# How do Americans deal with imperial units?

## Anglo-American system of measurement

The following Anglo-American measurement systems all have their origins in older English systems and were used in other Commonwealth countries prior to the introduction of the metric system (Imperial system from 1824). Today they are almost exclusively in the USA (English or customary units) were in use, while they were officially used in the United Kingdom and its colonies in the 20th century and much of the 19th. In Great Britain, however, the change seems to have only a symbolic character, as the imperial system is still used today for all measurements. Likewise in Canada, which has long since switched to the metric system, the imperial system is more common in normal dealings among the citizens. Nobody would give their height or weight there in metric measurements, as this would not be understood despite decades of training in the metric system.

### Units of length

Formula symbols: l, s (how Length, distance)

### unification

The basic unit is that international customs, whose relation to the meter from July 1, 1959 internationally uniform to exact 2.54 cm (1958 Agreement). Only the US land survey tariff differs from this (US survey inch), which is exactly 100⁄3937 m or 2.540 005 080 010 cm long. A foot (Mz. feet) is 12 inches and is exactly 30.48 cm long (30.480 061 cm in the US survey). Before 1959, the US length measures differed slightly from the British ones.

### Nautical

The sea ​​mile is exactly 800 feet longer than that country mile¹). Before the international nautical mile was introduced in 1929, there was another Admiralty mile of 1,853.184 m in use. The international nautical mile (international nautical / sea mile) has been accurate since 1929 (USA only 1954) 1,852 m determined and accordingly the so-called cable length (Cable length) used for depth measurement, which is one tenth of a nautical mile, 185.2 m long. For the cable length there are other definitions, such as the almost equally long 100fathoms (182.88 m), or 120 for the US Navy fathoms (219.456 m). Fathoms are only (still) used to measure the water depth; shackle or. naval shot practically no longer at all, although the British measure was only adopted in 1949 for the purpose of adjusting from 12½ to 15 fathom was raised.
¹), on the other hand, means mil the angle measure "line").

There was the for special applications geographical mile out of 6082 feet = 1,853.7936 m and the telegraph mile out of 6087 feet (1,855.3176 m).

### Tables

unit German Abbr.size meter
inchinch in., "   2.54 cm 0.025 400 m
foot foot ft., ′ 12 inch 3.05 dm 0.304 800 m
yard step yd. 3 foot 9.14 dm 0.914 400 m
(statute) mile mile mi., m. 8 furlong = 1760 yards = 5280 feet 1.61 km 1 609.344 m
league League hour lea., l. 3 mile 4.83 km 4,828,032 m
unit German Abbr.size meter
link Chain link left, left, left 1⁄25 rod = 7.92 inch 2.01 dm 0,201 168 m
rod, pole, perch rod rd., p. 198 inch 5.03 m 5,029 200 m
chain, (acre-breadth) Chain (length) ch. 4 rod 2.01 dam 20,116 800 m
furlong 1/8 mile, furrow length For. 10 chain 2.01 hm 201.168 m
unit German Abbr.size meter
fathom Thread (for plumbing) or fathoms fm., fth. 6 foot 1.83 m 1,828 800 m
shackle (UK), shot (US)     15 fathom 2.74 dam 27,432 m
cable (length) Cable (length) cbl. 1⁄10 sea mile 1.85 hm 185.318 400 m
nautical / sea mile (admiralty) Nautical mile (Admiralty) nm (adm), sm 6080 foot 1.853 km 1,853.184 m
(international) nautical / sea mile nautical mile nm, NM, sm 6076.12 feet 1.852 km (exact) 1 852 m
nautical / sea league   nl. 3 sea mile 5.56 km 5 559,552 m
unit German Abbr.size meter
twip   twp. 1⁄1440 inch 17.6 µm 0.000 017 63¯8 m
mil (US), thou (UK)     1⁄1000 inch 25.4 µm 0.000 025 400 m
mickey     1⁄200 inch 127 µm 0.000 127 m
caliber caliber cal. 1⁄100 inch 254 µm 0.000 254 m
point Point pt. 1⁄72 inch 353 µm 0.000 352 7¯7 m
(shoe) ounce     1⁄64 inch 397 µm 0.000 396 875 m
(shoe) iron     1⁄48 inch 529 µm 0.000 529 1¯6 m
line line ln 1⁄12 inch 2.12 mm 0.002 11¯6 m
barleycorn (Stye)   1⁄3 inch 8.47 mm 0.008 4¯6 m
digit, nailfoot finger   ¾ inch 1.91 cm 0.019 050 m
finger (breadth) finger   7⁄8 inch 2.22 cm 0.022 225 m
stick     2 inch 5.08 cm 0.050 800 m
nailyard nail   3 digit 5.72 cm 0.057 150 m
palm Palm   3 inch 7.62 cm 0.076 200 m
hand, (palm width) A hand's breadth   4 inch 1.02 dm 0.101 600 m
shaftment (small) range   6 inch 1.52 dm 0.152 400 m
span (large) span   3 palm 2.26 dm 0.226 200 m
quarter Quarter yard   ¼ yard 2.26 dm 0.226 200 m
cubit     18 inch 4.57 dm 0.457 200 m
pace (US), step (UK) step   2½ foot 7.62 dm 0.762 m
ell Cubit   45 inch 1.14 m 1.143 m
grade, geometric pace (Double) step   2 pace 1.52 m 1.524 m
rope rope   20 foot 6.10 m 6.096 m
skein     120 yards 1.10 hm 109.728 m
spindle (Spindle)   120 skein 13.2 km 13 167.360 m

