# How do Americans deal with imperial units?

## Anglo-American system of measurement

The following **Anglo-American measurement systems** all have their origins in older English systems and were used in other Commonwealth countries prior to the introduction of the metric system (**Imperial system** from 1824). Today they are almost exclusively in the USA (*English* or *customary units*) were in use, while they were officially used in the United Kingdom and its colonies in the 20th century and much of the 19th. In Great Britain, however, the change seems to have only a symbolic character, as the imperial system is still used today for all measurements. Likewise in Canada, which has long since switched to the metric system, the imperial system is more common in normal dealings among the citizens. Nobody would give their height or weight there in metric measurements, as this would not be understood despite decades of training in the metric system.

### Units of length

Formula symbols: *l, s* (how *Length, distance*)

### unification

The basic unit is that **international customs**, whose relation to the meter from July 1, 1959 internationally uniform to exact **2.54 cm** (1958 Agreement). Only the US land survey tariff differs from this (*US survey inch*), which is exactly 100⁄3937 m or 2.540 005 080 010 cm long. A *foot* (Mz. *feet*) is 12 inches and is exactly 30.48 cm long (30.480 061 cm in the US survey). Before 1959, the US length measures differed slightly from the British ones.

### Nautical

The *sea mile* is exactly 800 *feet* longer than that *country mile*¹). Before the international nautical mile was introduced in 1929, there was another *Admiralty mile* of 1,853.184 m in use. The international nautical mile (*international nautical / sea mile*) has been accurate since 1929 (USA only 1954) **1,852 m** determined and accordingly the so-called *cable length* (Cable length) used for depth measurement, which is one tenth of a nautical mile, 185.2 m long. For the *cable length* there are other definitions, such as the almost equally long 100*fathoms* (182.88 m), or 120 for the US Navy *fathoms* (219.456 m). *Fathoms* are only (still) used to measure the water depth; *shackle* or. *naval shot* practically no longer at all, although the British measure was only adopted in 1949 for the purpose of adjusting from 12½ to 15 *fathom* was raised.

¹), on the other hand, means *mil* the angle measure "line").

There was the for special applications *geographical mile* out of 6082 *feet* = 1,853.7936 m and the *telegraph mile* out of 6087 *feet* (1,855.3176 m).

### Tables

unit | German | Abbr. | size | meter | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

inch | inch | in., " | 2.54 cm | 0.025 400 m | |

foot | foot | ft., ′ | 12 inch | 3.05 dm | 0.304 800 m |

yard | step | yd. | 3 foot | 9.14 dm | 0.914 400 m |

(statute) mile | mile | mi., m. | 8 furlong = 1760 yards = 5280 feet | 1.61 km | 1 609.344 m |

league | League hour | lea., l. | 3 mile | 4.83 km | 4,828,032 m |

unit | German | Abbr. | size | meter | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

link | Chain link | left, left, left | 1⁄25 rod = 7.92 inch | 2.01 dm | 0,201 168 m |

rod, pole, perch | rod | rd., p. | 198 inch | 5.03 m | 5,029 200 m |

chain, (acre-breadth) | Chain (length) | ch. | 4 rod | 2.01 dam | 20,116 800 m |

furlong | 1/8 mile, furrow length | For. | 10 chain | 2.01 hm | 201.168 m |

unit | German | Abbr. | size | meter | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

fathom | Thread (for plumbing) or fathoms | fm., fth. | 6 foot | 1.83 m | 1,828 800 m |

shackle (UK), shot (US) | 15 fathom | 2.74 dam | 27,432 m | ||

cable (length) | Cable (length) | cbl. | 1⁄10 sea mile | 1.85 hm | 185.318 400 m |

nautical / sea mile (admiralty) | Nautical mile (Admiralty) | nm (adm), sm | 6080 foot | 1.853 km | 1,853.184 m |

