Why don't planes fly over Tibet
Why don't planes fly over Tibet?
While his answer is correct, part of the reason is that there aren't many airways over central China, just that there is rarely a reason to fly there. Whenever possible, airplanes prefer paths along large arcs that represent the shortest distance between two points on the surface of a sphere (e.g. the earth).
In short, there are simply not many common flight routes between pairs of cities that take the shortest route over central China. If you look at the first picture in the question, you will see that flights to China are mostly either to or from Europe or Eastern North America (those that cross Mongolia), Japan or Western North America (those that cross China) fly the Sea of Japan and East China Sea,) India (those who fly over south China), the Middle East (those who fly over north China) or Australia / Philippines / Thailand / Indonesia / Oceania / etc. (those who fly over from the Coming south.)
In order for your great arching path to be across central China, you will need to travel to or from central China itself (which is not particularly populated), Siberia (which is even less populated), the central Indian Ocean (which is open) and the ocean with Antarctica on the other side ) or the mountain region between China and India (which also doesn't have a lot of air traffic). So usually there isn't much reason to go there, and therefore not much reason China is supposed to have airways there.
For the specific example shown in the Emirates flight question, the arc on which its flight path through northern China is shown is actually very close to the great arc between Dubai and Incheon, which looks like this:
Great Circle Pathby DXB-ICN Source: gcmap.com
This map is intended to give you an idea of how uninhabited western China is:
China as seen on Google Maps Source: Google Maps
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