Why do submarines have sails?

The tour outside:

D.he remains of the wreck of the 'Albertus' shown do not represent the original length of the ship.For reasons of space, about 10 meters had to be 'saved'. The gaff schooner was built in 1858. Just six years later, in 1864, it sank after a collision in the Elbe. It was found in 1984 and cleared as an obstacle to navigation. It represents a type of sailing ship that in the last century, despite its small size, sailed the seas from Europe all over the world. The remains of wood found by the 'Albertus' show that its builders had to use oak sparingly. They had to use not only sheer trunk wood, but also grown, crooked branch wood. In the middle of the last century, the precious wood material for shipbuilding became scarce. The consequences of excessive deforestation of the oak forests in our latitudes made themselves felt.

W.rack barrel with chain and a boulder as a basic attachment. The bin was formerly used as a warning sign in the immediate vicinity of the 'Albertus' wreck. Presumably it was damaged by ice drift and sank. She was found again when the 'Albertus' wreck was cleared. This type of wooden barrel encased in iron rings, so-called ice barrel, was only laid out in winter. Until the turn of the century, wooden barrels in various shapes and designs were in use on the Elbe as marking symbols.

'Hhasty St. Antonius' figurehead of a Portuguese sailor (copy - the original is in the German Maritime Museum in Bremerhaven) who sank in the North Sea during World War I. The figure floating in the water fished up a ship of the Imperial Navy and brought it to Cuxhaven.

R.Lifeboat of the 'Seki Rolette' (unfortunately not pictured). After a collision with the 'Choyang Moscow' in the Weser estuary on April 23, 1992, the Panamanian ro-ro freighter 'Seki Rolette' sank so quickly that its crew could only escape by jumping into the water. Despite exemplary rescue operations from various sides, any help came too late for five seafarers on the 'Seki Rolette'. The unused lifeboat was 'fished up' some time after the accident in front of the mouth of the Weser and brought to Cuxhaven. Since the wreck of the Ro-Ro freighter represented a dangerous obstacle to shipping, the authorities had it lifted by a German-Dutch salvage community in October 1992. The 'Seki Rolette' finally came to an end in a Turkish scrapping yard.

Turm and propeller of the engl. Submarine 'E-24'The English submarine sank a few miles north of Heligoland after being hit by a mine in 1916. The 34-man crew was killed. The entrance hatch of the tower, made entirely of gunmetal and sheathed with sheet brass, was found open during the salvage in 1974. It suggests that the boat received the fatal hit during a surface voyage. The two propellers must have turned on the seabed during the sinking. The strong curvature of the flanks suggests this. (Further exhibits and explanations about the submarine 'E-24' in room D).

Pair torpedo (not shown) (warhead missing). The torpedo was recovered in 1984 from a German torpedo boat wreck (World War I) lying in the German Bight. During the First World War, the torpedoes that were shot down were self-propelled by a compressed air motor, which converted the compressed air (150 atmospheres) into screw motion.

R.uderblatt der 'Vandalia' (Unfortunately no picture) The blade was part of a so-called shaft rudder system. This type of steering gear is now technically obsolete and is rarely used in seafaring. The 'Vandalia', with 6000 tons of general cargo from Hamburg to South America, sank in 1912 after a collision in the Elbe. In 1977/78 the wreck of the ship was cleared. (More exhibits from the 'Vandalia' in room E.)

D.German small combat two-man submarine of the 'Seehund' type from World War II. Presumably it was used as a school boat and sunk in the Baltic Sea at the end of the war. In 1981 the wreck of the boat was lifted and restored.
- MMaximum deep diving ability of this type of boat: 25 to 30 meters.
- B.Armament: 2 externally attached torpedoes.
- E.Deployment of up to 3 days.
A.At the end of 1944 the 'seals' came into action, mainly in the southern North Sea. The losses were alarmingly high (from a mission with 18 boats from Imuiden / Holland, only 3 boats returned), but the successes were modest: the sinking of a number of merchant steamers with a total of approx. 120,000 GRT and a warship. GRT = gross register tons = space content of a ship.

10.5 cm rapid fire cannon The cannon, built by the Krupp / Essen company, was formerly part of the armament of the small cruiser 'Cöln'. In August 1914, English battleships sank the cruiser in the German Bight. The cannon was recovered during salvage work on the wreck of the 'Cöln' in 1983. (Further exhibits of the cruiser 'Cöln' in the hallway on the 2nd floor.)

Turm (section) of the English submarine 'Starfish'. Probably torn down from the wreck of the boat by towed fishing nets, the tower was found and recovered in 1989, lying in the sand near the hull of the boat. It was not previously intended as a pressure hull. While diving the boat it was flooded (filled with water). According to reports from the British Admiralty, the submarine 'Starfish' was together with the boats 'Undine' and 'Seahorse' on a mission in the southern North Sea in January 1940. All three boats were lost. The 'Starfish' on January 9, 1940 in the Helgoland Bay. The Germans were able to save the crew. Navy lifting vehicles tried in vain to recover the wreck of the 'Starfish' from a depth of 30 m. In March 1940 one gave up the effort.

