What are the key qualifications in netball

School sports in Tanzania



1. School sport in the development context
1.1 Legitimation of school sport as a subject
1.2 Contribution of school sport to development cooperation
1.3 Critical voices on development cooperation in sport
2. Sport in Tanzania
2.1 Organization of sport in Tanzania - then and now
2.2 School and school sports in Tanzania
2.2.1 The education system in Tanzania
2.2.2 Situation of school sport in Tanzania

3. The Jambo Bukoba project
3.1 Project presentation and partners
3.2 Objectives of the Lifeskills through Games program
3.3 The workshop
4. Carrying out a qualitative evaluation
4.1 Limitation of the evaluation area
4.2 Problem definition and research questions
4.3 Rationale for the procedure
4.4 Methods of data collection
4.4.1 Guided interviews
4.4.2 Observations
4.5 Conducting the investigation
4.6 Quality of the data
5. Presentation and interpretation of the results
5.1 case studies
5.1.1 Karume Primary School
5.1.2 Katebenga Primary School
5.2 The SWOT analysis
5.2.1 Strengths
5.2.2 Weaknesses
5.2.3 Risks
5.2.4 Opportunities and development potential
5.3 Summary of the results
6. Principles of good implementation and recommendations for action
6.1 Principles of good implementation
6.2 Recommendations for further implementation
7. Summary and Outlook







"I want to learn and contribute my knowledge and expertise."[1] This is what it says in one of the first reports from Tanzania, in which the author of this work describes herself as a new intern in the club and sports development project Jambo Bukoba e.V.[2] has presented. Under the motto " Making children strong through sport " puts Jambo Bukoba e.V. campaign for children and young people in Tanzania. The stay in Tanzania convinced the author that the motto of the non-governmental association Jambo Bukoba e.V. is successfully implemented. Language barriers and cultural differences were considered to be Muzungu[3] to overcome. Despite these differences, it was astonishing for them to experience that it was possible to do sports together without any problems right from the start. " Umoja! "[4] it echoed again and again over the sports field.

In the countries of Europe, sport is an important part of the curriculum of every type of school. Much emphasis is placed on promoting the holistic development of every child through play and sport. The situation is different in many African countries; there is seldom a school sports structure. Because of this, the club Jambo Bukoba e.V. accepted the task to improve the situation of school sport in Tanzania and to offer the children and young people new opportunities and better prospects for the future. Founded Jambo Bukoba e.V. and the 2008 project of the same name by the Munich-based company C. Mulokozi and has been registered as a non-profit association in the Munich Register of Associations since 2009 (cf. Bauer, 2012, p. 48). C. Mulokozi is a native of Tanzania and spent the first years of his life there. In the course of dealing with his Tanzanian origins, he became aware of the backward situation of many children and young people in Tanzania. Especially those HIV / AIDS The problem made him very concerned. From his point of view, the simplest means of making children strong for future challenges was sport, which is the focus of the work of Jambo Bukoba e.V. (see Jambo Bukoba e.V., 2010, accessed on March 21, 2012 at http://www.jambobukoba.com/was-uns-ausmacht/philosophie-und-ziel.html). Today cares Jambo Bukoba e.V. in the Kagera region, in the northwest of the East African country, through the training and further education of sports teachers for sustainable development cooperation in the areas of health (HIV / AIDS - Education), equal opportunities for girls, education and sport (cf. ibid.). To that end, the Lifeskills through Games - Program designed to train PE teachers.

The processing of the importance of school sport in the development context as well as the situation of school sport in Tanzania represent the theoretical framework of the work. The contribution of school sport to development cooperation is worked out and analyzed with the help of literature. In order to emphasize the importance of this topic, the function and meaning of sport and movement for the holistic development of children are explained in a culture-related manner. School sport certainly has a different function in developing countries than in European countries, where teachers try to counteract the lack of exercise in children. The starting questions of this work are therefore:

- Why is school sport so important?
- What contribution does school sport make in development cooperation?
- How is school sport organized in Tanzania?
- Is there a national curriculum for school sports in Tanzania?

In addition to the analysis of the situational conditions in Tanzania, this work provides answers to the following central questions in the empirical part:

- How is the approach of the Lifeskills through Games program to be assessed?
- Which measures of this program are being implemented - where is there still a need for development?

Answers are obtained, among other things, through the qualitative project evaluation and project analysis of the Life Skills through Games - Given concept, which is explained in more detail in the empirical part of this work. The evaluation of the sport development concept Life Skills through Games is done with the help of a SWOT analysis[5]. For the evaluation of the Life Skills through Games - In the program, data was collected on site in Tanzania, in numerous guided interviews with teachers and school principals, through observations during the teacher workshops and through observations of lessons during the sports lessons. By analyzing and interpreting the results, suggestions for the further development of the Life Skills through Games - Developed program and recommendations for a successful implementation of the program in everyday school life. It is important to analyze the basis on which the successes of the past years are based, which project contents are useful or which have not proven themselves. The aim of this work is also the creation of a catalog of criteria that shows the conditions and criteria for a good implementation of the Lifeskills through games - the concept must be fulfilled.