(international) nautical / sea mile | nautical mile | nm, NM, sm | 6076.12 feet | 1.852 km | (exact) 1 852 m |

nautical / sea league | nl. | 3 sea mile | 5.56 km | 5 559,552 m |

unit | German | Abbr. | size | meter | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

twip | twp. | 1⁄1440 inch | 17.6 µm | 0.000 017 63¯8 m | |

mil (US), thou (UK) | 1⁄1000 inch | 25.4 µm | 0.000 025 400 m | ||

mickey | 1⁄200 inch | 127 µm | 0.000 127 m | ||

caliber | caliber | cal. | 1⁄100 inch | 254 µm | 0.000 254 m |

point | Point | pt. | 1⁄72 inch | 353 µm | 0.000 352 7¯7 m |

(shoe) ounce | 1⁄64 inch | 397 µm | 0.000 396 875 m | ||

(shoe) iron | 1⁄48 inch | 529 µm | 0.000 529 1¯6 m | ||

line | line | ln | 1⁄12 inch | 2.12 mm | 0.002 11¯6 m |

barleycorn | (Stye) | 1⁄3 inch | 8.47 mm | 0.008 4¯6 m | |

digit, nail_{foot} | finger | ¾ inch | 1.91 cm | 0.019 050 m | |

finger (breadth) | finger | 7⁄8 inch | 2.22 cm | 0.022 225 m | |

stick | 2 inch | 5.08 cm | 0.050 800 m | ||

nail_{yard} | nail | 3 digit | 5.72 cm | 0.057 150 m | |

palm | Palm | 3 inch | 7.62 cm | 0.076 200 m | |

hand, (palm width) | A hand's breadth | 4 inch | 1.02 dm | 0.101 600 m | |

shaftment | (small) range | 6 inch | 1.52 dm | 0.152 400 m | |

span | (large) span | 3 palm | 2.26 dm | 0.226 200 m | |

quarter | Quarter yard | ¼ yard | 2.26 dm | 0.226 200 m | |

cubit | 18 inch | 4.57 dm | 0.457 200 m | ||

pace (US), step (UK) | step | 2½ foot | 7.62 dm | 0.762 m | |

ell | Cubit | 45 inch | 1.14 m | 1.143 m | |

grade, geometric pace | (Double) step | 2 pace | 1.52 m | 1.524 m | |

rope | rope | 20 foot | 6.10 m | 6.096 m | |

skein | 120 yards | 1.10 hm | 109.728 m | ||

spindle | (Spindle) | 120 skein | 13.2 km | 13 167.360 m |

The specified *chain* and *link* are so-called *Gunter’s measurement*, there is also that *Ramsden’s* or *Engineer’s measurement* (Engineering dimension):

unit | German | Abbr. | size | meter | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

link | (Chain) link | lnk. | 1 foot | 3.05 dm | 0.304 800 m |

chain | Chain (length) | ch. | 100 feet | 3.05 dam | 30,480 m |

### Units of area

Formula symbols: *F.*, *A.*

The most important special unit of area is the *acre*, the 1 *furlong* × 1 *chain* (or a field strip of 1 × 0.1 furlong). That's 40 *rods* × 4 *rods* or 10 *square chains*, hence 10 x 22² = 4840 *square yards* = 4047 m²; 640 *acres* result in a *square mile*. Please note that sizes in the USA i. d. R. continue that *survey inch* is based on, i.e. they are somewhat larger (second figure).

unit | German | Abbr. | size | square meters | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

circular mil / thou | circ.mil | ¼ x π mil² | 507 µm² | ~ 0.000 000 000 506 707 m² | |

square mil / thou | sq.mil | 1 mil² | 645 µm² | 0.000 000 000 645 160 m² | |

circular inch | District inch | circ.in. | ¼ x π inch² | 5.07 cm² | ~ 0.000 506 707 479 164 m² |

square inch | Square inches | sq.in. | 1 inch² | 6.45 cm² | 0.000 645 160 m² |

square foot | Square feet | sq.ft. | 1 foot² = 144 inch² | 9.29 dm2 | 0.092 903 040 m² |

square yard | sq.yd. | 1 yard² = 9 ft² | 83.6 dm2 | 0.836 127 360 m² | |

square | 100 foot² | 9.29 m² | 9,290 304 m² | ||

square rod, square perch, square pole | Square rod | sq.rd. | 1 rod² = 30.25 yd² | 25.3 m² | 25,292 852 640 m² |

board | bd. | 1 inch by 1 foot | 77.4 cm² | 0.007 741 920 m² | |

cord | thread | 192 board = 16 ft² | 1.49 m² | 1.486 448 640 m² | |

rood | Quarter morning | ro. | ¼ acre | 10.1 a | 1,011.714 105 600 m² |

acre | Tomorrow, field, yoke | a., ac. | 160 rod² | 40.5 a | 4,046,856 422 400 m² |

