case of last-minute cancellations (subject line of the associated e-mail: Now hammam the shit), wrote to speakers, searched and found Replacement, organized catering, drafted operational plans, kept an eye on the finances and will report in much more detail on the course of events in the next newsletter. The feedback from the interpreters who had come from all corners of Europe was, among other things: Thank you for the organization, which was done with the heart! Or: organize this course again. Or: It was the best I've ever been through. I congratulate! The Presidenta and with her the board also congratulate. We are proud of this successful event and thank the committee for the great work. Another major event took place on June 16. Inge Pinzker, Julia Oslans-
7 UNIVERSITAS Mitteilungsblatt 3/09 7 ky and I made an appointment with the health spokespersons for the FPÖ, BZÖ and the Greens in parliament on the subject of municipal interpreting. They were interested in the problem of the lack of communal interpreting structures in the health sector, were of the opinion that the two health spokesmen of the SPÖ and ÖVP who were unable to attend this meeting could be won over, and they will consider further steps. In his role as health and science spokesman, Dr. Kurt Grünewald, with Minister of Science Dr. Johannes Hahn to contact him and to draw his attention to the necessity of university community interpreting courses and how they are financed. I have informed the heads of the university training centers about this and also asked them to address the possibility of setting up community interpreting courses with a focus on medicine and to make suggestions during the upcoming meetings with the Federal Minister for the 2009/2010 academic year. In June, specifically on the 18th, there was also a meeting of the platform group (UNIVERSITAS Austria, ÖVGD, AIIC Region Austria, Translators' Association and ÖGSDV), at which further details for the joint Internet presence were discussed. On July 3rd and 4th Margit Hengsberger and I were at a meeting of the Bremen Roundtable in Munich, at which this time, among other things, an experience report on certification according to DIN EN 15038, information on the BDÜ specialist conference 2009, opportunities for a joint market study or the problem of volunteers Translations were on the agenda. On January 29th and 30th, 2010, the Bremen Round will meet for the first time in Vienna. The day before, Heike Leinhäuser from QSD (see BDÜ / QSD guidelines in this issue) will, as she herself writes, hold a lively project round at the ZTW for interested members, i.e. she will pass on her knowledge of project management in the translation area and will be happy to discuss it, what a good relationship between individual translators and translation service providers (offices) can and should look like. In this sense: Hasta luego! See you soon!
8 8 UNIVERSITAS Mitteilungsblatt 3/09 PROFESSIONAL SATISFACTION OF UNIVERSITAS AUSTRIA INTERPRETERS A REPORT Maria Brandstötter To look at the interpreting profession from a sociological point of view was the aim of a survey in which numerous members of UNIVERSITAS Austria took part in June 2009. In order to be able to draw an overall picture, in addition to the attitudes of practicing interpreters to various aspects of the profession, demographic information and the form of professional activity should also be collected. Job satisfaction served as the overarching construct. The results, which are also part of the author’s master’s thesis, are presented in abbreviated form here. Literature Job and occupational satisfaction are the subject of Fig. 1 Work and organizational psychology and have been of interest to research since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Significant theoretical contributions come from Maslow (1954), Herzberg et al. (1959) and Bruggemann et al. (1975). Job satisfaction was also an issue in interpreting: The stress studies by Cooper et al. (1982) and the interviews by Kurz (1983, 1991) are among the pioneering work. Other studies that pay attention to job satisfaction, among others, are the qualitative study by Feldweg (1996) and the AIIC Workload Study (2002); Choi (2007) and Tryuk (2007) provide more recent work. Methodology Thanks to the support of the association management, the 123 association members entered in the interpreter directory served as the target group for the study. These have demonstrably several years of professional experience, which supports the informative value of the investigation. In order to be able to adequately map the professional reality of interpreters, a separate questionnaire was developed, which was presented to the target group in the form of an anonymous web-based survey (LimeSurvey). The results were evaluated using the SPSS 16 statistics program. Results After a period of almost four weeks, 62 responses were available for evaluation. This corresponds to a response rate of 50.4%, which suggests a considerable interest in the question. The sample consisted of 53 women (85.5%) and 9 men (14.5%). Since male interpreters make up 18.7% of the population (in the directory), they were somewhat underrepresented in the present study. The mean age was 53.3 years (± 11.5). At the time of the study, the respondents had been working regularly as interpreters for an average of 25.9 years (± 10.8); 60 of 62 worked as a freelancer, 81.4% of them full-time. In order to be able to draw a holistic and at the same time differentiated picture of the sample, the areas and frequencies of use were used as the relevant variable. Figure 1 shows the mentions of the categories always, often and sometimes of the respective areas. Two filter questions were linked to this question, which were intended to determine the number of days of interpreting. The respondents worked as conference interpreters after an average of 51.3 days per year (± 32.5). Although fewer study participants (also) regularly worked in the field of municipal interpreting (the last four areas in Fig. 1), they interpreted relatively more often: The arithmetic mean here was 5.3 assignments per month (± 5.3), or 63.6 missions per year. The relatively high standard deviations show the wide spread of the values (see Fig. 1).
