Why didn't China leave Hanzi
Free University of Berlin
daily on Twitter since March 23, 2020 https://twitter.com/guder_andreas
based on the frequency list
My contribution in #Corona times and for communication with #China: Every day background information on a Chinese #character, starting with the most common (and therefore more grammatical) characters: #Chinese
An alphabetical sorting is planned; In the meantime, I recommend using the search function.
Nr.1 的 / de / histor / di / urspr. “Shining white”, then “goal”. Hence 白 (/ bái /) “white” on the left as a semantic component. Right 勺 / sháo / ("ladle") as phon. Component. Today mainly the connecting word between attributes and nouns.
Nr.2 一 / yī / "one", the simplest and second most common of all Chinese characters. Compare our Roman I: Both are at right angles to the direction of writing. Like the German “ein” also used in “some” 一些, “a bit” 一点, “once” 一次 etc.
No. 3 是 / shì / "to be", also classically demonstrative "this". Original meaning unclear, probably a combination of 早 “morning” and 止 “foot”, now more 日 “sun” and 正 “upright, correct”. My donkey bridge: The mouth 曰 says what is correct 正: "to be, to exist".
Nr.4 不 / bù / “no, not”, the most frequent negation word, already on oracle bones in this function. There are many theories about the origin (plant, personal name, etc.) The most beautiful (but not verifiable) I find the interpretation "roots under the ground (一) that you CANNOT see".
No. 5 了 / liǎo / / le / “end” “understand”, especially aspect particles of perfection. Probably nonexistent in Chinese antiquity (up to Han). In the SWJZ as a child 子 without arms, meaning 尥, "step backwards (horse, cattle)" ... Perhaps today's 了 is a tangzeitl. Abbreviation?
No.6 在 / zài / “exist”, “to be in one place”. Bottom right 土 (/ tǔ /) “Earth” as a semantic component (actually originally probably phonetic 士 / shì / “trained person”, but that doesn't help learners.) Top left 才 / cái / (“talent”) as a phonetic Component!
No.7 人 / rén / "human" (on two legs). As a semantic component in other characters on the left: 亻 (in 信 但 作 etc.) Not to be confused with 入 / rù / "into" (No. 210). See 人口 rénkǒu "population" vs. 入口 / rùkǒu / "entrance".
Nr.8 有 / yǒu / "have, have". Top left component “hand” / yòu / in sem. and phon. Function (as in 友 / yǒu /, 右 / yòu /). In the hand 肉 / ròu / "meat" (in the "moon-like" short form 月) - a wonderfully archaic form of "possession".
No. 9 我 / wǒ / "I, me, my, our". Originally a saw-like weapon of the same name, related to 戈 "Hiebaxt" (/ gē /), possibly also with 𠄒 "hang down" / "kill" (!) Or 勿 "cut off". Already in Chinese antiquity phonetically borrowed for "I".
No.10 他 / tā / "he" "him" "his", originally "other". Not documented in antiquity, probably only in use in the Tang period. Left 亻 “person”, right 也 / yě / “also” in semantic and probably also phonetic function. FunFact: 他 was gender neutral until the 20th century.
No.11 这 (trad. 這) / zhè / "dies / e / r / s, here". Most frequent deicticon in China, only from the time of the Tang. Significant 辶 “locomotion”.言 was probably originally the more complex phonetic 啇 / dī /, says Qiu Xigui. Donkey bridge: “Language” (言) “moves” (辶) towards an object: “this here”.
No.12 个 (trad. 個) / gè // ge / most common counting word (“piece”, “person” etc.), “individually”. In the traditional traditional character, left significant 亻 “person” (arch. Also 竹 “bamboo”), right phonetic 固 / gǔ / (inside 古 / gù /). The abbreviation 个 can also be used for f.d. Han period can be proven.
Nr.13 们 (trad. 們) / men / plural suffix for personal pronouns ("we / her / she") and persons. Typical S + P sign: Significant 亻 “person” on the left, phonetic 门 門 / men / (door, gate) on the right. Only occupied since the time of the Tang.
No.14 中 / zhōng / "middle", "center", "China" as the country / countries "in the middle". Originally probably an anemometer on a pole, fluttering above and below the pennant, which indicated the wind direction.
No.15 来 (trad. 來) / lái / “come, z. Moving the speaker ”. Originally a type of grain (like 禾, 米); for “to come” the signifier “foot” was added. Today the meanings are reversed: Grain “/ mài /” is written with “foot”: 麥 (麦); “Come” / lái / like a grain.
No.16 上 / shàng / "above, up, previous, get on, begin". Grapheme pointing upwards. Antonym (also graphically) 下 / xià / (number 42). Traditionally, writing and time flow from top to bottom.
No.17 大 / dà / "large, extensive". A person 人 with arms outstretched.
No.18 为 (trad. 爲 為) / wéi / "act, serve as" / wèi / "because of, for". Both the abbreviation and its meaning are very abstract today. In the first traditional sign, a hand can still be seen above, including a four-legged animal: according to Shuowen a monkey, according to today's experts an elephant.
No. 19 和 / hé / “convey”, then “balanced, harmony”, later grammaticalized to “and, with”. The significant 口 "mouth" is in ancient characters like here on the right, only later on the left.禾 / hé / "grain" is only a phonetic.
No.20 国 (trad. 國) / guó / "Land, Staat". Already 或 / huò / shows a territory 口 that is defended with weapons 戈 (cf. 域 / yù / “region”), later marked as territory again with. The abbreviation 国 can already be found on Taiping coins (around 1860).