1. School sport in a development context

Many German sports associations like the DFB[6], DLV[7], DTB[8] or DOSB[9] send experts to developing countries to further develop local sports structures .[10] Sport has become a recognized medium and instrument in development cooperation. Development cooperation generally includes measures[11]to promote economic and social progress in countries with a low income level (cf. Schubert and Klein, 2006, p.89). The term development cooperation emphasizes partnership-based cooperation and equality between donor and recipient countries.

"Development cooperation is usually linked to certain (political) conditions and generally aims to enable the beneficiary countries to forego development aid in the long term [...]." (Ibid., P. 89)

Government organizations or non-governmental organizations (NGOs). NGOs[12] are voluntary associations that are not dependent on the government. Jambo Bukoba e.V. works as a private NGOwhich is financed exclusively through membership fees and donations.

In the following chapter, the contribution of school sport to development cooperation is elaborated and highlighted. Furthermore, it is important to find out which legitimation basis physical education is based on. It should be made clear why the project Lifeskills through games focuses on improving school sports structures and why school sports or Physical education is so important for the holistic development of children. The following are the terms Physical education and school sport used synonymously. Physical education is an international term and describes the educational dimension of sport, exercise and play (cf. Haag, 2008, p.18). In addition to the analysis of the positive aspects that school sport can provide as a medium in development cooperation, at the end of the first chapter critical perspectives with regard to development cooperation in sport are shown.

1.1 Legitimation of school sport as a subject

In almost every country in the world, children have to go to school for a few years, including Tanzania. In this respect, there is a realistic possibility of offering all children access to sport, games and exercise, at least during their school days, provided Physical education is included in the curriculum or as an extra-curricular event in everyday school life. Today is manifesting Physical education primarily in physical education, health education and play education and should be integrated as a subject in the curriculum (cf. Haag & Haag, 2003, p.176). Studies have shown, however, that school sport is in a so-called legitimation crisis worldwide and is not sufficiently integrated into the curriculum in many countries, especially in developing countries such as Tanzania (see Hardman, 2008, p.4). The International Committee for Sport Pedagogy (ICSSPE)[13] conducted an international study on the status of physical education, which showed that physical education still lags behind other subjects and cannot be said to have an equivalent status (cf. 1st World Summit on Physical Education, 1999).

"Physical education was seen to have been pushed into a defensive position. It was suffering from decreasing curriculum time allocation, budgetary controls with inadequate financial, material and personnel resources; it had low subject status and esteem and was being ever more marginalized and undevalued by authorities. [...] in many countries physical education is not accepted on a par with seemingly superior academic concerned with developing child’s intellect. "(Hardman, 2008, p.1)

Historical reviews show that school sport began to be integrated into international and human rights structures as early as 1978. 1978 published the UNESCO[14] the International Charter of Physical Education and Sport, in the first article of which it is written:

"‘ Every human being has fundamental right to access to physical education and sport, which is essential for the full development of the personality ’" (UNESCO, 1978, p.2). This article also states: “Everyone must have full opportunities, in accordance with his national tradition of sport, for practicing physical education and sport [...]” (ibid., P. 2). In article two of the UNESCO International Charter of Physical Education and Sport becomes Physical education referred to as an essential element of education and culture (cf. ibid., p.2). This statute makes sport and Physical Education a fundamental right and a universal human right. A holistic, emancipatory effect is ascribed to sport here (see Rockenfeller, 2009, p.25). These specifications also support the understanding that sport can help promote the development and education of children around the world. There loud U.N.[15] all school subjects have the same status and sport is naturally one of them, this already results in a basic legitimation basis for school sport as an essential element of qualified education.

A legitimation of school sport as a subject is based on three sub-points. The U.N. -Sports officer Adolf Ogi regards sport as the “best school in life”, as it teaches skills and values ​​that are essential for our social life and social cohesion (cf. Verein zur Förder der Entwicklungspolitischen Publizistik e.V., 2005, p.2). This primarily means key qualifications[16]. Furthermore, sport offers equal opportunities, the same conditions and opportunities for all participants regardless of their gender, social background, skills and abilities (cf. UNO, 2003, p.8f.). In addition, was Physical education the only subject where students can gain physical experience with and through their own bodies. This is how students should develop an awareness of their bodies and physical health. From the report Sport for Development and Peace the U.N. It is clear that from an educational point of view, the values ​​and skills shown in Table 1 can be promoted and conveyed through sport.