The specified chain and link are so-called Gunter’s measurement, there is also that Ramsden’s or Engineer’s measurement (Engineering dimension):

unit German Abbr.size meter
chain Chain (length) ch. 100 feet 3.05 dam 30,480 m

### Units of area

Formula symbols: F., A.

The most important special unit of area is the acre, the 1 furlong × 1 chain (or a field strip of 1 × 0.1 furlong). That's 40 rods × 4 rods or 10 square chains, hence 10 x 22² = 4840 square yards = 4047 m²; 640 acres result in a square mile. Please note that sizes in the USA i. d. R. continue that survey inch is based on, i.e. they are somewhat larger (second figure).

unit German Abbr.size square meters
circular mil / thou   circ.mil ¼ x π mil² 507 µm² ~ 0.000 000 000 506 707 m²
square mil / thou   sq.mil 1 mil² 645 µm² 0.000 000 000 645 160 m²
circular inch District inch circ.in. ¼ x π inch² 5.07 cm² ~ 0.000 506 707 479 164 m²
square inch Square inches sq.in. 1 inch² 6.45 cm² 0.000 645 160 m²
square foot Square feet sq.ft. 1 foot² = 144 inch² 9.29 dm2 0.092 903 040 m²
square yard   sq.yd. 1 yard² = 9 ft² 83.6 dm2 0.836 127 360 m²
square     100 foot² 9.29 m² 9,290 304 m²
square rod, square perch, square pole Square rod sq.rd. 1 rod² = 30.25 yd² 25.3 m² 25,292 852 640 m²
board   bd. 1 inch by 1 foot 77.4 cm² 0.007 741 920 m²
cord thread   192 board = 16 ft² 1.49 m² 1.486 448 640 m²
rood Quarter morning ro. ¼ acre 10.1 a 1,011.714 105 600 m²
acre Tomorrow, field, yoke a., ac. 160 rod² 40.5 a 4,046,856 422 400 m²
square mile Square mile sq.mi. 1 mile² = 640 acres 2.59 km² 2,589,988,110,336 m²
unit German size Square meters (approx.)
square rod, square perch rod 1 rod² 25.3 m² 25,292 953 811 714 m²
acre tomorrow 160 rod² 40.5 a 4,046,872,609,874 m²
homestead (Home) ¼ section 64.7 ha 647 499,617 579 5 m²
section (Section) 1 survey mile² 2.59 km² 2,589,998,470 319 5 m²
township (Local community) 36 section 93.2 km² 93 239 944,931 502 m²

The Anglo-Saxon hide can also be 120 instead of 100 acre grasp and was actually not a real unit of area, but served the rather abstract description of ownership for the tax determination. A yardland was mostly a quarter hide and could be 15 to 80 acres include. The old German hoof or Hube is related and similarly variable. The values ​​given are those that are still understood colloquially in England today.

unit German Abbr.size square meters
yardland, virgate   30 acres 12.1 ha 121 405,692 672 m²
hide Hooves, hooves 100 acres 40.5 ha 404 685.642 240 m²
barony   40 hide 16.2 km² 16 187 425,689 600 m²