9 UNIVERSITAS Mitteilungsblatt 3/09 9 Satisfaction In addition to answering closed question formats, the survey participants were also asked to reflect independently which aspects of the job they found particularly satisfactory or particularly unsatisfactory. The analysis of the answers resulted in the following top ten (see Tables 1 and 2 - the number of responses are in brackets): Elsewhere, the participants in the study were asked to give a specific satisfaction rating (how satisfied are you with?). A 5-point scale was given with the values very dissatisfied, dissatisfied, partly / partly, satisfied and very satisfied. The factors client, cooperation with colleagues, work content or type of activity, fee and development opportunities resulted in around 78% occupancy in the categories very satisfied and satisfied, high satisfaction values (in this order with a slightly flattening tendency). Partial aspects in which the middle category was increasingly chosen are working hours and working conditions: a good third of each could neither decide on a positive nor a negative judgment. In the case of the last three factors, too, the expressions of satisfaction increasingly shifted towards the middle category. These are likely to be ambivalent constructs; In practice, the positive expression of the aspect occurs in exactly the same way as the negative one. For the first time, all scale values were filled: Although the statements of satisfaction with the aspect of prestige or reputation of the profession are still high at 51.6%, 14.5% (sum of very dissatisfied and dissatisfied) of the sample are also explicitly dissatisfied. The respondents were the least satisfied with the job offer and job security (19.3% and 27.4% total of very dissatisfied and dissatisfied). 67.7% would choose the profession again, but only 17.8% would recommend interpreting to young people as a profession. Table 1 Satisfactory aspects 1 Diversity (29) 2 Contact / work with people (20) 3 Self-determination (16) 4 Knowledge acquisition (14) 5 Mediator role (14) 6 Intellectual challenge (9) 7 interesting topics (8) 8 positive feedback (7 ) 9 Earning opportunities (5) 10 Dealing with language (4) Table 2 Unsatisfactory aspects 1 Insufficient recognition (13) 2 Being at the mercy of the speaker etc. (12) 3 Ignorance of the requirements (9) Provision of material (9) Time pressure (9) 6 irregular workload 7 order situation (4) difficult fee negotiations (4) price dumping (4) external control (4) In the overall satisfaction rating, 32.2% were very satisfied and 54.8% satisfied with their work. Almost three quarters of the freelance test subjects would by no means switch to a permanent position at any time, in a good half of the sample
10 10 UNIVERSITAS Mitteilungsblatt 3/09 Maria Brandstötter is studying interpreting (French and English) at the University of Vienna. Contact: unet.univie.ac.at be, the expectations of the job have largely been confirmed, with a good third the job situation is even more gratifying than at the start of the job. Interesting detail: 67.7% would choose the profession again, but only 17.8% would recommend interpreting as a profession to young people with regard to their choice of study and profession. Forms of job satisfaction Fig. 2 Forms of job satisfaction according to Bruggemann With a further overall assessment of the job, the forms of job satisfaction according to Bruggemann et al. (1975). The majority of the sample could assign themselves to one of the positive forms of job satisfaction: 37.1% chose progressive job satisfaction, i.e. that their needs and expectations are satisfied and they also have the desire to achieve further, new goals. A similar number of test persons (35.5%) are satisfied with Stabilized; their needs and desires are also satisfied, but they wish to keep what they have achieved. The rather negative form of resigned job satisfaction applies to 12.9%: in this case, the needs in the job are not met, the satisfaction is based on a reduction in the level of aspiration and on resignation. 