M.branch stump and windlass. The remains of the mast and winch come from the wreck of the English cargo steamer 'Kaffraria', which ran aground in January 1891 in the Elbe near Otterndorf. A few days after being stranded, the ship sank to the superstructure. Shortly afterwards, a strong ice drift literally 'shaved' off almost all parts of the wreck that were still sticking out of the water, including. also the foremast, the stump of which can be seen here. (Further exhibits from the 'Kaffraria' in the hallway on the 1st floor.)

S.chimney-shipping company sign 'DLL'-Deutsche-Levante-Linie (not shown). The shipping company was founded by Hamburg merchants and shipowners on September 6th, 1889. It operated with interruptions until 1967 shipping lines in the Levant (Mediterranean, Black Sea). The issued chimney shipping company sign comes from the DLL steamer 'Chios', which sank in the Elbe in 1944 after being hit by a mine. Its wreck, an obstacle to shipping, has since been cleared.

E.in stick anchor consists of an iron shaft (handle) with two flukes (arms) and a stick made of wood or iron. When anchoring, a fluk digs into the seabed. The stick causes the anchor to remain in this position. The stick anchor was in use in seafaring for almost 3000 years. Archaeological finds show that the first of their kind were stone-weighted wooden crosses. One of the numerous further developments brought among other things. a wooden structure tied with rope and a stick hewn from stone.D.he transition from stick anchors made of wood, stone and lead to pure iron stick anchors took place over many centuries. With the appearance of the much more practical patent anchor at the end of the last century, the era of the stick anchor ended. Today this type of anchor is rarely used. Dutch shipbuilders of the 17th century found a calculation formula with which the required weight and size of a stokanker for the respective ship (according to the length and width of the ship) could be calculated. Today, as a so-called reverse conclusion, when a stick anchor is found, this formula often gives the first clues as to which ship the anchor once belonged to.

D.he iron propeller of the passenger steamer 'Cimbria'.The Hamburg passenger steamer had the screw on board as a reserve screw. During salvage work on the ship's wreck in 1983, it was recovered with the help of the German Navy. The Austrian Josef Ressel invented the propeller around 1825. In 1827 he received a patent for it. From the principle of the worm thread of a meat grinder, he had developed a double-winged ship's propeller. It was one of the most groundbreaking inventions in seafaring ever. Today's propellers have three to five wings, but there are hardly any two-wing screws left.

E.nglish sea mine. It dates from the 2nd World War and was formerly a so-called push cap mine with a 400kg explosive charge.Presumably laid out in the mouth of the Elbe, it drove it to a nearby beach, was defused (removal of the detonators, explosive charges and bumpers) and after the war was used as a water barrel. This type of mine detonated when the hitting ship's side wall crushed the butt caps, which looked like pointed horns. The pushing in, in turn, triggered the ignition mechanism.

TOrpedo launch tube with torpedo (without warhead) recovered in 1975 from the wreckage of the German torpedo boat V-25, which sank in 1916 after being hit by a mine in the North Sea.The tube, a bronze alloy, weighs approx. 2.5 t. When the torpedo was brought on deck, the compressed air still present in the torpedo (intended for self-propulsion of the torpedo after it was fired) escaped with a loud bang. At first glance, the salvers believed that the warhead that was still there would explode and feared for their lives. The solution to the riddle: Under water, the enormous water pressure held the torpedo shell, which had become thin-walled from the rust, together. There was no counterpressure above water, and the air that had been trapped on the sea floor for 59 years was looking for its way.

Glühkopfmotor - formerly auxiliary engine on the sailor 'Marie'. On the coastal sailors, including on board the 'Marie', the engine was only used when the wind was calm, when approaching a port or in emergency situations. Hence the name 'auxiliary engine'.In order to put a hot-head motor into operation, the semicircular head on the cylinder must be heated (pre-glowing) with a blowtorch in order to ignite the diesel fuel inside. One or two-cylinder hot-head motors only had a low horsepower output. However, they were robust and reliable and were widely used in small ships after the First World War. Today this type of engine is only occasionally found on smaller coastal vessels.

R.uderblatt of the sailor 'Marie' (not shown). The rudder blade was salvaged in 1979 when the wreck of the 'Marie' was removed from the Elbe near Krautsand. To steer the ship, it was moved from the steering wheel with chains over shafts and blocks. (Further exhibits of the 'Marie' in room F)

W.rack of the Fish Ewer 'Wilhelmine'.One-masted sailor with a flat bottom and a bünn (fish hold). The side wall is perforated in their area. The water flowed in and out unhindered and the caught fish, swimming in the Bünn, could be transported alive to the market. In 1928 the 'Wilhelmine' ran aground in the Elbe estuary, in 1979 it was removed as an obstacle to shipping. (Further exhibits in room D.)