What is a back pressure steam turbine

Back pressure turbine

A back pressure turbine is a steam turbine in which the steam pressure gradient is only partially used, i.e. the steam is only partially expanded. The residual energy of the steam is used as process heat district heating and local heating. Back pressure turbines are preferably used in thermal power stations that give off the residual heat as district heating to the consumer. District heating can also be used to heat buildings in the wider vicinity of a thermal power station. An important characteristic of the back pressure turbine is that the exhaust steam is not expanded into the overpressure range, but is overheated in the overpressure range and is then removed.

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Combined heat and power plants

The possible uses of a steam turbine are very diverse. In practice, they are used wherever steam is required in large quantities as heating steam. This heating steam is processed further to supply private households or companies with heat or to provide energy in the form of heat for the production process. The process in which the heat is generated in a thermal power station requires many individual steps. It is also known as combined heat and power.

Structure and function: back pressure turbine and steam turbine

A back pressure turbine has a rapidly rotating shaft that is equipped with turbine blades. The back pressure turbine is driven by incoming steam. In this way, mechanical energy can be generated, and the amount can be precisely dosed.

The generation of mechanical energy by the back pressure turbine is in turn the prerequisite for generating heat. This is done by converting the mechanical energy step by step into thermal energy.

Thermal power plants - district heating, local heating and process heating

In practice, very different forms of thermal energy are required. This can be district heating, local heating and process heating. District heating and local heating are used to heat rooms in buildings, while process heat is used in industry. The focus here is not on heating rooms, but on the production process. Of course, industrial rooms and production halls also have to be heated, but the heat can be used in a variety of other ways.

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