square mile | Square mile | sq.mi. | 1 mile² = 640 acres | 2.59 km² | 2,589,988,110,336 m² |

unit | German | size | Square meters (approx.) | |
---|---|---|---|---|

square rod, square perch | rod | 1 rod² | 25.3 m² | 25,292 953 811 714 m² |

acre | tomorrow | 160 rod² | 40.5 a | 4,046,872,609,874 m² |

homestead | (Home) | ¼ section | 64.7 ha | 647 499,617 579 5 m² |

section | (Section) | 1 survey mile² | 2.59 km² | 2,589,998,470 319 5 m² |

township | (Local community) | 36 section | 93.2 km² | 93 239 944,931 502 m² |

The Anglo-Saxon *hide* can also be 120 instead of 100 *acre* grasp and was actually not a real unit of area, but served the rather abstract description of ownership for the tax determination. A *yardland* was mostly a quarter *hide* and could be 15 to 80 *acres* include. The old German hoof or Hube is related and similarly variable. The values given are those that are still understood colloquially in England today.

unit | German | Abbr. | size | square meters | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

yardland, virgate | 30 acres | 12.1 ha | 121 405,692 672 m² | ||

hide | Hooves, hooves | 100 acres | 40.5 ha | 404 685.642 240 m² | |

barony | 40 hide | 16.2 km² | 16 187 425,689 600 m² |

### Volume units

Formula symbols: *V*

unit | German | Abbr. | size | cubic meter | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

cubic inch | Cubic inches | cu.in. | 1 in³ | 16.4 cm³ | 0.000 016 387 064 m³ |

cubic foot | Cubic feet | cu.ft. | 1 foot³ = 1728 in³ | 28.3 dm³ | 0.028 316 846 592 m³ |

perch | Manhole | 1 perch × 1½ foot² = 24¾ foot³ | 701 dm³ | 0.700 841 953 200 m³ | |

cubic yard | cu.yd. | 1 yard³ = 27 foot³ = 46656 in³ | 765 dm³ | 0.764 554 857 984 m³ | |

freight ton | 40 foot³ | 1.13 m³ | 1.132 673 863 680 m³ | ||

load | 50 foot³ | 1.42 m³ | 1.415 842 329 600 m³ | ||

register tone | Register bin | RT | 100 foot³ | 2.83 m³ | 2.831 684 659 200 m³ |

acre-inch | 1 acre x 1 inch = 3630 foot³ | 103 m³ | 102.790 153 129 m³ | ||

acre-foot | 1 acre x 1 foot = 43560 feet³ | 1.23 dam³ | 1 233,481 837 547 m³ |

*Acre-foot* and *acre-inch* are used in agriculture and meteorology to indicate the amount of irrigation and precipitation. In the metric system, the equivalent *Liters per square meter* and *millimeter* used (1 l / m² = 1 dm³ / m² = 1 mm).

A *perch* is not just a measure of length (= *pole*, *rod*), but (more rarely) also a volume measure in mining.

### Measure of capacity

Formula symbols: *V*

The North American and British systems of measure of capacity are based on three different of the original large number of British gallons: In the UK, the original is 277.42 cubic inches *ale gallon* fixed at 277.419 450 cubic inches since 1824 (Jan. *pound* H_{2}O at 62 ° F), while in the US since 1707 for liquids the *wine gallon* of 231 cubic inches (originally 230.907 in³) and for room dimensions the *corn gallon* of 268.8 cubic inches is used.

The room sizes in cubic inches may seem very crooked, but mostly there is a concept behind it; Above all, it should be easy to produce suitable measuring beakers (partly cylindrical, partly cuboid), which were often precisely defined - a cuboid with internal dimensions 3 ″ × 7 ″ × 11 ″ is good for the wine gallon and the corn gallon goes on the Winchester Bushel, which is a cylinder 18½ "in diameter by 8" high and holds eight gallons. [1]

The use of the English dry measure (*peck* and *bushel*) was banned in the United Kingdom from 1968 onwards *kenning* is like the wine series *rundlet* to *to do* out of date for a long time. In the same *Weights and Measures Act* from 1963 to February 1, 1971, the small (pharmacist) liquid measures were also introduced *minimal*, *fluid scruple* and *fluid drachm* abolished, which had only existed since 1824. In 1995 the British liquid*pint* for transitional use with the metric system set to exactly 568.261 250 milliliters, which is a slight rounding off compared to 277.42 ÷ 8 in³ (568.262 411 860 ml) and 277.419 450 ÷ 8 in³ (568.261 285 249 360 ml) and converted one *gallon* of approx. 277.419 432 791 621 in³ meant - each with the 25.4 mm size customary today *inch*. The exact values are therefore only given up to the last digit that is unrounded when using the three basic values.