Nr.21 地 / dì / / de / "Earth, soil", in modern Chinese also particles between adjectives and verbs used in adverbs. Significant 土 “Earth” with phonetic 也 / yě /.
No. 22 到 / dào / “to arrive”, “to” (temporal and spatial). In written language, 至 / zhì / has always been used with the same meaning: an upside-down arrow 矢 “reaches” the ground 土. Completed early on by 刂 (刀 / dāo / "knife"), which only functions as a phonetic in this sign.
No.23 以 / yǐ / "by means of, as, to ... to". What looks like an abbreviation has been documented over 2000 years ago. Originally an object 㠯 or 厶 / yǐ / that is carried by a person 人 (right): “to carry with you”.
Nr.24 说 (trad. 說 / 説) / shuō / (rarely / shuì / / yuè /) "say, speak, admonish, explain". On the left the signifier "language" 訁 / 讠, on the right phon. and sem.兑 (today / duì /), which also had the basic meaning “to speak, to be happy” (an open mouth on two legs, cf. also 悦 / yuè / “to be happy”).
No.25 时 (trad. 時) / shí / "time". On the left the sun 日 as a signifier for time, on the right in the traditional sign 寺 / sì / "temple" (formerly / chí / "hold on", see 持;) as a phonetic, which in the abbreviation reform refers to the now functionless 寸 / cun / "Holding hand" was reduced.
No.26 要 / yào / / yāo / “become, want”, also “important, central”. Originally “waist, hip” (today 腰 / yāo /), above two hands that grasp something (like 𦥑), below woman 女 (archaic also 大 or versions in which the hands grip the waist of a person at the side).
No.27 就 / jiù / originally “to approach”, today gram. Particles "accordingly, already, then" and much more .. Lt. Sources are semantically composed of 京 “tall building” and 尤 “special”, but there are (today) also phonetic references: 京 / jīng / + 尤 / yóu / = 就 / jiù /.
No.28 出 / chū / “go out, leave (a place)”. Originally a foot 屮 (today 止) leaving a cave 凵.
Nr.29 会 (trad. 會) / huì / “gathering, meeting” (today also “becoming, can”). Originally developed from a variant of 合 (phon. And sem. / Hé / “connect”), with 小 in 囗 (/ huì /) as a phonetic in between. Abbreviations purely graphical (no reference to 云 / yún / “cloud”).
No. 30 可 / kě / “can, possible, be feasible”. "Mouth" 口 as a signifier. There are various theories about the original meaning: “Singing” (歌 / gē /), “scolding” (訶 / hē /) or “screaming” (号 / hào /) all show graphical, semantic and phonetic references to 可.
No.31 也 / yě / "also" (in classical Chinese sentence final particles). Neither “snake” nor the “vagina” claimed by the SWJZ 2000 years ago appear conclusive; In view of the ancient evidence, a “mouth from which air escapes” is more understandable in terms of content.
No.32 你 / nǐ / "du", 2nd Pers.Sg., only occupied from the time of the Tang. Left signifier 亻 “human”, right 尔 (爾) / ěr /, which in Chinese antiquity was used in the sense of “you” and thus phon. and sem. Function. (There are other examples that demonstrate the phonetic proximity of the apparently fundamentally different syllables / ni / and / er /: 倪 / ní / 迩 / ěr /). There is also a gender-equitable 妳 in Taiwan.
No.33 对 (trad. 對) / duì / “assign → opposite, answer, correct”. Originally probably a hand 土 that worked 丵 the ground 土 with a chisel - no obvious reference to today's field of meaning. The short form 对 can be traced back to the Ming period.
No.34 生 / shēng / "bring forth, give birth, grow, raw (from vegetables), foreign", suffix for persons. A plant germ 屮 that grows out of the ground 土.
No.35 能 / néng / “can, be possible”. Originally a representation of a bear: the head with its mouth became 月, the body 厶, and the legs two 匕. A new variant with four "legs" was later created for the basic meaning: 熊 / xióng / "bear".
No.36 而 / ér / “and, also, but”, adverbial particles, especially written. Representation of a full beard (later 耏), phonetically borrowed for the conjunctional meaning.
No.37 子 / zǐ / / -zi / “son, child”, suffix for various nouns. Abstract illustration of an infant with arms outstretched, legs wrapped up.
No.38 那 / nà / "those / r / s", Deiktikon, only from the Tang period, antonym to No.11 这 / zhè / "these / r / s". Left variant of the otherwise obsolete phonetic 冄 = 冉 / rǎn /. How many characters with 阝 on the right (邑 / yì / “region, city”) originally name of a region (also 𨙻 / nuó /).
No. 39 得 / dé / / de / / děi / “received”; Structural particles for complements; “Must” (Chinese). The right part alone already shows a hand 寸 that is grasping a shell 貝 (shortened to 旦): "received". With the significant for “way” 彳 originally “find shell money on the way” = “get rich”.
Nr.40 于 (trad. 於) / yú / preposition “in, bei, von”, both forms used since ancient times. Traditional character 於 allegedly a variant of 烏 / wū / "raven bird", no reference to 族 etc. Abbreviation representation of an ancient wind instrument (today 竽 / yú /).
No. 41 着 (trad. 著) / zhe / zháo / zhuó / (durative aspect particles) / “touch, apply successfully” etc. In ancient times probably written with “bamboo”: 箸, today / zhù /) today from the Significant “grass” 艹 and the phonetic 者 (today / zhě /) combined. The form 着 (羊 + 目) is a misspelling that has become the standard in VR.
No.42 下 / xià / “down, down, following, get off, finish”. Grapheme pointing down. Antonym (also graphically) 上 / shàng / (No.16). Traditionally, writing and time flow from top to bottom.