### Volume units

Formula symbols: V

unit German Abbr.size cubic meter
cubic inch Cubic inches cu.in. 1 in³ 16.4 cm³ 0.000 016 387 064 m³
cubic foot Cubic feet cu.ft. 1 foot³ = 1728 in³ 28.3 dm³ 0.028 316 846 592 m³
perch Manhole   1 perch × 1½ foot² = 24¾ foot³ 701 dm³ 0.700 841 953 200 m³
cubic yard   cu.yd. 1 yard³ = 27 foot³ = 46656 in³ 765 dm³ 0.764 554 857 984 m³
freight ton     40 foot³ 1.13 m³ 1.132 673 863 680 m³
load     50 foot³ 1.42 m³ 1.415 842 329 600 m³
register tone Register bin RT 100 foot³ 2.83 m³ 2.831 684 659 200 m³
acre-inch     1 acre x 1 inch = 3630 foot³ 103 m³ 102.790 153 129 m³
acre-foot     1 acre x 1 foot = 43560 feet³ 1.23 dam³ 1 233,481 837 547 m³

Acre-foot and acre-inch are used in agriculture and meteorology to indicate the amount of irrigation and precipitation. In the metric system, the equivalent Liters per square meter and millimeter used (1 l / m² = 1 dm³ / m² = 1 mm).

A perch is not just a measure of length (= pole, rod), but (more rarely) also a volume measure in mining.

### Measure of capacity

Formula symbols: V

The North American and British systems of measure of capacity are based on three different of the original large number of British gallons: In the UK, the original is 277.42 cubic inches ale gallon fixed at 277.419 450 cubic inches since 1824 (Jan. pound H2O at 62 ° F), while in the US since 1707 for liquids the wine gallon of 231 cubic inches (originally 230.907 in³) and for room dimensions the corn gallon of 268.8 cubic inches is used.

The room sizes in cubic inches may seem very crooked, but mostly there is a concept behind it; Above all, it should be easy to produce suitable measuring beakers (partly cylindrical, partly cuboid), which were often precisely defined - a cuboid with internal dimensions 3 ″ × 7 ″ × 11 ″ is good for the wine gallon and the corn gallon goes on the Winchester Bushel, which is a cylinder 18½ "in diameter by 8" high and holds eight gallons. [1]

The use of the English dry measure (peck and bushel) was banned in the United Kingdom from 1968 onwards kenning is like the wine series rundlet to to do out of date for a long time. In the same Weights and Measures Act from 1963 to February 1, 1971, the small (pharmacist) liquid measures were also introduced minimal, fluid scruple and fluid drachm abolished, which had only existed since 1824. In 1995 the British liquidpint for transitional use with the metric system set to exactly 568.261 250 milliliters, which is a slight rounding off compared to 277.42 ÷ 8 in³ (568.262 411 860 ml) and 277.419 450 ÷ 8 in³ (568.261 285 249 360 ml) and converted one gallon of approx. 277.419 432 791 621 in³ meant - each with the 25.4 mm size customary today inch. The exact values ​​are therefore only given up to the last digit that is unrounded when using the three basic values.

The units used have the same names in both systems (from drachm has been dram) and i. d. Usually the same factors (except the barrels and gill). To distinguish them, the abbreviations "Imp." Or "US" may be prefixed. It is noteworthy that the British like the US oil barrel measures around 159 liters, although one is defined as 35 and the other as 42 gallons. The British fluid ounce is also smaller, but the gill, pint, quart and gallon larger than its American counterpart.

In the pharmacy system were only minimal, scruple, drachm, ounce, pint and gallon used.

Attention should be paid to the sometimes confusing labeling on US beverage containers, here you will find information such as "25.4 Fluid Ounces ONE PINT 9.4 FL.OZ." or ".5L (1 PT, 0.9 FL OZ)". These mean that the content corresponds to the first indication (in US wet). Which, in turn, is the sum of the two last-mentioned details (in US wet).