Table 1. Possible values ​​and skills that can be imparted through sport (cf. Haag, 2008, p.89)

Figure not included in this excerpt

Anthropological approaches to legitimacy indicate that regardless of whether or not doing sports is beneficial to a person's health, the anatomical and physiological blueprint of a person is geared towards and dependent on movement. Hague (2008) goes even further by saying that exercise and sport are basic needs of every individual: "Moving and Play can be understood as primary motives of human beings besides, eating, drinking, engaging sexually and exerting power" (ibid., p. 18). Hardman (2009) came to the conclusion that Physical Education be...

"[...] the only school subject, which seeks to prepare children for a healthy lifesytyle and focuses on their overall physical and mental development, as well as imparting important social values ​​such as fairness, self-discipline, solidarity, team spirit, tolerance and fair play [...]. "(ibid., p.3)

As a result, exercise, play and sport are part of a holistic education and support for students, as body, mind and soul are addressed at the same time.

1.2 Contribution of school sport to development cooperation

In addition to the great potential of sport to promote the holistic development of children and young people, its importance as an instrument for promoting social development and for creating peace has become a global movement.

“Sport can be used as a tool for human, social and economic development. It can help to achieve development goals such as poverty reduction, basic health, promotion of youth, equality for the disabled, gender equality or peace. "(Association for the promotion of development policy journalism e.V., 2005, p.9f.)

Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations, describes the effects of sport as follows: "Sport is a universal language that can bring people together, no matter what their origin, background, religios beliefs or econimic status" (Annan, 2005, accessed December 22 2011 at http://www.un.org/sport2005). In 2002 he set up a working group with the purpose of examining the role of sport as a tool for development and peace and for achieving that established in 2000 Millennium Development Goals[17] to be investigated (see Association for the Promotion of Development Policy Publication e.V., 2005, p.2). Members of this working group, the UN Inter-Agency Task Force on Sport for Development and Peace, representatives are more numerous U.N- Organizations, including the UNESCO, the UNICEF[18] and des WHO[19]. In 2003 the UN Inter-Agency Task Force on Sport for Development and Peace their report Sport for Development and Peace: Towards Achieving the Millennium Development Goals, in which she summarizes again what contribution sport to achieving the Millennium Development Goals can achieve (see UN Interagency Task Force on Sport for Development and Peace, 2003). According to the UN Interagency Task Force on Sport for Development and Peace Sport has the potential to make a cost-effective contribution to achieving the societal level Millennium Development Goals to perform (cf. ibid., p.3). Since the present work primarily deals with school sport and physical education in the development context, only three of the eight should be mentioned here Millennium Development Goals that are relevant for the present work and with the association's goals of Jambo Bukoba e.V. correspond.

The Realization of general primary education is the second the UN Millennium Development Goals (see Association for the Promotion of Development Journalism e.V., 2005, p.3). Sport, as an essential element of qualified education, is of course a component of general primary education. The contribution of school sport to achieving this goal could be firstly to make school more attractive to young people, to give children an incentive to attend school regularly and to encourage them to enroll in school.Second, school sport can help motivate children to attend school regularly and promote school performance (see SDP IWG[20], 2008, p.83).

The Promote gender equality and empower women is the third Millennium Development Goal in the report of U.N. listed and also one of the overarching goals of the association Jambo Bukoba e.V. (cf. ibid., p.83). Equal opportunities ensure equality, which means that boys and girls are placed on an equal footing that enables them to practice sport together. Important foundations for equal promotion of boys and girls can be laid in physical education in particular. Concrete goals of co-education[21] In physical education lessons are learning to deal with each other in a spirit of partnership, more opportunities for social interaction, the promotion of social behavior and the reduction of gender priorities (cf. ibid., p.83). It is also important to abolish the understanding of sport, which is differentiated into male and female according to hierarchical standards, and to encourage girls to assert individual interests (cf. ibid., P.83). “More access for women and girls to physical education and sport helps them to develop trust and to integrate more socially” (Association for the Promotion of Development Political Journalism e.V., 2005, p.3).

The Combating HIV / AIDS and Malaria is the sixth of the Millennium Development Goals and another important club goal of Jambo Bukoba e.V. (see ibid., p.3).

“Sport can reach sections of the population that are otherwise difficult to reach and carry messages about disease prevention. With its inclusive character and its mostly informal structures, sport can effectively contribute to overcoming stigmata and prejudices about HIV and AIDS and to improving social integration. "(Ibid., P.3)

Furthermore, information about HIV / AIDS and their prevention are conveyed (cf. SDP IWG, 2008, p.83). According to Farmer (2012), the medium of sport is a new way of doing educational work (cf. ibid., P.1).