No.43 自 / zì / "myself, from ... since". Originally the representation of a nose; see “nose” 鼻 bí: 自 with phonetic 畀 / bì /, or “breathe” 息 / xī /, then expanded to the Origo term “self”. (Also in Sanskrit, "breath" and "self" are one word: / atman /.)
No.44 之 / zhī / written attribute particles, in classical Chinese also object pronouns. Originally (like 出 Nr.28) a foot 止 / zhǐ / leaving a place, which in this grammatical function became an abbreviation that can be written quickly in ancient times.
45 年 / nián / "year". Originally a representation of a person 人 / rén / (later also graphics reminiscent of 壬 / rén / or 千 / qiān / - all with a phonetic reference) shouldering the harvest 禾, expanded in meaning to symbolize the course of the year.
No.46 过 (trad. 過) / guò / “go through, cross, spend, excessively”, (experience aspect particle). Significant "locomotion" 辶 with phonetic 咼 / guō / ("bone"). Phonetic in the abbreviation simplified to functionless grapheme 寸.
No.47 发 (trad. 發 / 髮) / fā // fà / "send out, produce, develop" / "hair".發 / fā / “shoot a bow” from 弓 “bow”, 殳 “hold a weapon” and phon.癶 / bō /.髮 / fà / “hair” from 髟 “long hair” and phon.犮 / bá /. The two characters, which are completely different in terms of semantics and graphics, were merged into one abbreviation in the VR.
No.48 后 (trad. 後 / 后) / hòu / "behind, after, later" / "queen". Div. Interpretations for 后: a) Woman 女, who gives birth to a child (head 口 downwards), b) “Giver of command” (like mirror image 司 / sī /).後 originally from 夊 “to go” and phon.幺 / āo /, later 彳 “way” was added. Both concepts of meaning already in antiquity as.
No.49 作 / zuò / "do, do, act as". Possibly originally “fell a tree”: A person 亻 works with an ax 乍 / zhà / (also phonetically).
No.50 里 / lǐ / "small village", measure of length; "Inside" (trad. 裡 / 裏). A place with earth 土 and fields 田. In both traditional forms for the most common use “inside” 裡 / 裏, 里 is supplemented by two different variants of the signifier 衣 / yī / “clothing”.
No.51 用 / yòng / "use, need". Representation of a wooden bucket (also with a handle: 甬 / yǒng /, / tǒng /) (“bucket” today 桶 / tǒng /). Already on oracle bones (13th-11th century B.C.) for today's verbal use phonetically borrowed.
No. 52 道 / dào / “way, principle”, central concept of Dao / Taoism. Significant 辶 “movement” (彳 + 止; 辵) with phonetic 首 / shǒu / “head”. In bronze signs mostly 首 in the middle of 行 “to go” (No.53).
No.53 行 / xíng / / háng / “go, perform, conduct”, “branch”. Originally the illustration of a crossroads ╬. As a signifier “way” graphically surrounding (in 街, 衡, 術), but mostly shortened to 彳.
No.54 所 / suǒ / place, place (also ZEW), (passivation particles). On the left a variant of a door 户 / hù /, on the right an ax 斤 / jīn /. The "Shuowen" claims it is the hiss of an ax (with 户 / hù / as a phonetic). I find Prof. Hong Po Man's declaration “a house protected by weapons” much more plausible.
No.55 然 / rán / “right, be like that” (morpheme in numerous adverbs). Phonetically borrowed; originally 犬 “dog, wolf” + 肉 “meat” (肰 / rán /, also phonetic) over fire 灬 (火): “roast, burn”. For this basic meaning “fire” was added again later: 燃 / rán / “burn”.
No.56 家 / jiā / “Household, Family”, later also “Specialist” and others. A pig 豕 under one roof 宀. An ancient word for pig was 豭 / jiā /, which here - abbreviated - could be phonetic. According to another interpretation, pigs did not have to be led to pasture, but kept where the “household” was.
No.57 种 (trad. 種) / zhǒng // zhòng / “type, variety” (also ZEW) / “plant, cultivate”. Significant "grain" 禾 with phonetic 重 / zhòng / (in VR shortened to 中 / zhōng /). Both meanings come from the same word field “type of grain”.
No.58 事 / shì / “matter, matter”. Like 吏 / lì / and 使 / shǐ / diversification of 史 / shǐ / ("historical records") - in all of them a hand reaches from the right for a (writing -?) Object; all four characters originally designate official and administrative activities.
No.59 成 / chéng / “complete, change, become something”. Originally “fortified city” (today 城 / chéng /). A battle ax (戊 / wù /, 戌 / xū /) as a signified, with an unclear second component (signified 土 "earth" or phonetic 丁 / dīng /).
Nr.60 方 / fāng / "square, direction, side, recipe". Recognizable in oracle bone mark and bronze mark as a knife 刀 with highlighting of the blade. Borrowing process unclear.
No.61 多 / duō / "many". In oracle bones two pieces of meat kn (cf. top left in number 55 然 / rán /), but in bronze texts the alienated spelling as “two moons” 月 is already recognizable (cf. 夕 / xī / “evening”).
No.62 经 (trad. 經) / jīng / "run through, constant". The right part 巠 / jīng / represents a loom with the “running” silk threads. Later the signifier “silk” 糸 was added again.
No.63 么 (trad. 麽, 麼) / me // mo / (suffix mainly in question words). Developed from the signifier 幺 / āo // yāo / "silk threads" with the phonetic 麻 / má / ("hemp"): "fine, small (threads)", today only in grammatical use. In the abbreviation without phonetic.