The units used have the same names in both systems (from *drachm* has been *dram*) and i. d. Usually the same factors (except the *barrels* and *gill*). To distinguish them, the abbreviations "Imp." Or "US" may be prefixed. It is noteworthy that the British like the US oil barrel measures around 159 liters, although one is defined as 35 and the other as 42 gallons. The British fluid ounce is also smaller, but the gill, pint, quart and gallon larger than its American counterpart.

In the pharmacy system were only *minimal*, *scruple*, *drachm*, *ounce*, *pint* and *gallon* used.

Attention should be paid to the sometimes confusing labeling on US beverage containers, here you will find information such as "25.4 Fluid Ounces ONE PINT 9.4 FL.OZ." or ".5L (1 PT, 0.9 FL OZ)". These mean that the content corresponds to the first indication (in US wet). Which, in turn, is the sum of the two last-mentioned details (in US wet).

### table

unit | German | Abbr. | size | liter | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

minim, drop | drops | min. | 1⁄20 scruple | 59.2 µl | 0.000 059 193 883 880 l |

fluid scruple | Liquid cruple | fl.sc. | 1⁄3 drachm | 1.18 ml | 0.001 183 877 677 603 l |

fluid drachm | Liquid drachms | fl.dr. | 1⁄8 ounce | 3.55 ml | 0.003 551 633 032 809 l |

fluid ounce | Fluid ounce | seam. | 1⁄5 gill | 2.84 cl | 0.028 413 L. |

glass | Glass | ½ gill | 7.10 cl | 0.071 033 L. | |

gill, noggin | Quarter pint | gi. | ¼ pint | 1.42 dl | 0.142,065 L. |

pint | Pint, (Seidel) | fl.pt., pt. | ½ quart | 5.68 dl | 0.568 26 l |

quart | quart | qt. | ¼ gallon | 1.14 l | 1.136 52 L. |

gallon | gallon | gal. | 277.42 in³ | 4.55 l | 4,546 09 l |

(petrol) barrel | barrel | bl., bbl. | 35 gallon | 1.59 hl | 159.113 L. |

unit | German | Abbr. | size | liter | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

peck | pk. | 2 gallon | 9.09 l | 9,092 1 l | |

kenning | 2 peck | 1.82 dal | 18,184 3 L. | ||

bushel | bushel | bsh., bu. | 2 kenning | 3.64 dal | 36,368 7 L. |

sack, bag | bag | 3 bushel | 1.09 hl | 109,106 1 | |

quarter | qr. | 8 bushel | 2.91 hl | 290.9 l | |

chaldron | 12 sack | 1.31 kl | 1 309.273 2 L. | ||

load | load | 5 quarters | 1.45 kl | 1 454.5 l |

unit | German | Abbr. | size | liter | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

minim, drop | drops | min. | 1⁄60 dram | 61.6 µl | 0.000 061 611 519 920 L. |

fluid dram | Sip | fl.dr. | 1⁄8 ounce | 3.70 ml | 0.003 696 691 195 310 l |

fluid ounce | Fluid ounce | seam. | ¼ gill | 2.96 cl | 0.029 573 529 562 500 l |

gill | gi. | ¼ pint | 1.18 dl | 0.118 294 118 250 l | |

pint | pint | pt. | ½ quart | 4.73 dl | 0.473 176 473 L. |

quart | quart | qt. | ¼ gallon | 9.46 dl | 0.946 352 946 L. |

gallon | gallon | gal. | 231 in³ | 3.79 l | 3.785 411 784 L. |

petrol barrel | Oil barrel | bl., bbl. | 42 gallon = ½ firkin | 1.59 hl | 158.987 294 928 L. |

unit | German | Abbr. | size | liter | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