Exercise and sport promote the physical and mental health of people. Children and adolescents should be shown positive role models and aspects of a health-conscious life (see SDP IWG, 2008, p.83). Exercising regularly has positive effects on the whole body. It strengthens the immune, cardiovascular and circulatory systems and helps to alleviate the course of common diseases in developing countries, such as malaria, typhoid, cholera and AIDS.

Sport also promotes a sense of togetherness. Physical education gives children the feeling of forming a unit together and being able to achieve something together. According to Hardman (2009) applies Physical Education as “[…] the most important tool of social integration” (ibid., p.3). That was another important step in communicating the contribution that sport makes to development International Year of Sports and Physical Education (IYSPE 2005) (see BMI[22], 2006). Sport can make a contribution to the achievement of the global development goals, because "Sport and physical education are excellent, influential, pragmatic and inexpensive instruments for promoting peace and international understanding, dialogue, integration, education and health [...]" (International Year of Sport and Physical Education, 2005, accessed on

April 19, 2012 at http://uno-jahrdessports.de/The_Power_of_Sport.8.0.html). This source also states:

“Sport has enormous potential to promote the development of civil society in the countries and the development of a global society. Sport has a very high potential for mobilization, both on an individual and on a social level. " (International Year of Sport and Physical Education, 2005, accessed on April 19, 2012 at http://uno-jahrdessports.de/Sport_und_Entwick.11.0.html)

The contribution that the further development of school sport can also make to general sporting progress is considerable. The further development of school sport in many African countries between 1970 and 1990 contributed enormously to advancing the general situation of sport in Africa (cf. Amusa et al., 1999, p.336). Key observers have recognized that countries in which there were well-developed sports training programs in schools were also successful in sports outside the school as an institution, for example Kenya, Ghana or South Africa (cf. ibid., P.336).

1.3 Critical voices on development cooperation in sport

Some experts criticize the programs of sport development aid for the fact that modern sport, which originated in Western culture, can probably only be realized in this culture and society. In a figurative sense, this would mean that sport development aid that tries to implement European sport structures in Africa does not make sense, since general European structures do not exist (cf. Andresen, 1989, p.24ff.). The original culture of Tanzania differs significantly from the western way of life. There are other social values, manners and customs. Movement is part of everyday life and is integrated into life. So it is not surprising that the culture of sport and exercise is very different from the western one and has developed differently (cf. ibid., P.206). Another point of criticism from some experts is that European states often focus on their own political and economic interests when it comes to sport development aid.

"[...] the assertion of one's own interests, goals and national egoisms (ie one's own advantages) excludes the humanistic auxiliary motive, because the political interests of Europe cannot and should not be the political interests of Africa." (Ibid., P.25)

From the perspective of Andresen (1989), sport development aid in Africa primarily promotes Africa's political and economic dependence on Europe. Andresen (1989) suggests that European sport development aid should subordinate itself to African interests. He mentions the following African interests:

"[...] those sport-political and sport-structural measures that contribute domestically to developing or potentiating a national identification process, and which make a foreign policy contribution to equal opportunities in world sport and to a higher diplomatic and political reputation for the countries of the Third World to help in the world. "(ibid., p.29)

The independence and peculiarities of the African movement culture should be emphasized and promoted instead of copying European sport. "Every continental body culture should confidently make its contribution to the development process of world sport [...]" (ibid., P.29). Often traditional forms of movement are hardly taken into account in development projects. Development experts are therefore calling for greater attention to and integration of traditional movement cultures in development cooperation (cf. Bauer, 2004, p.85). Europe could have a supportive effect insofar as attempts were made to use European funds to develop a sports system in which the characteristics of the various physical cultures come to the fore and thus promote national identity. The integration of health-oriented recreational sport and the demilitarization of school sport are at the top of the list of priorities for sport development cooperation (cf. Andresen, 1989, p.30f.). Andresen (1989) proposes a synthesis between traditional and modern forms of movement and cultures in both projects. Farmer (2004) provides initial suggestions of how such a synthesis might look. He suggests developing sporty forms of traditional movement culture in order to make them more attractive (cf. Bauer, 2004, p.86). The same structures do not necessarily have to be established as in Europe. A fusion between elements of sport from African countries and European countries can also become a special form of intercultural communication (see ibid., Pp. 30f.). According to Andresen (1989) can only support one sport Helping people help themselves if it is adapted to the conditions of the country and the needs of its inhabitants. It names certain priorities on which the promotion of sport, especially the promotion of school sport, should focus: the further development and implementation of school sport, which also includes the training of qualified sport teachers in suitable training centers, and the qualification of staff at the school and sport administration level[23] (cf. ibid., p.251ff.).