No.64 去 / qù / “move away, go, go to a place”. Originally a person 大 who left a cave 口. In my character set there is also an "old" variant 厺 (大 over Zeich).
Nr.65 法 / fǎ / “rule, law”, Sanskrit “Dharma”, phon. also “French”, originally “natural law, punishment”: before the Han period mostly as 灋, with the mythical unicorn 廌/zhì/ that could distinguish between good and bad (!). Today it is often interpreted simply as a “law of nature”: the course of the water.
No.66 学 (trad. 學) / xué / "learn, school". Significant “child” 子 under a - possibly phonetic - subgraph (cf. 觉 覺 / jué /), which consists of two hands that are obviously occupied with something (爻 / yáo /?, Possibly numerals here?).
No.67 如 rú “follow, as (comparative), according to, if”. A functional word that was grammaticalized early on, which can be recognized by the fact that the “mouth” steht stands as a signifier here on the right-hand side. “Woman” 女 / nǚ / can be explained phonetically here (cf. 汝 / rǔ /), but some also see a patriarchal legacy here: the woman does “as” one (n) commands her.
No.68 都 / dū / / dōu / “capital, metropolis”, meaning in oral. Chinese expands to “all, all”.者 / zhӗ / is phonetically here, signifier 邑 / ⻏ "city".
No.69 同 / tóng / "together, with, equal". Probably a signifier 口 "mouth". The second subgraphem 𠔼 (also 冃) resembles an H with a double slash in oracle and bronze characters and thus looks like a bamboo section (cf. 筒 / tǒng / "bamboo cane"!).
No.70 现 (trad. 現) / xiàn / “appear, become visible”. Not proven in ancient texts. Obviously a semantic derivation of 见 (見) / jiàn / "see, perceive" with the addition of the subgraphem "jade" 玉 (perhaps meaning "shine"?).
No.71 当 (trad. 當) / dāng // dàng / "correspond to (d), should, be active as" etc .. Apparently originally an agricultural term, arose from the signifier "field" 田 and the phonetic 尚 / shàng /.
No.72 没 (trad. 沒) / mò / / méi / originally “sink in”, grammaticalized as a negation particle. On the left “water” 氵, on the right a hand 又 that reaches into the swirling water 回 (in Shuowen 囘 or 𠬸). This grapheme was soon shortened to a variant of "knife" 刀, then the abbreviation to "lance" 殳.
No.73 动 (trad. 動) / dòng / "(to) move". Right signifier “force” Kraft, left as phonetic 重 / zhòng / (“heavy”), which was replaced in the abbreviation reform by the much simpler, but here meaningless 云 / yún / (“clouds”).
No. 74 面 / miàn / “face, surface”, since the abbreviation reform also “flour, noodles” (trad. With 麥 “grain”: 麵): an eye 目 in a face 囗 (cf. also 首 / shǒu / “ Head").
No.75 起 / qǐ / “get up, begin”. Typical phonetic significant sign (S + P-Sinographem, 形 声 字 xíngshēngzì, approx. 90% of today's Chinese characters): on the left the significant "locomotion" 走 (/ zǒu /), on the right as phonetic 己 / jǐ /.
No.76 看 / kàn / “(to) see, observe, read”. Typical case of a character composed only of semantically functioning graphemes without phonetic (S + S-Sinographem, 会意 字 huìyìzì, less than 5% of all characters): A hand 手 over an eye 目.
No.77 定 / dìng / "stable, fix, determined". A roof 宀 as a signifier, a variant of 正 / zhèng / (“straight, upright”) as a phonetic. Original meaning "peaceful, safe" (similar to 安 / ān /).
No.78 天 / tiān / “Heaven, day”. Originally “head”: a person with outstretched arms 大 (No. 17) and a head reduced to a single line. In bronze signs already in the spiritual meaning "heaven", sometimes with a second horizontal line above it.
P.S .: Shaughnessy ("The beginnings of writing in China") suspects a close relationship to 颠 / diān / "vertex, point" due to the phonetic similarity.)
No.79 分 / fēn / “divide, separate, (fraction) part”. A knife 刀 divides an object 八.
Nr.80 还 (trad. 還) / huán // hái / “to return, to give back”, today mainly “still, even, in addition”. Significant 辶 “locomotion”. The phonetic 睘 / huán /, which is graphically abbreviated to 不 in VR, means “ring, round” (cf. 環 / huán / “ring”!), Can therefore also be interpreted semantically here.
No.81 进 (trad. 進) / jìn / “advance, enter, enter”. Significant 辶 “locomotion”. The original second significant 隹 (/ zhuī /) "bird" (birds cannot walk backwards!) Was exchanged for the phonetic 井 / jǐng / ("fountain") in the VR.
No.82 好 / hào / / hǎo / “like to have”, “good”. Men may interpret it as “good” to have a wife 女 and a child 子. Much more likely, however, the sign describes the mother's affection for the child, the meaning of which later expanded to "good".
No.83 小 / xiǎo / “small”. Probably originally the depiction of crumbs or grains of sand. Compare the closely related 少 / shǎo // shào / “few” and 沙 / 砂 / shā / “sand”.
No.84 部 / bù / “Region, part, department, ministry”. Left phonetic 咅 / pǒu / (variant of 否 / fǒu /), right signifium 阝 (邑 / yì /) “region, city”. The meaning “part” also refers semantically to 剖 / pōu / “cut open”.
No.85 其 / qí / in written language "his, her, him, him, she". Two hands hold a braided scoop to separate the chaff and grain (today with “bamboo” 箕 / jī /). Phonetically borrowed early for personal pronouns.