6.5% of the participants in the study can be expected to have some form of job dissatisfaction: those who see no way out of their unsatisfactory work situation are fixedly dissatisfied. Another 6.5% are just as dissatisfied with their professional situation, but they are trying to change this. Their attitude is therefore called constructive job dissatisfaction (see Fig. 2). Interpreting mode and research hypotheses Another part of the survey was a question about the interpreting mode. The subjects were asked to indicate an approximate percentage that they work in simultaneous mode (as opposed to consecutive mode). The arithmetic mean was 59% (± 33%). Among other things, a phenomenon that was reported in the qualitative study by Feldweg (1996) should be investigated: the anonymity associated with simultaneous interpreting is associated with a loss of status and a lower reputation (1996: 432). With the existing variables, the following investigation hypotheses, among others, should be tested where this was permissible. H 1: The more often one works in simultaneous mode, the lower the satisfaction with the prestige, the reputation and the validity of the profession. The calculated Spearman correlation coefficient of r = 0.123 indicates a very low correlation, with the positive sign even indicating a reverse trend: satisfaction with prestige, reputation and recognition goes hand in hand with higher simultaneous percentages. However, the result is not significant with p = 0.345. H 2: The more often you work in simultaneous mode, the greater the satisfaction with the fee. The Spearman correlation analysis shows a value of r = 0.355 at p = 0.005. The very significant result allows the conclusion that there is a systematic connection between the mode of interpreting and satisfaction with the fee. The positive correlation coefficient shows a slight correlation, but it can be assumed
11 UNIVERSITAS Mitteilungsblatt 3/09 11 that the satisfaction with the fee is greater, the more work is done in simultaneous mode. The hypothesis was thus confirmed. H 3: The greater the satisfaction with the fee, the greater the general satisfaction. There is also a highly significant relationship (p = 0.000) and a low positive correlation (r = 0.452) between the factors satisfaction with the fee and satisfaction in general: the more satisfied interpreters are with their fees, the more satisfied they are with their job in general. The hypothesis can thus be assumed to be confirmed. Summary and outlook The surveyed UNIVERSITAS Austria interpreters are largely satisfied with their job, although a certain degree of resignation was expressed in terms of recognition. In view of the fact that the sample consisted of established interpreters, a similarly focused study among young professionals would be instructive: What difficulties and unsatisfactory circumstances does this group have to contend with? Which factors decide whether the profession is pursued or given up? A comparison with translators, who may differ from interpreters in this professional sociological context and in terms of their satisfaction ratings, would also be interesting. Bibliography AIIC (2002) Workload Study. net / viewpage.cfm / page657.htm (). Bruggemann, Agnes, Groskurth, Peter & Ulich, Eberhard (1975) Job satisfaction. Bern / Stuttgart / Vienna: Huber. Choi, Jungwha (2007) Study on job satisfaction and directions for the training of conference interpreters. Forum 5 (2), Cooper, Cary L., Davies, Rachel & Tung, Rosalie L. (1982) Interpreting stress: Sources of job stress among conference interpreters. Multilingua 1 (2), Feldweg, Erich (1996) The conference interpreter in the international communication process. Heidelberg: Groos. Herzberg, Frederick, Mausner, Bernhard & Snyderman, Barbara (1959) The Motivation to Work. New York: Wiley. Kurz, Ingrid (1983) Conference Interpreter: Job Satisfaction and Social Prestige. FIT Newsletter 2 (4), Kurz, Ingrid (1991) Conference interpreting: Job satisfaction, occupational prestige and de-sirability. In M. Jovanovic (ed.) XIIth World Congress of FIT Belgrade Proceedings. Beograd: Prevodilac, Maslow, Abraham (1954) Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row. Tryuk, Małgorzata (2007) Community interpreting in Poland. In: C. Wadensjö (ed.) The Critical Link 4, Professionalization of Interpreting in the Community. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamin,