"To ensure that 'development through sport' is not hegemonic, the focus must be on framework conditions, values, goals and approaches in the recipient country." (Association for the Promotion of Development Policy Journalism e.V., 2005, p.10)

If sport is to be used as an instrument of development cooperation, then the culture of a country and specific problems must be taken into account. It is important to consider the social context and the available resources and to include them in project planning and in certain measures within the framework of development cooperation (cf. Bauer, 2004, p.67). Regarding the sports development project Jambo Bukoba would that be, for example, the traditional culture of movement in East Africa.

2. Sport in Tanzania

Tanzania is a developing country[24] and has one of the lowest prosperity indicators in the world. The HDI[25] is an index for a country's human development and is measured by its basic performance[26]. Life expectancy at birth, the level of education (adult literacy rate and total school enrollment rate) and income are used as variables for the calculation as indicators of an adequate standard of living (see Bauer, 2004, p.43). Out of 187 countries, Tanzania ranks 152nd in the list of prosperity indicators (cf. Right to Play, 2008, p.1). Life expectancy is 58.2 years. The literacy rate of all residents older than 15 years is 72.9% and the total enrollment rate is 56.6%. The average per capita income is $ 1.3 per day[27] (see United Nations Development Program, 2012, accessed April 19, 2012 at http://www.hdrstats.undp.org).

AIDS Alongside malaria, it is the biggest health-related problem in Tanzania, which has an impact on the social structure as well as the development of the country and the sports system. The official HIV- The infection rate in 2006 was around 6.5% with a downward trend (see Chappell, 2007, p.155). Here is the HIV - The prevalence among women is significantly higher than that of men. HIV / AIDS is considered in African societies as Women's disease (see Bauer, 2012, p.5). A total of approximately 1.4 million people, including 110,000 children and adolescents under the age of 15, are with the HI virus infected, which limits their possibilities and abilities to go to school and take part in physical education (cf. Chappell, 2011, p.6.). Around 140,000 people die every year AIDS (see ibid., p.6) . The government currently has an annual budget of US $ 62 million to combat AIDS and lowering the HIV Rate used (see ibid., P.6). This enormous sum reduces the resources that could ultimately also be used for the development of the sport. Investigations of Farmer (2012) on this issue revealed that there are large gaps in knowledge regarding the transfer and handling of HIV / AIDS exist in all strata of the population (see Bauer, 2012, p.7).[28]

2.1 Organization of sport in Tanzania - then and now

Doing sport in Africa is not comparable to doing sport in Europe. This is related to the problems and characteristics of the country explained in the introduction to this chapter and the difficult framework conditions in developing countries in which the sport is practiced. In Tanzania, school sport and recreational sport have to be subordinate to the external conditions. On the one hand, this means the tropical conditions with high temperatures and high humidity. On the other hand, however, the nutritional situation and the nutritional supply also play a major role. Malnutrition and water scarcity, which limit intensive training, are a reason why Tanzanian athletes were rarely able to celebrate international successes (cf. Andresen, 1989, pp.205f.). Tanzania first took part in the Tokyo Olympics in 1964, but with moderate success. At the Olympic Games in Beijing in 2008, none of the eight Tanzanian athletes won a medal. Nevertheless, sport has always played an important role in African society. Rjordian (1986) aptly summarizes the role of sport in developing countries:

"Sport in developing countries is a serious function to perform. It is state controlled (with) specific utilitarian and ideological designs, associated with hygiene, health, defense, patriotism, integration, productivity, international recognition, even cultural identity and nation building. Sport therefore, often has the quite revolutionary role of being an agent of social change, with the stare as a pilot. "(Ibid., P.334)

According to Chappell (2007) three historical events influenced the overall development of sport in Tanzania: British and German colonization[29], the struggle for independence[30] and the establishment of Tanzania as a socialist state (cf. ibid., p.143). Representatives of the colonial powers brought modern, western sport to Africa.[31] During colonization and the struggle for independence, sporting events were used by the government to communicate national government strategies and to convince the population of their political line.

"Sport, and football in particular was seen as a medium for communication national policies to the sporting population as all sports members had to become members of the associated political parties to discus liberation struggles." (Ibid., P.144)

Sport had become an instrument to promote national cohesion and to demonstrate national strength against the colonial powers. In 1967 that became National Sports Council (NSC) established to finally bring the sport under government control. All sports organizations and control over the sports sector were the responsibility of this institution (cf. ibid., P.144). 1970 became a national organization[32] set up for traditional games, sports and dances so that these are not displaced by modern sports (cf. ibid., p.148). Rhythm games, dances and drums[33] still play an important role today and are an integral part of traditional East Africa culture. Many East African tribes such as the Maasai look back on a diverse sports culture and sports tradition (cf. Amusa et al., 1999, p.81). Nevertheless, traditional forms of exercise are less important than the most popular sports, soccer for men and netball for women (cf. Chappel, 2011, p.5).