No.86 些 / xiē / “some” (ZEW for small, indefinite amounts). The deicticon 此 / cǐ / “here, this” (where the person 匕 stands with his foot 止) refers to a demonstrative use, the sign for “two” 二 to the fact that it is a plural (unit of count) word.
No.87 主 / zhǔ / “host, mainly (mainly)”. Here we poke around in the dark: Possibly an altar or shrine with a flame (丶 / zhǔ /!). Often written with “roof” in the small seal script: 宔. Many authors see a graphic connection to the religious symbols 示 or 宗 “perform, altar, ceremony”.
No.88 样 (trad. 樣 / 様) / yàng / "appearance, pattern, type". Original meaning "acorn", abstracted early on to today's field of meaning. Left significant “wood” 木, right phonetic 羊 / yáng / (“sheep”). In the traditional sign, more complex phonetic 羕 / yàng / ("eternally flowing water").
Nr.89 理 / lǐ / “(ordering) principle, reason, regulate”. Central concept of the Neo-Confucians (12th century). Left significant “jade” “, right phonetic 里 / lǐ /. Originally the grain of jade, then also indicative of the processing corresponding to the grain.
No.90 心 / xīn / “Heart, Feeling, Center”. Illustration of a heart with chambers. Significant especially in characters associated with emotions, often on the left as 忄, below next to 心 (as in 想) also (as in 恭).
No.91 她 / tā / "they" (3rd pers.). Probably the youngest of all common signs: Only emerged under the impression of western languages that differentiated between masculine and feminine in the language reform movement at the beginning of the 20th century, formed in analogy to 他 / tā / (today only "he", no. 10). Allegedly first used by Liu Bannong in a love poem in 1920.
No.92 本 / běn / “root, base, this, my, our”, ZEW for books, 日本 / rìběn / “Japan”. A tree 木, the roots of which are highlighted by a dash.
No.93 前 / qián / “before, forwards, earlier, before”. Originally 歬, “forwards”: a boat 舟 (or a shoe), in front of it a foot or a step 止. Both graphemes are alienated today. With “knife” 刂 actually “cut”, quasi borrowed back for “front”. ("Cutting" today 剪 / jiǎn / with double "knife".)
No.94 开 (trad. 開) / kāi / “open, begin”. Two hands 廾 push the latch 一 of a gate 門 up to open it. In the abbreviation reform, the gate was dispensed with (see No. 127 关 / 關 / guān / “close”).
No.95 但 / dàn / “but, but, only”. Originally “with a naked torso” (today 袒 / tǎn /): left significant 亻 “human”, right phonetic 旦 / dàn /.
No.96 因 / yīn / “Reason, because, because of”. Phonetically borrowed for grammatical meaning, originally a person wrapped in clothing 大 (later 裀 / yīn /, also related to 茵 / yīn / "mat").
No.97 只 (trad. Also 祗) / zhǐ / “only”; (trad. 隻) / zhī / "individually", (ZEW for animals, hands, etc.).隻 originally “catching a bird with your hand”. The abbreviation used today for both concepts is already used as an interjection symbol (a calling mouth) in the Hanzzeit and in the usage "only" in the Tangzeit.
No.98 从 (trad. 從) / cóng / “to follow”, meaning expanded to “from… her, since”. The original + 止 is a variant of today's 辵 / 辶 "locomotion". The abbreviation is again meaningfully reduced to the basic symbol: a person 人 who “follows” another 人.
No.99 想 / xiǎng / “think, plan, wish”.Significant “heart” (emotion) 心, phonetic 相 / xiāng // xiàng / (木 “tree” and 目 “eye”, originally “observing”, today “each other”).
No.100 实 (trad. 實) / shí / "solid, real, serious". Originally a treasury symbolizing wealth: shells 貝 and strings of money 毌 under one roof 宀 (similar to 富 / fù / "rich"). In the abbreviation, the complex 貫, like other similar graphemes, has been replaced by 貫 / tóu / "head".
No.101日 / rì / “sun, day” (as well as in 日本 / rìběn / “Japan”: land of the rising sun). Originally a round sun, now angular thanks to scratching and brush writing.日 is itself a significant in many signs that are connoted with light and time.
No.102 军 (trad. 軍) / jūn / "military, army". A chariot 車 / 车 under a roof-like graph 冖, which originally represented the phonetic 匀 / yún / (unit of weight) or 勹.
No.103 者 / zhӗ / Already used in bronze inscriptions, as it is today, mainly as a nominalization suffix. History of origin unclear: Ancient forms refer to plants and often resemble 杏 or 春, so despite the graphic similarity there is no historical connection to 老 / l Nro / (No. 179), 考 / kǎo / or 孝 / xiào /.
No. 104 意 / yì / “Thought, Idea, Opinion”. In ancient times also in the variant 𠶷. Composed of two semantic graphemes: "Say 音 (variant of 言, words from an open mouth) what the heart 心 thinks".
Nr.105 无 (trad. 無) / wú / “not, not have” (written language). The grapheme 無 represents a dancing person, with jewelry on the arms, including two pieces of wood 𣞤 (cf. 蕪 / wú / “undergrowth, weeds”, 舞 / wǔ / “dance”). But the supposedly modern abbreviation 无 is also used as a negation word in ancient texts.
No.106 力 / lì / “strength, ability”. Originally a representation of a plow. See also “field” 田 + “plow” 力 = 男 / nán / “male”. Significance in a few other signs.
