Are information systems important in business life

Business informatics textbook

12th edition

This chapter serves, on the one hand, as an introduction to the subject of business informatics and, on the other hand, as motivation for the reader to deal more closely with the issues of this subject. It should make you curious!

For this purpose, the basic vocabulary of business informatics is conveyed and the relationships between business processes and their IT support are described. The characteristics of company and inter-company information systems are dealt with.

In this chapter we first deal with the interactions between current developments in information technology and society. In particular, the areas of digitization, globalization, outsourcing, work, leisure, the environment and security should be mentioned in this context. Then we describe the job market situation for business IT specialists and go into the IT organization and the individual IT job profiles.

This chapter covers the essential basics of business process management. Effectively and efficiently organized business processes contribute to the economical provision of products and services. Information systems play an important role in this. In order to coordinate processes and information systems with one another, a precise description of the entire process landscape is required. For the specific design, it is necessary to collect processes in detail, submit them to an analysis and consider opportunities for improvement. In the same way, methods of process analysis are related to methods of system development and can be integrated.

This chapter describes the basics of modeling business information systems. Models are used to present operational requirements for information systems consistently, correctly and completely. Modeling thus takes on an important role in coordinating business processes and information systems with one another. According to this bridging function, there are modeling concepts that are more based on the business world and those that are more oriented towards system development.

In addition to the basics of modeling, the chapter is dedicated to specific modeling concepts for describing the structures of a company, the business processes and the data in the operational environment.

This chapter deals with the basics of enterprise resource planning systems (in short: ERP systems). ERP systems play an important role in supporting business processes in companies. Various manufacturers offer standardized and configurable software packages for common processes that are used across company and industry boundaries.

In order to be able to assess the benefits of an ERP system for a company, a fundamental understanding of both the technical principles and the business functionality of such a system is required. Therefore, the essential functions in the areas of finance and accounting, human resources, materials management, production and sales are briefly presented.

This chapter deals with the basics of external information systems. Starting with the network economy, possible changes in value chains, the properties of digital goods, network effects and business models in e-commerce are discussed. In addition to portals, auxiliary and additional services, electronic markets and their properties are presented. Finally, customer relationship management systems, consumer information systems and inter-company information systems are discussed.

This chapter covers management support systems. These systems play an essential role in the preparation of operational decisions by management.

In order to understand the possibilities of such systems, three areas of management support are considered. Classic decision support systems provide methods and models that enable forecasts, optimizations and simulations to be created. Business intelligence systems help with the integration of various data sources, the evaluation and the provision of reports. Concept-oriented, preconfigured management support systems are tailored to special management tasks.

This chapter discusses the most important aspects of information system management, in particular the planning, development and operation of information systems. Business information systems are complex, so their management requires a systematic approach. The strategic information system planning forms the basis for this.

The information system architecture can be used to define different development projects. Such projects typically include business process modeling, requirements engineering, design and implementation, as well as testing and change management.

Various procedural models are available to coordinate these activities. The operation of information systems requires procedures to handle malfunctions and problems. The corresponding processes are also presented.

This chapter serves as an introduction to the security-relevant issues that arise when using operational information systems. These topics include security goals and measures to help achieve these security goals. The measures are partly technical and partly organizational or legislative in nature. The latter concern in particular the protection of privacy and personal data, i.e. problems that have recently hit the headlines of the international press in connection with the wiretapping scandals and global surveillance.

This chapter first presents general security goals in a model of basic goals and higher goals. For each of these goals, threats and possible countermeasures are compared. For comprehensive security management, it is necessary to know both the organizational structures and the basic requirements in order to be able to take effective countermeasures. While these measures cannot guarantee security, they can reduce the chances of success of an attack and the potential damage. A section on data protection concludes this chapter.

This chapter gives an introduction to storing data. This introduction first covers the basics of how different forms of data are encoded using bits and bytes on computers.

These basic forms are used in the following sections in more complex data structures, which in turn form the basis of the two main sections on databases and document-centered data storage. In the last section of this chapter we give an outlook on the methods of data storage as they are used today by leading Internet companies such as Amazon, Facebook or Google for the storage and management of “Big Data”.

This chapter explains the basic structure and operation of computers. First, you will learn what functional units a computer consists of and how they interact. In the next step you will get to know the components and their properties. Finally, the main types of calculators and development trends are presented.

In the second half of this chapter, the basics of software are explained: You will learn how software works, how software can be developed, and how complex software systems can be assembled from software components that are as reusable as possible.

The operating system is a prerequisite for operating a computer. Finally, the tasks and components of operating systems are presented in order to clarify the relationships between how computers work and how they can be used.

This chapter provides an introduction to data and computer communication. This area forms the basis of computer-aided communication, via which a large part of the information is passed on between people, between people and companies, and between and within companies.

This chapter introduces the basic functions of data and computer communication, starting with elementary functions, which are then used to gradually develop more complex communication services. In the following, the basic concepts of computer networks are explained and the problems and possible solutions are explained using a reference model. As an example of the application-oriented layers, the Internet protocols and in particular the HTTP protocol in its functionality are presented, which forms the basis of the World Wide Web. Finally, examples of Internet applications in private households and cloud computing are described.