pint | pint | pt. | 1⁄8 gallon | 5.51 dl | 0.550 610 515 239 L. |

quart | 2 pint | 1.10 l | 1.101 221 030 L. | ||

gallon | gallon | gal. | ½ peck ≈ 268.8 inch³ | 4.40 l | 4.404 884 121 915 L. |

peck | pk. | 2 gallon = ¼ bushel | 8.81 l | 8.809 768 244 L. | |

(Winchester) bushel | bushel | bsh., bu. | 8 inch x π x (9¼ inch) ² ≈ 2150.42 inch³ | 3.52 dal | 35.239 072 975 L. |

quarter | qr. | 8 bushel | 2.82 hl | 281.912 583 803 L. |

### Beer and wine

unit | German | Abbr. | size | liter | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

gallon | gallon | gal. | 277.42 in³ | 4.55 l | 4,546 09 l |

English beer cans, beer & ale / brewery | |||||

pin code | ½ firkin | 2.05 dal | 20,457 4 L. | ||

firkin | keg | ½ kilderkin | 4.09 dal | 40.914 8 L. | |

kilderkin | ½ barrel | 8.18 dal | 81.829 6 L. | ||

barrel | (Barrel) | 36 gallon | 1.64 hl | 163.659 2 l | |

hogshead | hd., hhd. | 1½ barrel | 2.45 hl | 245.489 L. | |

puncheon | 2 barrel | 3.27 hl | 327.318 5 L. | ||

butt | 2 hogshead | 4.91 hl | 490.978 L. | ||

do, tone | (Ton) | 3 puncheon = 2 butt | 9.82 hl | 981.955 4 L. |

unit | German | Abbr. | size | liter | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

rundlet | bucket | 1⁄7 pipe | 6.82 dal | 68.191 35 L. | |

barrel | barrel | ½ hogshead | 1.19 hl | 119.335 L. | |

tierce | ohm | 1⁄3 pipe = ½ firkin | 1.59 hl | 159.113 L. | |

hogshead | Oxhoft | hd., hhd. | ½ pipe | 2.39 hl | 238.670 L. |

firkin, puncheon, tertian | 1⁄3 do | 3.18 hl | 318.226 L. | ||

pipe, butt | ½ do | 4.77 hl | 477,339 L. | ||

to do | (Ton) | 210 gallons | 9.55 hl | 954.68 L. |

unit | German | Abbr. | size | liter | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

gallon | gallon | gal. | 231 in³ | 3.79 l | 3.785 411 784 L. |

rundlet | bucket | 1⁄7 pipe | 6.81 dal | 68.137 412 112 L. | |

barrel | barrel | bl. | ½ hogshead = 31½ gallon | 1.19 hl | 119.240 471 196 L. |

tierce | Ohm, third | 1⁄3 pipe = ½ firkin | 1.59 hl | 158.987 294 928 L. | |

hogshead | Oxhoft | hd., hhd. | ½ pipe | 2.38 hl | 238,480 942 392 L. |

firkin, pon, tertian | 1⁄3 do | 3.18 hl | 317,974 589 856 L. | ||

pipe, butt | ½ do | 4.77 hl | 476.961 884 784 L. | ||

to do | (Ton) | 252 gallons | 9.54 hl | 953.923 769 568 L. |

From the two *tierce* What is still in use today emerged via detours *(petrol) barrel*.

The German equivalents *bucket*, *ohm* and *Oxhoft* there was, for example, very similar in size and definition in Prussia.

### kitchen

The sizes are precisely defined, especially in North American cuisine, but the corresponding containers are now mostly metric (5, 15, 250 ml).

unit | German | Abbr. | size | liter | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

British cooking units | |||||

saltspoon | Salt spoon | ssp. | ¼ teaspoon | 1.11 ml | 0.001 109 8 L. |

teaspoon | teaspoon | tsp. | ¼ tablespoon | 4.44 ml | 0.004 439 L. |

dessert spoon | dsp. | 2 teaspoon | 8.88 ml | 0.008 879 L. | |

tablespoon | tablespoon | tbsp. | 1⁄16 cup | 1.78 cl | 0.017 758 L. |

tea cup | Teacup | 1⁄3 pint | 1.89 dl | 0.189 42 l | |

cup | Cup | c., cu. | ½ pint = 10 ounce | 2.84 dl | 0.284 13 l |

unit | German | Abbr. | size | liter | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