No.107 它 (trad. 牠) / tā / "es" (3rd pers. Sg.) Originally a snake (today 蛇 / shé /, see also No.31 也 / yӗ /), an early allograph to 他/ tā /. In the 20th century then initially as 牠 (with “cattle” 牛), in the VR as 它 in a strict “neuter” use for animals and abstracts (see No. 91 她 / tā /).
No.108 与 (trad. 與) / yǔ / “give, support, and, with”. Two hands 廾 give a tooth (与 is a variant of 牙 / yá /) into two other hands. (Teeth were ritual gifts.) Cf. also phonetically and semantically 舁 / yú / “lift up together”.
No.109 长 (trad. 長) / cháng / / zhǎng / “long, constant” “grow”. A figure on a stick with long, flowing hair; graphically related to 老 / lǎo / "old": Originally both "got old" and "long hair", meaning field expanded to "long" and "grow". (“Hair” as a signifier still today 髟 / biāo / with the variant 镸).
No.110 把 / bǎ / “hold on, grip”, syntax particle for “grasping” an object. Significant “hand” 扌 (手) with phonetic 巴 / bā / (“giant snake”).
No.111 机 (trad. 機) / jī / "device, machine, critical point, opportunity". Significant “wood” 木 with phonetic 几 / jī / (“little table”) or 幾 / jǐ / (“some”, 𢆶 + 戍, no.211).
No.112 十 / shí / “ten”. In the early days of Chinese writing a vertical line: 丨 (cf. horizontal line: 一 / yī / "one", no.2). An often added, thick point in the middle developed into an additional horizontal line at the time of the Warring States (5th-3rd centuries B.C.E.).
No.113 民 / mín / “People, Citizens”. Originally "slaves" who were gouged out an eye with a stabbing weapon. In antiquity, however, it was expanded to “population”, and the cruel original meaning of today's abstract sign disappeared from the collective consciousness.
No.114 第 / dì / prefix for ordinal numbers, "the / the / the X-th", originally "sequence".第 / 弟 was once a wooden handle wrapped in bamboo leaves (later 柲 / bì /), borrowed early for “sequence” (the bamboo leaves?) And “younger brother”.
No.115 公 / gōng / “public, general”. The meaning "male" (as an honorary designation and for animals) is probably borrowed phonetically. A kind of amphora with two handles (later 瓮 / wèng /) - or a graphic variant of No. 79 分 / fēn / “share”; see also the antonyms 厶 or 私 / sī / "private".
No.116 此 / cǐ / written demonstrative “this (it), here” - where the person stands 匕 with his foot 止. See number 86 些 / xiē / “some”.
No.117 已 / yǐ / “already, already”. Originally "snake" 巳 / sì / (sixth animal in the Chinese zodiac, number 6 in the cycle of the 12 earth branches 地支 / dìzhī /), slightly changed graphically for the abstract meaning: the square is half open on the left (with complete opening: 己 / jǐ / "self").
No.118 工 / gōng / “work”. A device whose function is not clear: in bronze characters often with a round bottom; Speculations therefore go in the direction of the ram, cutting device or angle measurement.
No. 119 使 / shǐ / “send, messenger, message (he / in), cause, effect”. Once 吏 / lì / “lower official” with the signifier 彳 “way”, later shortened to 亻 “human”. Phonetically and graphically related to 史 / shǐ / "historical records", see also No. 58 事 / shì / "matter".
No.120 情 / qíng / “feeling, emotion, affection, situation”. On the left the signifier 心 “heart, feeling” (/ xīn /) in the variant 忄 (cf. No. 90), on the right the phonetic 青 / qīng / (“dark green / -blue”).
No.121 明 / míng / “shining, clear, obvious”, sign of the Ming dynasty (14th-17th centuries). One of the rather rare characters composed of two graphemes with an exclusively semantic function: sun 日 (/ rì /) and moon 月 (/ yuè /) “shine” in one character.
No.122 性 / xìng / “Character, temperament, gender, sexuality”: The characteristics attributed to a person from birth.生 / shēng / “birth” (no.34) has both semantic and phonetic functions, supplemented by the signifier 心 “heart, feeling” (/ xīn /) in the variant 忄.
No.123 知 / zhī / “know, understand”. As in no. 67 如 / rú /, the mouth 口 is here as a signified on the right side. On the left the phonetic 矢 / shǐ / (“arrow”), which could also be interpreted semantically: “Knowledge” flies like an arrow from one to the other?
No.124 全 / quán / “total, complete”. In ancient materials above 入 / rù / "into" (sometimes with a horizontal line underneath (𠓛), below 玉 / yú / "jade" or 工 (仝). Basic meaning "perfect, pure jade", for a change in meaning cf. in German " perfect ”.
No.125 三 / sān / “three”. The 2000 year old dictionary Shuowen 説文解字 gives this symbol a metaphysical meaning: "三。 天地 人之道 也。": "Three - The ways of heaven, earth and man".
No. 126 又 / yòu /, today only in the meaning “again, still”. Originally a right hand (today “right” 右 / yòu /), as a signified “hand” in signs like 隻 驭 支. Often used in the abbreviation reform as a functionless, purely graphic subgraph: 汉 对 权 instead of 漢 對 權.
No.127 关 (trad. 關 関) / guān / “close, border station, connect, relationship”. A gate 門 is closed by two (?) Bars. In historical variants there are 門 graphemes such as 卝 𢇅 串 关 in the “gate”. The latter became today's abbreviation. (See number 94 开 開 / kāi / "open, begin")
No.128 点 (trad. 點) / diǎn / “point, place a point, order, dash 丶, a little”. Significant 黑 “black” (with “fire”, phonetic 占 / zhān / (“prophecy”), merged in the abbreviation reform. Occasionally also 奌.