12 12 UNIVERSITAS Bulletin 3/09 TRANSLATION Margret Millischer and Andrea Bernardini Interview with Adam Thirlwell and Daniel Kehlmann 1 This is Carol Brown Janeway (Measuring the World, Pantheon, Hardcover, 272 pages, $ 23.00), where the translation added the following comment to the work : Is Measuring the World then, as the Guardian gushed, the kind of thing Gabriel Garcia Marquez might have written had he been born in Stuttgart? Quoted from: pm / review / measuring-the-world-by-danielkehlmann-carol-brown-janeway-translator 2 In fact, the book is basically an attempt to understand and discuss literary style and its concomitant problem translation. Does style exist, is it different from or integral to content, and how do you translate style from one language to another? Hence, Thirlwell s own translation of Mademoiselle O, chosen, in large part, because Nabokov originally wrote it in French (not Nabokov s first language), then translated into English, then Russian, and then back into English. And with each translation, Nabokov also altered parts of the text. It also helps if you take the book s subtitle as little more than a playful homage to 19th century literature: A Book of Novels, Romances, Their Unknown Translators, Containing Ten Languages, Set on Four Continents, & Accompanied by Maps, Portraits, Squiggles , Illustrations, & a Variety of Helpful Indexes. If you think that tells you much, you will be sadly mistaken. (Just imagine: this book was titled, even less helpfully, Miss Herbert when published last year in Great Britain.) Quoted from: adam-thirlwell Daniel Kehlmann is a guest at the Salzburger Festspiele Dichter this year and is part of a seven-part series of events Among other things (eg fame. A novel in nine stories, authors and their dark secrets, loved ones and the penultimate songs) the translation as a topic made an occasion for UNIVERSITAS Austria to attend the exclusive event. The event, which was presented in English, would presumably have done with the title Translation. The ÖBB prevented an environmentally conscious journey between and 02.18, for five hours, no train from Salzburg to Vienna, so that the half-day trip turned into a night and fog action, whereby the predicate fog applies to the topic of translation. Daniel Kehlmann, whom we hold in high esteem, who writes humorously and witty, light-footed and profound, whose most famous work Die Vermessung der Welt has been translated into more than forty languages, had invited Adam Thirlwell. However, this is not, as one might believe, the English Kehlmann translator 1, but the author of a comprehensive literary essay entitled The Delighted States, which, according to the program, deals with the art of translation and its role in world literature, and which one can turn around after reading it to read Thirlwell's translation of a Nabokov story - a dos-à-dos edition! 2 In the splendid baroque setting of Schloss Leopoldskron, on Wednesday, 5thAugust 2009 at o'clock the two writers who still look boyish even in their mid-30s, Kehlmann agile, personable, speaking fluent English, but naturally handicapped in the lecture compared to his polished German language, the British styled as an enfant terrible tangled hair, extremely loosely tied college Tie, and chatted away. It is about novelists who, for whatever reason, live in other countries and languages, as minorities in their own country, about exile experiences, about writing in a language other than their mother tongue - Beckett, Kafka, George Steiner are talking about Never-ending name dropping and especially from Kundera and Nabokov, i.e. literature that was translated in a certain way in the author's head before it was put on paper, not afterwards by one of us professionals. Translation is only a marginal issue in the author's talk. Adam Thirlwell provides the starting point: The history of the novel is a history of bad translation, and: The average translator can of course only betray the style, but you can also hear and be amazed translations even with hundreds of mistakes can be very useful if you do consider that e.g. Pushkin was influenced by a miserable translation of Lawrence Sternes Tristram Shandy into French. Then Adam Thirlwell reads a French text with a strong British accent with chimes from viol to violon to violet and, with his preference for provocative or paradoxical formulations, particularly highlights a literal translation of Nabokov by Eugene Onegin, which he naturally finds unreadable and with: It is not unreadable enough commented. According to Thirlwell, translations are about sound and sense (but that actually applies to every literary text), and something is always being lost (aha!). When asked by UNIVERSITAS Austria what actually makes a good or bad translation, what it looks like with the faithfulness to the work, which criteria can be used, Thirlwell's answer remains rather confused. Kehlmann believes that as an author he is unable to guarantee the quality of a translation