### table

unit German Abbr.size liter
minim, drop drops min. 1⁄20 scruple 59.2 µl 0.000 059 193 883 880 l
fluid scruple Liquid cruple fl.sc. 1⁄3 drachm 1.18 ml 0.001 183 877 677 603 l
fluid drachm Liquid drachms fl.dr. 1⁄8 ounce 3.55 ml 0.003 551 633 032 809 l
fluid ounce Fluid ounce seam. 1⁄5 gill 2.84 cl 0.028 413 L.
glass Glass   ½ gill 7.10 cl 0.071 033 L.
gill, noggin Quarter pint gi. ¼ pint 1.42 dl 0.142,065 L.
pint Pint, (Seidel) fl.pt., pt. ½ quart 5.68 dl 0.568 26 l
quart quart qt. ¼ gallon 1.14 l 1.136 52 L.
gallon gallon gal. 277.42 in³ 4.55 l 4,546 09 l
(petrol) barrel barrel bl., bbl. 35 gallon 1.59 hl 159.113 L.
unit German Abbr.size liter
peck   pk. 2 gallon 9.09 l 9,092 1 l
kenning     2 peck 1.82 dal 18,184 3 L.
bushel bushel bsh., bu. 2 kenning 3.64 dal 36,368 7 L.
sack, bag bag   3 bushel 1.09 hl 109,106 1
quarter   qr. 8 bushel 2.91 hl 290.9 l
chaldron     12 sack 1.31 kl 1 309.273 2 L.
unit German Abbr.size liter
minim, drop drops min. 1⁄60 dram 61.6 µl 0.000 061 611 519 920 L.
fluid dram Sip fl.dr. 1⁄8 ounce 3.70 ml 0.003 696 691 195 310 l
fluid ounce Fluid ounce seam. ¼ gill 2.96 cl 0.029 573 529 562 500 l
gill   gi. ¼ pint 1.18 dl 0.118 294 118 250 l
pint pint pt. ½ quart 4.73 dl 0.473 176 473 L.
quart quart qt. ¼ gallon 9.46 dl 0.946 352 946 L.
gallon gallon gal. 231 in³ 3.79 l 3.785 411 784 L.
petrol barrel Oil barrel bl., bbl. 42 gallon = ½ firkin 1.59 hl 158.987 294 928 L.
unit German Abbr.size liter
pint pint pt. 1⁄8 gallon 5.51 dl 0.550 610 515 239 L.
quart     2 pint 1.10 l 1.101 221 030 L.
gallon gallon gal. ½ peck ≈ 268.8 inch³ 4.40 l 4.404 884 121 915 L.
peck   pk. 2 gallon = ¼ bushel 8.81 l 8.809 768 244 L.
(Winchester) bushel bushel bsh., bu. 8 inch x π x (9¼ inch) ² ≈ 2150.42 inch³ 3.52 dal 35.239 072 975 L.
quarter   qr. 8 bushel 2.82 hl 281.912 583 803 L.

### Beer and wine

unit German Abbr.size liter
gallon gallon gal. 277.42 in³ 4.55 l 4,546 09 l
English beer cans, beer & ale / brewery
pin code     ½ firkin 2.05 dal 20,457 4 L.
firkin keg   ½ kilderkin 4.09 dal 40.914 8 L.
kilderkin     ½ barrel 8.18 dal 81.829 6 L.
barrel (Barrel)   36 gallon 1.64 hl 163.659 2 l
hogshead   hd., hhd. 1½ barrel 2.45 hl 245.489 L.
puncheon     2 barrel 3.27 hl 327.318 5 L.
butt     2 hogshead 4.91 hl 490.978 L.
do, tone (Ton)   3 puncheon = 2 butt 9.82 hl 981.955 4 L.
unit German Abbr.size liter
rundlet bucket   1⁄7 pipe 6.82 dal 68.191 35 L.
barrel barrel   ½ hogshead 1.19 hl 119.335 L.
tierce ohm   1⁄3 pipe = ½ firkin 1.59 hl 159.113 L.
hogshead Oxhoft hd., hhd. ½ pipe 2.39 hl 238.670 L.
firkin, puncheon, tertian     1⁄3 do 3.18 hl 318.226 L.
pipe, butt     ½ do 4.77 hl 477,339 L.
to do (Ton)   210 gallons 9.55 hl 954.68 L.
unit German Abbr.size liter
gallon gallon gal. 231 in³ 3.79 l 3.785 411 784 L.
rundlet bucket   1⁄7 pipe 6.81 dal 68.137 412 112 L.
barrel barrel bl. ½ hogshead = 31½ gallon 1.19 hl 119.240 471 196 L.
tierce Ohm, third   1⁄3 pipe = ½ firkin 1.59 hl 158.987 294 928 L.
hogshead Oxhoft hd., hhd. ½ pipe 2.38 hl 238,480 942 392 L.
firkin, pon, tertian     1⁄3 do 3.18 hl 317,974 589 856 L.
pipe, butt     ½ do 4.77 hl 476.961 884 784 L.
to do (Ton)   252 gallons 9.54 hl 953.923 769 568 L.