saltspoon | Salt spoon | ssp. | ¼ teaspoon | 1.23 ml | 0.001 232 230 399 L. |

teaspoon | teaspoon | tsp. | 1⁄3 tablespoon | 4.93 ml | 0.004 928 921 595 L. |

dessert spoon | dsp. | 2 teaspoon | 9.86 ml | 0.009 857 843 190 l | |

tablespoon | tablespoon | tbsp. | 1⁄16 cup | 1.48 cl | 0.014 786 764 782 5 l |

tea cup | Teacup | ¾ cup | 1.77 dl | 0.177 441 177 L. | |

cup | Cup | c., cu. | ½ pint = 8 ounce | 2.37 dl | 0.236 588 236 5 l |

Some cooks and cookbooks use a different definition (e.g. 1 tbsp. = ½ Imp.fl.oz). The sizes *dessert spoon*, *saltspoon* and *tea cup* are rather rare.

### Bottles

Since 1979, the (foam) wine bottles in the USA have been based on three-quarters of a liter instead of a fifth of a gallon, although the sizes of some other bottle sizes have changed more.

Surname | German | size | liter | |
---|---|---|---|---|

glass | Glass | 4 ounce | 118 ml | |

split | ¼ bottle = 1.6 glass | 189 ml | 200 ml | |

tenth | Tenths (gallon) | 1⁄10 gallon | 379 ml | 375 ml |

fifth, bottle | Fifth (gallon), bottle | 1⁄5 gallon | 0.757 l | 0.75 l |

magnum | Magnum | 2½ fifth = ½ gallon | 1.89 l | 1½ l |

jeroboam | 4 fifth | 3.03 l | 2 magnum = 3 l | |

rehoboam | 7½ fifth = 1½ gallon | 5.68 l | 3 magnum = 4½ l | |

methuselah | Methuselah | 10 fifth = 2 gallons | 7.57 l | 4 magnum = 6 l |

shalmanazar | Shawl Manasar | 14 fifth | 10.6 l | 6 magnum = 9 l |

balthazar | Balthazar | 20 fifth = 4 gallon | 15.1 l | 8 magnum = 12 l |

nebuchadnezzar | Nebuchadnezzar | 25 fifth = 5 gallon | 18.9 l | 10 magnum = 15 l |

### Mass measurements

Formula symbols: *m*

The basic unit of the weight system originally (around the 15th century) from France is this *pound (Avoirdupois)*, which has been uniformly set at 453.59237 g in the USA, Canada and UK since 1960. The British pound previously in use since 1878 was at 453.592338 g 32 µg or 0.000007% lighter than the North American pound defined in 1893, which corresponds to the current one.

In addition, there exists in the coinage and precious metal being *Troy*System with a pound that is 5760 instead of 7000 *grains* is heavy, and well into the 19th century (UK *Medical Act* von 1858) a pharmacy system, which is also the easier *pound (Troy)* to 12 *ounces*, but *scruple* and *dram* instead of *pennyweight* used.

Usually the system used is determined by the context; in case of doubt it is *Avoirdupois*System, short in the US and long in the UK. To differentiate, if necessary *short* or. *long* (rarely also *net* and *large*) before and *(Avoirdupois)*, *(Troy)* or. *(apothecaries)* placed behind the unit.

The units *stone* and *hundredweight* were abolished in British commerce decades before the metric system was introduced; The British and Irish, however, often give in their body weight *stone* and *pound* as well as their size in *feet* and *inch* at. The lengths (*long*) Units result from the later introduction of the *stone* to 14 *pound* in Great Britain and were more common there than in the colonies. According to other sources, they are *short*-Units the result of a partial decimalization of the system in North America in the 18th century, modeled on various hundredweight (*centner*) and quintals of 100 pounds in mainland Europe.

The *slug* is expressed as a consistent unit of mass in feet (ft) and *pound-force* (lb_{f}) Constructed in one of the English engineering systems: a mass of 1 slug is experienced by the force 1 lb_{f} an acceleration of 1 ft / s², whereby the value of the acceleration due to gravity is not standardized, see 9.80665 m / s² for the technical unit of mass.