13 UNIVERSITAS bulletin 3/09 13 assess; He personally had the experience that the French translation of his novel Ich und Kaminski seemed quite correct to him, but no one in the French-speaking world could laugh about it because the comedy situation and the subtle humor were completely lost (that would have a nice Topic for a translation-critical work). Finally, the question was raised as to whether a translation could be better than the source text (as examples: Torberg's Kishon or Baudelaire's Edgar Allan Poe translation), Kehlmann is skeptical, because if you read Celan's translations, you read Celan, regardless of Author of the source text. Conclusion: Adam Thirlwell (left) and Daniel Kehlmann. 1) By translation, writers understand something completely different from those who professionally reproduce works of all kinds in other languages. Under the title exile literature, the event would have been much better suited to the topic. 2) Obviously, our expectations were directly proportional to the number of kilometers traveled on arrival, as we thought we were allowed to flatter ourselves that such a top-class event like the Salzburg Festival would take care of our concerns 3) Salzburg is a wonderful city despite the tourists and the festival , Schloss Leopoldskron the non-plus-ultra in an atmospheric setting. All in all, we spent an amusing evening and finally talked animatedly about translating in the car even after midnight. P.S .: Perhaps someone from the English-speaking community within UNIVERSITAS Austria would like to accept Adam Thirlwell's essays The Delighted States and review or even translate them? Margret Millischer (left in the picture) is a lecturer in French at the Center for Translation Studies in Vienna. Andrea Bernardini is a freelance translator for Italian and French in Vienna. The picture shows the two at the venue, the Salzburg Leopoldskron Palace.
14 14 UNIVERSITAS Mitteilungsblatt 3/09 IN THE LAND OF UNLIMITED POSSIBILITIES Sabina Illmer Or: It doesn't always have to be Trados Sabina Illmer is a freelance translator and court interpreter for English in Vienna. 1 What is Free Software? Free software is a matter of freedom, not price. To understand the idea, think of free as free speech, not free beer. OFF: On June 5th Mag. Thomas Musyl gave the lecture Cross-Operating System CAT Tools with the subtitle CAT for Mac OS at the Vienna Center for Translation Studies. Thomas Musyl, together with his wife Isabelle Cannas-Musyl, has been running a conference interpreting and translation agency for French and English in Vienna for years and has made it through top sport as a rower to participate in the Olympic Games, as we learned from the welcome by Secretary General Hengsberger. Incidentally, the impetus for this event was a message in the Universitas Austria mailbox that SDL Trados, a program developed for use on Windows, was working smoothly in virtual operation on Mac OS, the current system for Apple computers. The lecturer contradicted this insofar as a virtual application in which Windows (or Linux) runs on an emulated PC requires a large amount of RAM and (extensive) data sets are processed correspondingly more slowly. There are very, very many operating systems ... Musyl, who switched to Apple two years ago after almost 20 years as a PC user, first gave a brief overview of the development of the operating system (OS), starting with the punch cards of the 1950s for batch operation (the term batch (processing) has been used to this day). In the course of time, numerous DOS and later Windows variants (Microsoft) came out (currently 36 in total) as well as 39 UNIX, BSD and POSIX systems. In the wake of the GNU project, which has been operating in the USA since the 1980s, free UNIX derivatives 1 that can be used on commercially available PCs, e.g. GNU / Linux. With 56 other systems mentioned in the lecture, we came to 131 BS in number, which most of the listeners, we had rather expected 5-10, then came as a surprise. All operating systems work in English on the lower level, so that when files are exchanged on this level, translation errors (with the file name) can occur. Therefore, when naming files, you should adhere to the English-language conventions, e.g. the date notation (GB) or (US) instead of and without umlauts .... and lots of CAT tools Of the 54 currently available CAT tools, 27 are designed for Windows, the other half run across platforms. Depending on the structure of the CAT tools, a distinction is made between hung / piggyback, in which the interface depends on the application, and standalone, i.e. an independent application that runs on different operating systems for cross-platform applications and with the appropriate one