Today is that National Sports Council of Tanzania (NSC) a facility of Ministry of Information, Culture and Sport (see Chappell, 2007, p.149). The area of ​​responsibility of the NSC is sport development, social sport and high-performance sport (cf. Bauer, 2012, p.13). Though that NSC was founded with financial support from the government, every sport sector is dependent on sponsorship money in order to realize its own programs. Leonard Thadeo, Secretary General of the NSC explains:

"The sports federations founded themselves to promote a specific sport in Tanzania, the government nor the NSC did not develop individual sport federations. Therefore, they need to develop their own programs and raise revenue-they can apply to the NSC for funds and guidance in administration. But they do not receive direct revenue from us nor from the government. " (Chappell, 2007, p.149)

This clearly shows the passive attitude of the government when it comes to the (further) development of the sports system in Tanzania. There is almost no or little collaboration and cooperation between the Ministry of Information, Culture and Sport and the NSC. To this day, that is NSC responsible for 34 sports. It supports them and works to arouse national interest in the development of sport in Tanzania. Above all, equal conditions should be created for women and men to take part in sports (cf. Chappell, 2007, p.150). There is currently a lack of opportunities for women to take part in sporting events (cf. ibid., P.150). According to Massao and Fasting (2003) Sport is a male domain in Tanzania. Of the 34 sports under the umbrella of the NSC Netball is the only sport designated for women (see Chappel, 2007, p.150). Outside of school there is virtually no facility where women can participate in sports activities.The traditional dress code alone makes it difficult for Muslim women to take part in such leisure activities (cf. ibid., P.150). This gender problem exists in many East African countries, in Kenya as well as in Tanzania.

"[...] research shows that simply being female influences social status, life changes and lifestyles. [...] In most cultures, male roles have been given more predominance and value than female ones. This differentiation brought about a social problem of a dominant-subordinate relationship between the genders. "(Mc Pherson et al., 1989, p.320)

According to Theberge (1994), sport as a gender-specific and cultural form is characterized by inequality and gender segregation. In addition, men dominate senior positions in national sports organizations and ministries. Although sport is an important cultural asset in most East African countries, and is recognized as such and supported by a large part of the population, the low presence of women both as active athletes and in managerial positions in sport shows that they are largely excluded from it . According to Amusa (1999), this segregation is caused by thinking in the classical distribution of roles and the view that sporting and physical activities tend to require masculine characteristics such as power and strength.

The country depends on international aid for the further development of the sports system in Tanzania. The United Nations was founded in 2002 the Sport for Development and Peace International Working Group (see Chappell, 2007, p.151). The aim of this initiative was:

"[...] engage and work with national governments on policy recommendations to support the integration of sport and physical activity into their national and international development strategies." (Campbell, 2006, p.2)

At the national level, it should work with governments in developing countries and develop a strategy for integrating sport into national development programs. One of these programs in Tanzania is Elimu, Michezo na Mazaoezi[34] (EMIMA) (see ibid. p.2).

"The basic principle of EMIMA is: '[...] to provide young people from the poorest communities with opportunities to take part in sport and to develop lifeskills to deal with issues such as HIV / AIDS, gender inequalities, education and employment' . "(Bauer, 2012, p.37)

In this project, sport is an instrument to promote the development of young people and a sense of community, but also to discuss topics such as HIV / AIDS to enlighten.

2.2 School and school sports in Tanzania

As a background for the organization and the situation of school sports in Tanzania, the education system in Tanzania is first described at this point.

2.2.1 The education system in Tanzania

Two ministries are responsible for coordinating the education sector, " the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training " and "The Ministry of Information, Youth, Culture and Sports" (The United Republic of Tanzania, 2005, accessed March 20, 2012 at http://www.tanzania.go.tz/ministriesf.html). The education system in Tanzania is based on the British school system. There is general compulsory schooling for all children (see Foreign Office, 2012, accessed on January 10, 2012 at http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/DE/Aussenpolitik/Laender/Laenderinfos/Tansania/KulturUndBildungspolitik_node.html). The children in Tanzania go to elementary school for seven years and then to secondary school for four or six years, as this is divided into two training phases (see Bauer, 2012, p.16). After the first four years, if students successfully complete the Ordinary level reached. After that, there is an optional two years of secondary school to follow Advanced level to obtain (see Bauer, 2012, p.16). After completing the Ordinary levels or des Advanced levels the students receive a national certificate and thus a state-recognized school leaving certificate. However, they are only available after the Advanced levels qualified to attend university or college. In Tanzania, English is taught from the first grade in addition to the national language Kiswahili (see Foreign Office, 2012, accessed on January 10, 2012 at http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/DE/Aussenpolitik/Laender/Laenderinfos/ Tanzania / KulturUndBildungspolitunggspektiven_node.html). Private schools as well as secondary schools teach all subjects in English. In state schools, the other subjects are taught in the national language Kiswahili. Figure 1 shows an overview of the general goals for school education in Tanzania.