unit | German | Abbr. | size | Gram | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

grain | Gran, grain | gr. | 64.8 mg | 0.064 798 910 g | |

+ Commercial weights, Avoirdupois | |||||

unit | German | Abbr. | size | Gram | |

dram | drachma | dr. | 1⁄16 ounce | 1.77 g | 1.771 845 195 312 500 g |

ounce, coll. lid | ounce | oz. | 1⁄16 pound | 28.35 g | 28,349 523 125 g |

pound | lb | lb., pd., #, lb_{m}. | 7000 grain | 4.54 hg | 453.592 370 g |

slug | 32.174048 lb | 14.6 kg | 14.593 902 937 2 kg | ||

short Avoirdupois | |||||

unit | German | Abbr. | size | Gram | |

quarter | Quarter pound | ¼ hundredweight | 11.3 kg | 11 339.809 250 g | |

hundredweight, cental | Hundredweight | cwt. | 100 pounds | 45.4 kg | 45 359.237 g |

volume | ton | T., to. | 20 hundredweight | 0.907 t | 907 184.74 g |

+long Avoirdupois | |||||

unit | German | Abbr. | size | Gram | |

stone | stone | st. | 14 pounds | 6.35 kg | 6 350.293 180 g |

quarter | Quarter of a penny | qu., qr. l. | 2 stone | 12.7 kg | 12 700.586 360 g |

hundredweight | Hundredweight | cwt. | 4 quarter | 50.8 kg | 50 802.345 44 g |

volume | ton | T., to. | 20 hundredweight | 1.02 t | 1,016,046.908 8 g |

+ Coin weights, Troy | |||||

unit | German | Abbr. | size | Gram | |

pennyweight | Penny weight | dwt. | 24 grain | 1.56 g | 1.555 173 840 g |

ounce | Troy ounce | oz., tr.oz., oz.t. | 20 pennyweight | 3.11 dag | 31.103 476 800 g |

pound | Troy pound | lb., tr.lb., lb.t. | 12 ounce | 3.73 hg | 373,241 721 600 g |

+ Pharmacist weights, apothecariesuntil 1858 | |||||

unit | German | Abbr. | size | Gram | |

scruple | Scruples | s., s.ap. | 20 grain | 1.30 g | 1.295 978 200 g |

dram | Drachma, penny | dr., dr.ap., ap.dr. | 3 scruple | 3.89 g | 3.887 934 600 g |

ounce | Troy ounce | oz., oz.ap., ap.oz. | 8 drams = 1 troy ounce | 3.11 dag | 31.103 476 800 g |

pound | Troy pound | lb., lb.ap., ap.lb. | 12 ounces = 1 troy pound | 3.73 hg | 373,241 721 600 g |

### Wool

Just that *hundredweight* and *stone* is also available in the normal, "long" English weight system (see above).

unit | German | Abbr. | size | Gram | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

clove, nail | 7 pounds | 3.18 kg | 3 175.146 590 g | ||

stone | st. | 2 clove | 6.35 kg | 6 350.293 180 g | |

death | 2 stone | 12.7 kg | 12 700.586 360 g | ||

hundredweight | Hundredweight | cwt. | 4 death | 50.8 kg | 50 802.345 440 g |

wey, weight | 1 5⁄8 hundredweight | 82.6 kg | 82 553.811 340 g | ||

bag | bag | 2 wey | 165 kg | 165 107.622 680 g | |

load | load | 12 sack | 1.98 t | 1,981,291,472 160 g |

### Grain

Despite the name (*bushel*) grain is now also measured by weight in the USA.

unit | German | Abbr. | size | Gram | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

bushel (maize / corn, rye) | Bushel (corn, rye) | 56 pounds | 25.4 kg | 25.401 172 720 kg | |

bushel (wheat, soybean) | Bushel (wheat, soybeans) | 60 pounds | 27.2 kg | 27.215 542 200 kg |

### time

The only English unit of time that is still sometimes encountered these days is *fortnight* (from "fourteen nights"), for example in biweekly television programs. In addition, the term *fortnight* often used in Australia, where the salary and pension are usually paid every fortnight.

unit | German | Abbr. | size | Seconds | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

ounce | (Ounce) | 1⁄12 moment | 7.5 s | ||

moment | (Moment) | 1⁄40 h | 1.5 min | 90 s | |

bell | (Bell jar) | 1⁄8 watch | 30 min | 1800 s | |

watch | (Guard) | 4 h | 240 min | 14,400 ks | |

sennight | 1 week | 7 days | 604,800 ks | ||

fortnight | 2 weeks | 14 days | 1.209 600 Ms |

### temperature

Traditionally, in the English-speaking world, the Fahrenheit temperature scale is more common than that of Celsius. They differ in the starting point

- 0 ° C = 32 ° F = 273.15 K,
- 0 ° F = −17 7⁄9 ° C = - 17.78 ° C = 255.37 K

and in the size of a degree, which, however, are in a simple linear relationship to one another:

- 1 ° F = 5 ⁄ 9 ° C = 5 ⁄ 9 K.