15 UNIVERSITAS Mitteilungsblatt 3/09 15 modules, different databases can also be used. Trados, for example, is a piggyback application and works like an add-on for Microsoft Word. Cross-platform CAT tools or translation memories were presented including CafeTran, gtranslator, Heartsome, Okapi, OmegaT and OmegaT +, Poedit, Stingray, Swordfish, Transolution and Virtaal. How useful the programs are, of course, also depends on the preferences and needs of the respective users. In any case, the advantages and disadvantages will be examined more closely at another event. Finally, the huge tmx files, which are available in the official languages of the European Union for recording the acquis communautaire, were demonstrated. At this point, at the latest, it became clear to all those present that editing files of this size on a virtual PC would be problematic. After this successful start, we are planning a workshop in the winter semester in which the various CAT tools will be compared and tried out. In order to better estimate the need, we ask you to send us a short message at universitas.org or if you are interested. TO ENSURE THE COPYRIGHT CLAIMS OF TRANSLATORS IN THE EVENT OF THE USE OF YOUR TRANSLATIONS ON THE INTERNET BY THIRD PARTIES Christian Springer For over 20 years I have been translating technical documentation, operating instructions, etc. from German into Italian for the company XY. The translations were intended for the buyers of these products. The translation jobs were initially placed by a colleague who was employed as a translator at XY. When he started his own business, he continued to place the translation jobs on behalf of the company, to me and to two colleagues who translated into French and Spanish. Contracts between XY and the three freelance translators or between the contracting colleague and them did not exist in oral or written form. Whenever a translation was pending, the colleague asked the translators by phone whether they could do it. For the translations, XY paid the standard line fees indirectly through him. By chance I found out in January 2007 that the company had published the texts I had translated on its homepage on the Internet without my knowledge, without my consent and without financial compensation and thus addressed a different and significantly larger group of people than the above-mentioned buyers. When I immediately contacted the mediating colleague, Christian Springer has been a freelance translator for Italian since 1969.
16 16 UNIVERSITAS Mitteilungsblatt 3/09 1 Secondary intervention, also known as intervention, occurs when someone participates in another civil case in his own name because of his own legal interest without being a party himself. The intervener (intervener) joins one of the two parties in the process in order to support them. The intervention of the intervener on the side of one of the parties to the dispute is often caused by a third party notice from the main party. The intervener must have a legal interest of his own in ensuring that the party he joins wins the legal dispute. (See Wikipedia.) Drew attention to this misuse of the translations, the latter refused to take action against XY in the matter. On the one hand he was, as he said, not aware of this copyright problem, on the other hand he feared for his future assignments from XY, although their approach violated the translators' copyright and thought he would be careful not to annoy the people there [at XY] to go. Since I had demanded and received compensation for these copyright infringements without judicial assistance in the case of copyright infringements that had happened to me several times over the course of forty years as a result of improper use of my translations, I asked XY directly for compensation for the improper use of my translations on the Internet . XY denied my claim and was not aware of any wrong. The legal arguments that were subsequently undertaken by the company's lawyers and the intervening party will not be discussed in detail here. Only this much: They ranged from the assertion that XY does not know me and did not commission me with translations, as well as the allegation that I did not even do the translations myself to the assertion that through years of silence I have my implied consent to the publication of my translations on the Internet and all my claims have already been satisfied