Figure not included in this excerpt

Fig. 1. General objectives of the education system in Tanzania (see Ministry of Education and Vocational Training, 2005, p.3)

Education in state schools is free. The payment of school fees is not mandatory (see Bauer, 2012, p.16). Nevertheless, only 60% of school-age children in Tanzania attend primary school (cf. Chappell, 2007, p.143). Studies have shown that older girls in particular have little chance of going to school. Instead, they have to look after their siblings and help their parents in the household (see International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, 2006, p.7). Overall, only 5% of all pupils attend secondary school after primary school (cf. Chappell, 2007, p.143). Obtaining a qualified education and the chance to attend school are mainly limited by infrastructural deficiencies.

"Although compulsory education is granted for seven years, there are inadequate numbers of schools, teachers and books due to a lack of financial resources. Very few children continue their education after primary school. "(International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, 2006, p.8)

The following table 2 shows examples of significant infrastructural deficiencies in primary schools in Bukoba city. These shortcomings mainly result from the very limited financial resources used by the national government to improve the school infrastructure.

Tab. 2. Infrastructural deficiencies in primary schools in Bukoba (see United Nations Human Settlements Program, 2004, p.7)

Figure not included in this excerpt

Far-reaching reforms began in the education sector in 1995. The main intention of these innovations was to guarantee all children and adults adequate access to qualified education (see Foreign Office, 2012, accessed on January 10, 2012 at http://www.auswaertigesamt.de/DE/Aussenpolitik/Laender/ Country information / Tanzania / Kultur-UndBildungspolitik_node.html). In 1997 the government developed one for this purpose Basic Education Master Plan (see ibid.). In January 2011, the president resigned Kikwete announced plans to double government spending on education in the coming budget year. At the same time, the second phase of the Secondary Education Development Program[35] initiated with the aim of improving the quality of education and more teachers[36] to train (cf. ibid.). During the first phase[37] Success was achieved in increasing the school enrollment rate and building additional schools.

2.2.2 Situation of school sport in Tanzania

Today's physical education in many African countries is mostly characterized by structures that come close to military drill (cf. Andresen, 1989, p.28). During the colonial period, physical education was part of the canon of subjects. The focus was on training African soldiers (see Bauer, 2012, p.25). These structures have survived to this day. If physical education takes place, one rarely observes spontaneous creativity, joy of movement or traditional forms of movement (cf. Andresen, 1989, p.28). These and other circumstances gave rise to a worldwide survey on the status of Physical Education to be commissioned. It was dated in 1990 International Council for Sport Science and Physical Education (ICSSPE) with the support of International Olympic Committee (IOC) carried out (see Hardman, 2008, p.1). The aim was to uncover differences between curricular requirements and objectives and their implementation in practice, but also to identify deficiencies in the implementation within the curriculum (cf. ibid., P.1). The following results largely relate to the entire African continent, but can be seen as largely exemplary for Tanzania.

Physical education is viewed as an insignificant subject in most African countries and, as a school subject, is usually not anchored in the timetable. "Regional data indicate that across all regions except Europe, in practice physical education is considered to have lower status than other subjects: [...]" (Hardman, 2009, p.7). Many school principals vacate academic[38] Subjects a higher priority and often do not recognize the potential and the possibilities of this subject, sport, which favor the development of the pupils. (see Chappell, 2011, p.1). According to Hardman (2009) has Physical Education only in 20% of all African countries have the same status as the other school subjects (cf. ibid., p.1). Physical Education Units are often canceled for inexplicable reasons (see 2nd World Summit in Physical Education, 2005, p.4). Although physical education is on the schedule, many teachers continue to teach theoretical subjects. The setting that Physical Education Wasting time is widespread. This attitude is reinforced by the fact that Physical Education is not an examination subject and is therefore often classified as less relevant by many school principals (cf. Amusa et al., 1999, p.335ff.). The opinions on whether and how Physical Education Should and can be integrated into everyday school life are still very divided. Cat's elbow (1994) explains how these divergent views came about as follows:

"The positive impression is often the result of a deep conviction of the worth of physical education on the part of knowledgeable teachers, who are totally committed to providing pupils with a relevant, enriching, thoroughly and progressively planned, dynamically taught and effectively managed programs. The negative impression, on the hand, is often the result of a narrow, boring or "keep-them-Busy", sporadic programs run by unqualified, uninspired, perhaps lazy or over-worked teachers. "(Katzellenbogen, 1994, p. 335)