From the two tierce What is still in use today emerged via detours (petrol) barrel.

The German equivalents bucket, ohm and Oxhoft there was, for example, very similar in size and definition in Prussia.

### kitchen

The sizes are precisely defined, especially in North American cuisine, but the corresponding containers are now mostly metric (5, 15, 250 ml).

unit German Abbr.size liter
British cooking units
saltspoon Salt spoon ssp. ¼ teaspoon 1.11 ml 0.001 109 8 L.
teaspoon teaspoon tsp. ¼ tablespoon 4.44 ml 0.004 439 L.
dessert spoon   dsp. 2 teaspoon 8.88 ml 0.008 879 L.
tablespoon tablespoon tbsp. 1⁄16 cup 1.78 cl 0.017 758 L.
tea cup Teacup   1⁄3 pint 1.89 dl 0.189 42 l
cup Cup c., cu. ½ pint = 10 ounce 2.84 dl 0.284 13 l
unit German Abbr.size liter
saltspoon Salt spoon ssp. ¼ teaspoon 1.23 ml 0.001 232 230 399 L.
teaspoon teaspoon tsp. 1⁄3 tablespoon 4.93 ml 0.004 928 921 595 L.
dessert spoon   dsp. 2 teaspoon 9.86 ml 0.009 857 843 190 l
tablespoon tablespoon tbsp. 1⁄16 cup 1.48 cl 0.014 786 764 782 5 l
tea cup Teacup   ¾ cup 1.77 dl 0.177 441 177 L.
cup Cup c., cu. ½ pint = 8 ounce 2.37 dl 0.236 588 236 5 l

Some cooks and cookbooks use a different definition (e.g. 1 tbsp. = ½ Imp.fl.oz). The sizes dessert spoon, saltspoon and tea cup are rather rare.

### Bottles

Since 1979, the (foam) wine bottles in the USA have been based on three-quarters of a liter instead of a fifth of a gallon, although the sizes of some other bottle sizes have changed more.

Surname German size liter
glass Glass 4 ounce 118 ml
split   ¼ bottle = 1.6 glass 189 ml 200 ml
tenth Tenths (gallon) 1⁄10 gallon 379 ml 375 ml
fifth, bottle Fifth (gallon), bottle 1⁄5 gallon 0.757 l 0.75 l
magnum Magnum 2½ fifth = ½ gallon 1.89 l 1½ l
jeroboam   4 fifth 3.03 l 2 magnum = 3 l
rehoboam   7½ fifth = 1½ gallon 5.68 l 3 magnum = 4½ l
methuselah Methuselah 10 fifth = 2 gallons 7.57 l 4 magnum = 6 l
shalmanazar Shawl Manasar 14 fifth 10.6 l 6 magnum = 9 l
balthazar Balthazar 20 fifth = 4 gallon 15.1 l 8 magnum = 12 l
nebuchadnezzar Nebuchadnezzar 25 fifth = 5 gallon 18.9 l 10 magnum = 15 l

### Mass measurements

Formula symbols: m

The basic unit of the weight system originally (around the 15th century) from France is this pound (Avoirdupois), which has been uniformly set at 453.59237 g in the USA, Canada and UK since 1960. The British pound previously in use since 1878 was at 453.592338 g 32 µg or 0.000007% lighter than the North American pound defined in 1893, which corresponds to the current one.

In addition, there exists in the coinage and precious metal being TroySystem with a pound that is 5760 instead of 7000 grains is heavy, and well into the 19th century (UK Medical Act von 1858) a pharmacy system, which is also the easier pound (Troy) to 12 ounces, but scruple and dram instead of pennyweight used.

Usually the system used is determined by the context; in case of doubt it is AvoirdupoisSystem, short in the US and long in the UK. To differentiate, if necessary short or. long (rarely also net and large) before and (Avoirdupois), (Troy) or. (apothecaries) placed behind the unit.