by the fees paid. In addition, XY denied any copyright claims on my part. However, XY published the following passage on its homepage: XY's Internet pages are subject to copyright law. Regardless of whether they are for private or commercial purposes, they may only be copied, passed on, modified or used in extracts with the express written consent of XY. XY reserves all rights in this regard. XY also asserted the protection of the copyright law for translations of which it allegedly did not know the author and for the publication of which it had no rights. I was therefore forced to contact Dr. Alfred Noll, an experienced lawyer and proven expert in copyright and media law matters in Vienna (see Bibliography), to act as my representative. As well as that of Dr. If arguments presented to XY by letter did not lead to any insight on the part of the latter, a lawsuit against XY was brought to the Vienna Commercial Court. The mediating colleague joined the proceedings as secondary intervener 1 on the side of XY. Already at the first meeting of the meeting it was possible to reach a court settlement, on the basis of which the defendant XY undertook to pay me, as the plaintiff, an amount of EUR 7,000 in lump-sum damages for the misuse of my translations on the Internet (settlement copy of HG Vienna 11 Cg 199 / 08i of July 1, 2009). In view of the increasing use of translations on the Internet, the colleagues, which partly proves like the example of the colleague mentioned, who (although he did not appear at the hearing) can even go to court against a translator colleague and his legitimate claims and thus also against the professional interests of Translator appeared not to be aware of their rights, but it is recommended that they familiarize themselves with the provisions of the Austrian Copyright Act, which treats the translator in many respects like an author, and thus with the rights of the translator. In addition, it makes sense to assert your legitimate claims in the event of copyright infringements and not be afraid to seek legal or judicial help to enforce them. The present judicial settlement can be helpful or serve as a precedent. Literature: Noll, Alfred, Handbook on Translation Law and Translator Copyright, Verlag Österreich, ISBN: page.pl?id=14
17 UNIVERSITAS bulletin 3/09 17 CUSTOMER OF THE YEAR Nominate the customer of the year! Conditions of participation: - The recruiting translator / interpreter must be a member of UNIVERSITAS Austria at the time of nomination. - The recruiting translator / interpreter must have been working for the customer for at least 6 months at the time of nomination. - Members of the board are not allowed to submit nominations. The submission deadline is November 30th. To nominate a customer, we ask you to fill out the list of questions below and return it to UNIVERSITAS Austria by fax () or post (Gymnasiumstraße 50, 1190 Vienna). The jury, consisting of members of the board of UNIVERSITAS Austria, decides on the award of the prize and announces the decision in December 2009. The customer of the year receives a certificate, a gift and is invited to the award ceremony. A press release will be sent out for this purpose. The award will only be made with representative participation. Customer of the year questionnaire Your name What do you particularly appreciate about this customer? (Multiple answers possible) Type of job (exciting, varied, interesting, etc.) Name of the company / institution / private person you want to nominate Support with the translation (documents, information person, glossaries, answering questions) Correct and timely organizational processing Contact person ( if company / institution) Fee Punctual transfer of fee bills Since when have you been working for this company / institution / private person? (Please state the year) Personal contact Appreciation of your own work Recommendations to other companies / institutions In which area do you work for this customer? (Multiple answers possible) Other: Translating Interpreting Other work Last but not least, the most important question: In your opinion, what makes this customer stand out from others and why should he / she receive the Customer of the Year award?
18 18 UNIVERSITAS bulletin 3/09 Nominate the customer of the year! The submission deadline is November 30th. In order to nominate a customer, we ask you to fill out the questionnaire on the front page and return it to UNIVERSITAS Austria by email, fax () or post (Gymnasiumstraße 50, 1190 Vienna).