As a result, school sport is not a natural part of the respective national curriculum. Studies of Hardman (2009) show that only in 40% of all African countries Physical Education is mandatory in the curriculum (cf. ibid., p.5). 66% of all African countries complain about limited possibilities and means to carry out school sports (cf. ibid., P.13). Many schools simply do not have the ability to provide good quality physical education because they do not have a sports field. In addition, the lack of qualified teachers is a widespread problem across the entire continent (see 2nd World Summit in Physical Education, 2005, p.12). As early as 1978 in the UNESCO International Charter on Physical Education and Sport Captured findings call on governments in developing countries to recognize and understand that a good Physical Education -Concept primarily depends on qualified, well-trained teachers and a sufficient scope in the curriculum (cf. UNESCO, 1978, p.3).

The situation in Tanzania is exemplary. The large number of deficiencies shows that school sport seems almost impossible in most schools. A volunteer describes the situation of Physical Education at his school in Tanzania as follows:


[1] Excerpt from a report by the author, accessed on March 21, 2012 at http://www.jambobukoba.com/blog/2011/08/.html

[2] "Jambo" means "Hello, how are you?" Bukoba is the capital of the Kagera region.

[3] Expression for white woman in Kiswahili

[4] In Kiswahili: one team

[5] S-Strengths - Strengths, W-Weaknesses - Weaknesses, O-Opportunities - Opportunities, T-Threats - Risks

[6] German Football Association

[7] German Athletics Association

[8] German Gymnastics Federation

[9] German Olympic Sports Association

[10] For example, the long-term project of the DOSB for the development of athletics in Tanzania has been running since February 2008 (see DOSB, 2008, accessed on March 20, 2012 at http://www.dosb.de/de/sportentwicklung/internationales/olympic_tansania,property= Data.pdf).

[11] These measures can be various forms of support and funding: technical assistance and cooperation (advice, education), aid to goods (capital goods, food, etc.), capital aid (loans), trade policy cooperation (e.g. price stabilization) (cf. Schubert and Klein, 2006 , P.89).

[12] Non-Governmental Organizations

[13] The World Council for Sports Science and Physical Education was founded in Paris in 1958. Almost 250 sports and sports science organizations and institutions are now ICSSPE members.

[14] United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

[15] United National Organizations

[16] E.g. dealing with victory and defeat, respecting rules, getting to know yourself and your own limits better, see Table 1.

[17] At the Millennium Summit in New York in 2000, the 189 member states of the United Nations agreed on 8 Millennium Development Goals, which should be implemented by 2015. Sport and physical education can, depending on the objective, contribute directly or indirectly to achieving the objectives and promote economic and social developments through sport.

[18] United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund

[19] World Health Organization

[20] Sport for Development and Peace International Working Group

[21] The common upbringing of boys and girls

[22] Federal Ministry of the Interior

[23] Sports Officer and Education Officer

[24] Developing country is a collective term for countries whose (economic-technical) level of development and the associated (social) standard of living is (very) low (cf. Schubert and Klein, 2006, p.89).

[25] Human Development Index

[26] The most basic achievements of human empowerment are living a long life, having knowledge and an adequate standard of living (see United Nations Development Program, 2012, accessed April 19, 2012 at http://www.hdrstats.undp.org ).

[27] For comparison in Germany: life expectancy at birth: 80.4 years, average income per capita per day: $ 34.9

[28] A more detailed discussion of the HIV / AIDS problem in Tanzania would go beyond the scope of this work. Further information on this can be found in Bauer (2012).

[29] Until 1918, today's Tanzania belonged to the colony of German East Africa. The German colonial era in East Africa ended in World War I when British and Belgian troops occupied the country. From 1919 to 1961 it was a British mandate of the League of Nations and the United Nations (accessed on April 23, 2012 at http://www.tansania-partulum.de).

[30] Tanganyika achieved full independence on December 9, 1961. Julius Nyerere was elected President. After the merger with Zanzibar in 1964, it was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania (accessed April 23, 2012 at http://www.tansania-partulum.de).

[31] In 1920, modern football was introduced by foreign military and police officers. In 1922, a European team met an all-African team for the first time. This meeting is still seen today as a milestone in the development of football culture in Tanzania. It was the impetus for the establishment of the Dar es Salaam Football League in 1929 (see Chappell, 2007, p.14).

[32] Abbreviated in Kiswahili as CHAMIJATA

[33] Ngoma: hand drum in Kiswahili

[34] Education, sports and training

[35] SEDP II, 2011

[36] The masculine form of persons used in this work also includes the feminine in the further course.

[37] SEDP I, until 2009

[38] e.g. mathematics, science or languages ​​etc.

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