When started smoking tobacco

tobacco

In Austria, tobacco was already known as an ornamental plant in the 1670s (Herbarium 1599). Tobacco smoking only became known in this country during the Thirty Years' War (Abraham a Sancta Clara speaks of the "Herba militaris", the soldier's herb). The oldest news about tobacco consumption and cultivation date back to around 1650; the tobacco trade spread from Upper Austria across the area The monarchy (tobacco was already designated as a general consumer good in 1669). Smoking bans were known from the first half of the 17th century; Leopold I also turned to Vienna after the fire in the Hofburg (1668), which was attributed to careless smoking against tobacco smoking, but still granted corresponding privileges (on the grounds that the smoking ban was not observed at all). In addition to chewing tobacco and snuff, pipe smoking prevailed (although tobacco chewing, which was particularly popular among the lower classes of the population, was still cheaper than smoking around 1900.) Pipe smoking was in Vienna in the late 17th and friday The 18th century was more widespread than in the Maria-Theresian and Josephine times, because in the Rococo, as a result of the spread of the beardless facial fashion, snuff (which was allowed even in strict monasteries) was widely used; Tobacco boxes (partly artistically executed) were used to store the snuff especially for this purpose. While (according to J. Pezzl) in the 1890s the sale of pipe tobacco made up barely 5% of consumption, it rose rapidly to almost 50% by 1800; The enthusiasm for England and the presence of many merchants and travelers from Northern Germany and Western Europe had contributed significantly to this, and the enthusiastic acceptance of the new fashion by the young soon made pipe smoking socially acceptable. In the pre-March period, the tobacco ban concentrated more and more on smoking outdoors (this offense was at the top of the list of roadblocks on public roads); in pubs, however, it got out of hand (separate rooms, also in coffee houses); The "stuffed coffee house pipe" was a natural service in the early 19th century. In Vienna smoking was on the streets of the city center, on the bastions, bridges and promenades (e.g. Hauptallee, Wasserglacis), near the toll booths, magazines and sentries as well Banned in Schönbrunn and Laxenburg; in addition to the fire hazard, "public decency" was also given as a reason. In the pre-March period, however, the struggle for "smoke-free" soon acquired a political dimension (not least with regard to the French occupation of Vienna, because the French were not aware of a ban on smoking in public) Prater ordinance of 1818 with regard to Hauptallee) Smoking was frowned upon at court (Franz Joseph I first changed this because he smoked Virginians himself). In the 1940s, Archduke Albrecht, a sharp opponent of public smoking, became the Viennese city commander However, it stirred up hatred against these in broad sections of the population and led to bitter arguments and fights (for example in the university district). The lifting of the smoking ban in public only came about with the March Revolution in 1848 (final expiry in 1852). For workers, the pipe became a status symbol, however this was meanwhile become the pleasure of the little man; Dandies and the wealthy had long since turned to cigars (first import can be documented as early as 1805; first offered to Austrian smokers in 1811). If it had not been able to assert itself at the beginning, it subsequently remained (particularly because of its price) limited to the upper classes (3.1 million in 1823, 29.5 million in 1842 and 168 million in 1848); in the middle classes the cigar was considered a symbol of revolutionary sentiment in the Vormärz, which is why the smokers were also spied on by the police (Ludlamshöhle); It was argued that the cigar smoker flees the family and therefore comes into contact with undesirable newspapers in taverns and coffeehouses, about which he discusses with like-minded people. In the second half of the 19th century, the cigar was only a sign of sedentariness and satiety, the epitome of the urban way of life and the capitalist way of thinking. For a long time it was still good manners not to smoke in the street; Correspondence books devoted a lot of space to places where people shouldn't smoke. Smoking was also limited to the smoking coupes in the trams of the Tramway Company (later also the city tram). In the 1870s the Social Democrats founded smoking clubs (pipes) in order to be able to conduct political discussions undisturbed, but this was soon stopped by the police. After import duties were levied on tobacco as early as the middle of the 17th century, the Austrian tobacco monopoly developed into an important state source of income from the 19th century onwards. Towards the end of the 19th century, the cigarette (which the tobacco management had first unsuccessfully offered in 1843, but of which 16 million were sold in a second attempt in 1866) began to outstrip cigars as a sign of a fast-moving time; the filling with pipe tobacco was abandoned and numerous varieties were created from finely chopped tobacco plants, which were offered with promising names. Sales soared (1876 52 million, 1881 81 million, 1887 533 million, 1900 3 billion and 1913 6 billion pieces). The first public cigarette machine was set up in Vienna on April 19, 1899. Oriental cigarettes dominated until the 1920s and 1930s (70% share in 1937), after the Second World War it sank to less than 10% of consumption; the first type with American tobacco was the "Jonny", at that time the "Austria 2" and from 1949 the "Donau" (1953 3 billion, 1959 only 574 million pieces), those of the "Austria Drei" and the "Austria C" was replaced. Austria Tabakwerke, Tabakhauptfabriken, Austrian Tobacco Museum.

literature

  • Ernst Trost: To a general relief. Cultural and economic history of tobacco in Austria. 1985
  • Roman Sandgruber: Bittersweet pleasures. Cultural history of luxury items: 1986, p. 91 ff., P. 146 ff., P. 159 ff.