The units stone and hundredweight were abolished in British commerce decades before the metric system was introduced; The British and Irish, however, often give in their body weight stone and pound as well as their size in feet and inch at. The lengths (long) Units result from the later introduction of the stone to 14 pound in Great Britain and were more common there than in the colonies. According to other sources, they are short-Units the result of a partial decimalization of the system in North America in the 18th century, modeled on various hundredweight (centner) and quintals of 100 pounds in mainland Europe.

The slug is expressed as a consistent unit of mass in feet (ft) and pound-force (lbf) Constructed in one of the English engineering systems: a mass of 1 slug is experienced by the force 1 lbf an acceleration of 1 ft / s², whereby the value of the acceleration due to gravity is not standardized, see 9.80665 m / s² for the technical unit of mass.

unit German Abbr.size Gram
grain Gran, grain gr.   64.8 mg 0.064 798 910 g
+ Commercial weights, Avoirdupois
unit German Abbr.size Gram
dram drachma dr. 1⁄16 ounce 1.77 g 1.771 845 195 312 500 g
ounce, coll. lidounce oz. 1⁄16 pound 28.35 g 28,349 523 125 g
pound lb lb., pd., #, lbm. 7000 grain 4.54 hg 453.592 370 g
slug 32.174048 lb 14.6 kg 14.593 902 937 2 kg
short Avoirdupois
unit German Abbr.size Gram
quarter Quarter pound   ¼ hundredweight 11.3 kg 11 339.809 250 g
hundredweight, cental Hundredweight cwt. 100 pounds 45.4 kg 45 359.237 g
volumeton T., to. 20 hundredweight 0.907 t 907 184.74 g
+long Avoirdupois
unit German Abbr.size Gram
stone stone st. 14 pounds 6.35 kg 6 350.293 180 g
quarter Quarter of a penny qu., qr. l. 2 stone 12.7 kg 12 700.586 360 g
hundredweight Hundredweight cwt. 4 quarter 50.8 kg 50 802.345 44 g
volume ton T., to. 20 hundredweight 1.02 t 1,016,046.908 8 g
+ Coin weights, Troy
unit German Abbr.size Gram
pennyweight Penny weight dwt. 24 grain 1.56 g 1.555 173 840 g
ounce Troy ounce oz., tr.oz., oz.t. 20 pennyweight 3.11 dag 31.103 476 800 g
pound Troy pound lb., tr.lb., lb.t. 12 ounce 3.73 hg 373,241 721 600 g
+ Pharmacist weights, apothecariesuntil 1858
unit German Abbr.size Gram
scruple Scruples s., s.ap. 20 grain 1.30 g 1.295 978 200 g
dram Drachma, penny dr., dr.ap., ap.dr. 3 scruple 3.89 g 3.887 934 600 g
ounce Troy ounce oz., oz.ap., ap.oz. 8 drams = 1 troy ounce 3.11 dag 31.103 476 800 g
pound Troy pound lb., lb.ap., ap.lb. 12 ounces = 1 troy pound 3.73 hg 373,241 721 600 g

### Wool

Just that hundredweight and stone is also available in the normal, "long" English weight system (see above).

unit German Abbr.size Gram
clove, nail     7 pounds 3.18 kg 3 175.146 590 g
stone   st. 2 clove 6.35 kg 6 350.293 180 g
death     2 stone 12.7 kg 12 700.586 360 g
hundredweight Hundredweight cwt. 4 death 50.8 kg 50 802.345 440 g
wey, weight     1 5⁄8 hundredweight 82.6 kg 82 553.811 340 g
bag bag   2 wey 165 kg 165 107.622 680 g

### Grain

Despite the name (bushel) grain is now also measured by weight in the USA.

unit German Abbr.size Gram
bushel (maize / corn, rye) Bushel (corn, rye)   56 pounds 25.4 kg 25.401 172 720 kg
bushel (wheat, soybean) Bushel (wheat, soybeans)   60 pounds 27.2 kg 27.215 542 200 kg

### time

The only English unit of time that is still sometimes encountered these days is fortnight (from "fourteen nights"), for example in biweekly television programs. In addition, the term fortnight often used in Australia, where the salary and pension are usually paid every fortnight.