No.129 正 / zhèng / “correct, upright, correct, positive”. Expansion of meaning, originally “to go on a journey / expedition (today 征 / zhēng /). A foot 止 goes to a goal (once a square, later 丁 / dīng / "square nail" (also phonetically), shortened to 一.
No.130 业 (trad. 業) / yè / “Profession, Industry, Company”. In the abbreviation reform shortened from 13 to the first 5 lines. Origin unclear: Shuowen calls 業 a large pile for sound stones. Most likely related to 凿 / záo / "chisel" and 木 "wood".
No.131 外 / wài / “outside, outside, foreign”. The sign 卜 / bù / “fortune telling” (breaking the animal bones) also meant “outside” early on. Later the phonetic 月 / yuè / ("moon") in its graphic variant 夕 (today / xī /) was added.
No.132 将 (trad. 將) / jiāng / / jiàng / "bring, support, (written: marking of the future as well as equivalent to the particle 把 / bǎ / (No.110))" / "General". Originally “take”: a hand 寸 grabs a piece of meat 肉 (shortened to 月).爿 or 丬 / qiáng / ("log") is a phonetic.
Nr.133 两 (trad. 兩) / liǎng / Originally a unit of weight, today mainly "two (+ ZEW)". Originally possibly two yokes 㒳 for cattle or horses pulling the wagon. Compare 丙 / bǐng / (“yoke”?), 内 / nèi / (“inside”) and 入 / rù / (“inside”).
No.134 高 / gāo / "high, large". Illustration of a two story house or pagoda. See 亭 / tíng / "Pavilion, small pagoda".
No.135 间 (trad. 間) / jiān / "space, space in between, period". A crack in the door: A sun 日 shines through a door 門 / 门. See also 闲 (閑) / xián / “vacant, free time”. Over the millennia, the (nowadays uncommon) spelling with “moon” can be found for both concepts: 閒.
No.136 由 / yóu / “Reason, cause, proceeding from…”. Origin unclear: the earliest representations are reminiscent of a candle, a helmet or a vessel. Today's meaning arose from phonetic borrowing.
No.137 问 (trad. 問) / wèn / “ask”. A mouth 口 as a significant in the door 門 / 门 / mén /, which here functions as a phonetic element.
No.138 很 / hěn / “very”, often before adjective predicates. Originally “disobey, go your own way”. (related to 狠 / hěn / "wild, cruel, energetic"). Phonetic 艮 / gèn / ("look back"). Grammaticalized early on to reinforcement particles (cf. German “incredibly good”, “extraordinarily good” etc.).
No.139 最 / zuì / "extremely", particle of the superlative / elative. Originally “rob”, grammaticalized early on. Significant 取 / qŭ / “take” (also phonetically). The upper part is neither sun 日 nor open mouth 曰, but 冃 / mào / "head cover" (today 帽 / mào / "head cover, cap").
Nr.140 重 / zhòng // chóng / “difficult, important” / “repeated”. A person 亻 on earth 土 (𡈼 / tǐng / "standing upright") carries a heavy bundle 東 (/ dōng /, also phonetic, later borrowed for "east") on his back.
Nr.141 并 (trad. 並, also 幷, earliest form 竝) / bìng / “connect, together, in addition”, (reinforcement particle for negations). Two people standing next to each other 立.
No.142 物 / wù / “object, thing, animal”. Originally "spotted cattle". Significant 牛 "cattle" with phonetic 勿 / wù / (a kind of knife).
No.143 手 / shǒu / "hand", also a suffix for "experts". Illustration of a human hand. In the Chinese script there are numerous other forms of the hand such as 扌 又 爪 or the upper part in 妥.
No.144 应 (trad. 應) / yīng / / yìng / "approve, adapt, should". Significant “heart” 心 with phonetic 𨿳 / yīng / “bird of prey” (today 鹰, cf. also 雁 / yàn / “wild goose”). Graphically abbreviated to 应 in the abbreviation reform, as Japanese Kanji to 応.
No.145 战 (trad. 戰) / zhàn / "war, fight". Significant on the right 戈 “lance” (/ gē /) with phonetic 單 / chán // dān // shàn / (“throwing bola”), replaced in abbreviations by the simpler 占 / zhān // zhàn /.
No.146 向 / xiàng / “direction, tend, in the direction of“. Originally “sound, echo”: a mouth 口 under one roof 宀 (in an unusual variant). Borrowed phonetically early for present meaning. “Sound” / xiǎng / is now written 響 / 响.
No.147 头 (trad. 頭) / tóu / "head, boss, first / s". In the traditional sign as a rule with the signifying “head” 頁 on the right and the phonetic 豆 / dòu / (“bean”). The abbreviation 头 is derived from an extreme italic form of the character.
No.148 文 / wén / “Writing, literature, language, culture”. Originally a representation of a person (like 大 / dà / "big") with ornaments or tattoos on the body. These ornaments disappeared early.
No.149 体 (trad. 體) / tǐ / “body, unity, style, system”. Originally the human body (also 軆, 𦡊). In the traditional sign on the left the signifier Knochen "bone", on the right 豊 lǐ, a ritual vessel. In the abbreviation (also in Japanese) that appeared during the song, alternatively formed from 亻 "human" and 本 "root".
No.150 政 / zhèng / "political, government". Once “to attack a state” (today with 征 / zhēng /), the meaning of 正 / zhèng / expanded, originally “to go on a journey / expedition” (cf. also No. 129). with added "beating hand" 攴 / 攵.
No.151 美 / měi / “beautiful”.A figure 大 wears a sheepskin (with horns) 羊 on his head. Such animal attributes were worn in many shamanic societies for religious reasons or for decoration.