Analogous to the Kelvin scale, the Rankine scale was used accordingly in science.

### Derived units

### speed

Formula symbols: *v*

unit | German | Abbr. | size | km / h | m / s |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

knot | node | kn., nm / h | 1.852 km / h | 0.514 4444 m / s | |

Admiralty knot | Knot (admiralty) | kn., nm (adm) / h | 1.853 184 km / h | 0.514 77¯3 m / s | |

mile per hour | miles per hour | mph, mi./h | 1.609 344 km / h | 0.447 040 m / s | |

foot per second | Feet per second | fps, ft./s | 1.097 280 km / h | 0.304 800 m / s |

With the international nautical mile, a knot only sinks by 1.184 m / h or 329 µm / s.

### force

Formula symbols: *F.*

unit | German | Abbr. | size | Newton | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

pound-force | lb | lbf., lb_{f}. | 1 pound G_{N} = 196 133 ÷ 6096 lb. · ft. / S² | 4.45 N | 4,448 221 615 260 500 kg · m / s² |

poundal | pdl. | 1 lb. · ft. / S² | 1.38 dN | 0.138 254 954 376 kg · m / s² |

Colloquially, the distinction is made between *pound* and *pound-force* (like kilograms to kilopond) often under the table, and the definition is not official. In addition, a technical pound-foot-second system was introduced in the first half of the 20th century, in which *pound* is the unit of force and the unit of mass *slug* called. The *poundal* has existed since at least 1879.

Formula symbols: *p*

unit | German | Abbr. | size | Pascal | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

pounds per square inch | PSI | psi | 1 pound-force ÷ 1 inch² | 6.89 kPa | 6,894,757,293,168,370 kg / m · s² |

torr, mmHg | Torr, millimeters of mercury | mmHg, mm_{Ed} | 1⁄760 atm = 101 325 ÷ 760 Pa | 1.33 hPa | 133.322 368 kg / m · s² |

inch mercury | Inches of mercury | inHg, ′ ′ Hg | 25.4 mm_{Ed} | 3.39 kPa | 3,386,388 157 894 730 kg / m · s² |

### energy

Formula symbols: *W.* or *E.*

unit | German | Abbr. | size | Joules | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

calorie (15 ° C) | calorie | cal., cal_{15} | 1 g of H._{2}O @ 1 atm, 14.5-> 15.5 ° C | 4.185 5 y | 4.185 5 kg · m² / s² |

Calorie (15 ° C) | Kilocalorie | C., kcal. | 1000 calorie | 4.185 5 kJ | 4 185.5 kg · m² / s² |

British thermal unit | Btu., BTU | 1 pound H_{2}0.63-> 64 ° F ~ = 778 ft. Lb_{f}. | 1.055 kJ | ||

therm | 100,000 Btu. | 105.5 MJ | |||

quad | 10 000 000 000 therm | 1.055 EJ |

In addition to the 15-degree calorie, there are a few more, see calorie. The *quad* means *quadrillion BTU*, meaning the American quadrillion, i.e. 10^{15} BTU.

### power

Formula symbols: *P*

unit | German | Abbr. | size | watt | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

manpower | (Manpower) | 1/10 horsepower | 7.46 daW | 74.569 987 158 227 kg · m² / s³ | |

horsepower | Horsepower | hp., B.H.P. | 550 lb_{f}. · Ft. / S = 550 · 196 133 ÷ 6 096 lb. · ft.² / s³ | 7.46 hW | 745.699 871 582 270 kg · m² / s³ |

The German horsepower is defined as 75 kp · m / s and at 735.498 750 watts, it is somewhat smaller than the British one *horse power*; it is sometimes called *metric horsepower*, i.e. metric horsepower.

### Torque

Formula symbols: *Nm*

unit | German | Abbr. | size | Newton meter |
---|---|---|---|---|

pounds-feet | Pound foot | lb-ft | 1 lb-ft = 1 lb * 1 ft | 1 lb-ft corresponds to 1.3562811 Nm |

### See also

Categories: System of sizes and units | Anglo-American unity

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