19 UNIVERSITAS Mitteilungsblatt 3/09 19 GUIDELINES FOR COOPERATION BETWEEN TRANSLATORS AND TRANSLATION SERVICE PROVIDERS Recommendations for cooperation between translators and translation service providers in accordance with the DIN EN standard drawn up by a joint committee of the BDÜ and QSD Prolog The good cooperation between translators and translation service providers who are liable to the end customer for the product translation within the meaning of the DIN EN standard (translation companies and translators working in networks) is of fundamental importance for the successful execution of translation projects.On the part of the translation service provider, in addition to the required linguistic and technical skills, the translators are expected to be professional and familiar with day-to-day business. On the part of the translator, in turn, the translation service provider expects an equally professional approach as well as ethical and business correct handling. Perhaps the interests of both partners appear to be opposing at first sight. On closer inspection, however, there is an indispensable need for both partners to complement each other in view of the common goal of ensuring the successful implementation of the project in the interests of the end customer and for everything else to be subordinate to this goal. The aim of these recommendations is not to dictate conditions or to intervene in the freedom of contract, but rather, based on experience, both on the part of the BDÜ and the QSD, to give some basic recommendations and suggestions that are useful in the daily cooperation of the partners Practice can be used. Contract agreements A clear written contract awarding the translator that covers all aspects of the project saves queries and unnecessary discussions. In detail: preparation of an offer and order / inquiry For the purpose of preparing an offer / for an inquiry, the translation service provider must provide the translator with the complete source text if possible. In principle, every assignment must always be preceded by an inquiry. Note: In the opinion of the BDÜ / QSD, unpaid trial translations are not an appropriate way of testing the skills of translators. When requesting / ordering the translation, the following must be agreed: - Information on the translation service provider (address, telephone number, address, etc.) - Subject area of the text - Scope of the text - Source and target language - Any additional services: Proofreading by third parties, certification, layout , Supplements, terminology work, etc. Note: Additional services that are not agreed upon in the order and that go beyond the usual extent, for example editorial changes or larger layout work, will be paid for separately. This remuneration is explicitly agreed between the translator and the project manager. Below you will find the full text of the guide for cooperation between translators and translation service providers, published by our German sister association BDÜ (Federal Association of Interpreters and Translators) and QSD (Quality Language Services in Germany). It shows how good cooperation between translation service providers in the sense of offices and translators in the sense of individual translators should and can work.
20 20 UNIVERSITAS Mitteilungsblatt 3/09 - Any references to be observed: Translation memory, glossary, (localized) software options, graphics, screenshots, pre-translations, style guidelines, etc. - If no references to be observed are agreed in the order, the customary industry conventions apply . The translation company must remunerate additional work due to the subsequent incorporation of references. Note If references are missing, it is useful to define standard references (certain dictionaries, Duden, etc.). - Purpose (does the translation serve the customer only for understanding, e.g. for tender documents, or should the translation be published?) - Price (source / target text) per word, line, hour, fuzzy match and full match, minimum order value, express / Weekend surcharge Note Any additional services should be taken into account in the price. Note Neither the BDÜ nor the QSD consider procedures that encourage price dumping, such as internet auctions, to be a professional practice. - Form of delivery: Fax,, Post, diskette, CD - Project start - Desired date / delivery date Note The delivery date should be agreed realistically, taking into account the level of difficulty of the source text and any additional services. - Terms of payment - If applicable, customer protection and confidentiality Note Customer protection and confidentiality agreements should correspond to the customary market conditions (no toggle contracts). - In the event of changes or corrections to the source text, the delivery date and price must be re-agreed. - Regular translators should preferably be used for specific end customers. If necessary, the translation company should offer training courses and workshops for translators. - If necessary, the translation company should provide special software at low cost. - Before placing an order, the translation company must check the source text for any difficulties such as file / DTP format, style, layout and terminology and inform the translator of these prior to ordering. Note The BDÜ / QSD do not consider the use of so-called bridge languages / pivot languages (translations of translations) to achieve price advantages to be a professional practice. Order confirmation In return, the translator confirms every order if he can and wants to accept it. From a legal point of view, the confirmation is relevant for both partners, because as long as there is no confirmation, no contract has been concluded. Project start At the start of the project, the translation service provider provides the translator with the source text as well as any references and instructions that are available or to be observed for everyone involved in the project. The translator will immediately notify the translation service provider of any technical difficulties (e.g. files cannot be read) or other ambiguities (e.g. in the instructions). Project handling It is assumed that both partners have mastered the generally recognized rules of professional handling (see standard DIN EN 15038) and that they also adhere to them.
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