unit German Abbr.size Seconds
ounce (Ounce)   1⁄12 moment   7.5 s
moment (Moment)   1⁄40 h 1.5 min 90 s
bell (Bell jar)   1⁄8 watch 30 min 1800 s
watch (Guard)   4 h 240 min 14,400 ks
sennight     1 week 7 days 604,800 ks
fortnight     2 weeks 14 days 1.209 600 Ms

### temperature

Traditionally, in the English-speaking world, the Fahrenheit temperature scale is more common than that of Celsius. They differ in the starting point

0 ° C = 32 ° F = 273.15 K,
0 ° F = −17 7⁄9 ° C = - 17.78 ° C = 255.37 K

and in the size of a degree, which, however, are in a simple linear relationship to one another:

1 ° F = 5 ⁄ 9 ° C = 5 ⁄ 9 K.

Analogous to the Kelvin scale, the Rankine scale was used accordingly in science.

### speed

Formula symbols: v

unit German Abbr.size km / h m / s
knot node kn., nm / h 1.852 km / h 0.514 4444 m / s
Admiralty knot Knot (admiralty) kn., nm (adm) / h 1.853 184 km / h 0.514 77¯3 m / s
mile per hour miles per hour mph, mi./h 1.609 344 km / h 0.447 040 m / s
foot per second Feet per second fps, ft./s 1.097 280 km / h 0.304 800 m / s

With the international nautical mile, a knot only sinks by 1.184 m / h or 329 µm / s.

### force

Formula symbols: F.

unit German Abbr.size Newton
pound-force lb lbf., lbf. 1 pound GN = 196 133 ÷ 6096 lb. · ft. / S² 4.45 N 4,448 221 615 260 500 kg · m / s²
poundal   pdl. 1 lb. · ft. / S² 1.38 dN 0.138 254 954 376 kg · m / s²

Colloquially, the distinction is made between pound and pound-force (like kilograms to kilopond) often under the table, and the definition is not official. In addition, a technical pound-foot-second system was introduced in the first half of the 20th century, in which pound is the unit of force and the unit of mass slug called. The poundal has existed since at least 1879.

### print

Formula symbols: p

unit German Abbr.size Pascal
pounds per square inch PSI psi 1 pound-force ÷ 1 inch² 6.89 kPa 6,894,757,293,168,370 kg / m · s²
torr, mmHg Torr, millimeters of mercury mmHg, mmEd 1⁄760 atm = 101 325 ÷ 760 Pa 1.33 hPa 133.322 368 kg / m · s²
inch mercury Inches of mercury inHg, ′ ′ Hg 25.4 mmEd 3.39 kPa 3,386,388 157 894 730 kg / m · s²

### energy

Formula symbols: W. or E.

unit German Abbr.size Joules
calorie (15 ° C) calorie cal., cal15 1 g of H.2O @ 1 atm, 14.5-> 15.5 ° C 4.185 5 y 4.185 5 kg · m² / s²
Calorie (15 ° C) Kilocalorie C., kcal. 1000 calorie 4.185 5 kJ 4 185.5 kg · m² / s²
British thermal unit   Btu., BTU 1 pound H20.63-> 64 ° F ~ = 778 ft. Lbf. 1.055 kJ
therm     100,000 Btu. 105.5 MJ
quad     10 000 000 000 therm 1.055 EJ

In addition to the 15-degree calorie, there are a few more, see calorie. The quad means quadrillion BTU, meaning the American quadrillion, i.e. 1015 BTU.

### power

Formula symbols: P

unit German Abbr.size watt
manpower (Manpower)   1/10 horsepower 7.46 daW 74.569 987 158 227 kg · m² / s³
horsepower Horsepower hp., B.H.P. 550 lbf. · Ft. / ​​S = 550 · 196 133 ÷ 6 096 lb. · ft.² / s³ 7.46 hW 745.699 871 582 270 kg · m² / s³

The German horsepower is defined as 75 kp · m / s and at 735.498 750 watts, it is somewhat smaller than the British one horse power; it is sometimes called metric horsepower, i.e. metric horsepower.

### Torque

Formula symbols: Nm

unit German Abbr.size Newton meter
pounds-feet Pound foot lb-ft 1 lb-ft = 1 lb * 1 ft 1 lb-ft corresponds to 1.3562811 Nm