No. 152 相 / xiāng // xiàng / “one another, one another” / “appearance, image“. Basic meaning "to observe": an eye 目 observes a tree 木. So far, no one has been able to explain how the concept of meaning “mutual” comes about. But 目 / mù / and 木 / mù / have the same pronunciation in almost all regional languages. Coincidence?
Nr.153 见 (trad. 見) / jiàn / “see, behold, perceive”. One eye 目 on two legs 儿.见 can only appear as a component in other #characters on the right or below, both as a #significant (观 视觉) and as a #phonetic (现 舰).
No.154 被 / bèi / "(fabric) blanket", grammaticalized to the passive particle before verbs and nouns. Left signifier “clothing” Kleidung in the variant on the left 衤, right phonetic 皮 / pí / (“leather, skin”).
No.155 利 / lì / “Profit, Profit, Earning”. A 会意 huìyì sign composed of two semantic components (significa): Grain 禾 is harvested with a knife 刂 (刀): profit.
No.156 什 / shén / (trad. 甚) “something” (in the question word 什么 / shénme / “what?”) Or / shí / “ten, mixed” (variant of No.12 十 with “human” 亻) . The upper part of the grammatical, traditional traditional character 甚 is probably the open mouth 甘 / gān /, meaning of the lower part unclear.
No.157 二 / èr / “two”. Compare our Roman II. Also, 二 is part of the symbol for the relationship between (two) people 仁 / rén /, which has become a basic Confucian principle and is mostly translated as "humanity" or "humanity".
No. 158 等 / děng / "Category, class, classify, equal, wait, etc.". Originally the sorting and ordering of documents, hence the signifier 竹 / "bamboo, write". The component 寺 / chí // sì / seems implausible as a phonetic, possibly a signifier “to hold on” (today 持 / chí /).
No.159 产 (trad. 產 産) / chǎn / “to give birth, to produce”. The meaningful graphem 生 / shēng / "birth" (no.34) is still contained in the traditional character. Today's abbreviation (phonetic?) Originally contains 文 / wén / (number 148) and is also contained in 彦 / yàn / "cultivated person".
No.160 或 / huò / “or, possibly“. Originally an area 口 that had to be defended with a lance 戈 (today with 土 “earth”: 域 / yù / “area”), later phonetically borrowed for grammatical function.
No.161 新 / xīn / “new”. Originally “firewood” (today 薪 / xīn /). Phonetic originally 辛 / xīn /, which is fused with “wood” 木 to 亲. Significant is an ax (cutting wood). (Compare also 析 / xī / “divide, analyze”).
Nr.162 己 / jǐ / “self”, 6th heavenly stem in the Chinese time cycle. Possibly a rope or silk thread, later 纪 / jì / (also “chronicle”), phonetically borrowed for “self”. Not to be confused with number 117 已 / yǐ / “already, already”.
Nr.163 制 / zhì / “establish, elaborate, rule, system”. Another symbol that originally comes from wood processing: A knife 刂 (刀) processes a variant of “wood” (木 / 未 / 生) (which does not appear in any other symbol). Once closely related to 折 / zhé / "break, bend, fold".
No.164 身 / shēn / “body, trunk”. Depiction of a person with the belly highlighted.
Nr.165 果 / guǒ / “fruit, fruit, result, result”. A tree or bush 木 with a large fruit (in 3000 year old inscriptions also several fruits), which only coincidentally corresponds graphically to the symbol for “field” 田.
Nr.166 加 / jiā / “add, expand”, originally also “slander, exaggerate”. A plow 力 (“force” / lì /) and a mouth 口 (/ kǒu /, possibly also phonetic). Origin unclear; some assume "groaning at hard work" as a basic meaning.
Nr.167 西 / xī / The “west” is obviously the direction of the compass that is most often written about. Representation of a nest (with a bird in it, today 栖 / qī /), phonetically borrowed.
No.168 斯 / sī / "s". The most common purely phonetic character; is used almost exclusively as a phonetic transcription for S-sounds in foreign-language proper names: Thoma-s, Mo-s-kau, Engel-s, S-tanford, etc. The basic meaning is "to cut wood" again, with ax 斤 and phonetic 其 / qī /.
No.169 月 / yuè / “moon, month”. Illustration of the crescent moon. As a semantic component today only distinguishable by the position in the characters of “meat, body part” 月 (肉 / ròu /): Only the right 月 refers to the concept “moon, period” (明 期 朝 朗).
Nr.170 话 (trad. 話) / huà / “speech, language”. (Earlier variants also 譮 or 䛡) Left signifier “speak” 訁 / 讠, right 舌, mostly interpreted as signifier “tongue” (/ shé /), actually short form of a lost phonetic: 氏 about 口 / guó / “hold in the mouth “(As in 刮 / guā / and 活 / huó /).
No.171 合 / hé / “connect, unite, close, fit”. A lid 𠓛 is placed on a vessel 口. See also No. 29 会 (trad. 會) / huì /.
No.172 回 (trad. Also 囘迴) / huí / “back (go), return, answer”. Originally "swirl, turn": representation of a water vortex (later 洄 / huí).
No.173 特 / tè / “especially, especially”, phonetic transcription for T-sounds. Originally "bull". Left significant 牛 “cattle”, right phonetic 寺 / chí / (today / sì / “temple”, earlier “hold on” → today 持 / chí /).
No.174 代 / dài / “replace, represent” as well as “era, age, generation”. Left significant 亻 “human”, 弋 / yì / (arrow on a string) is interpreted as a phonetic. (compare phonetically the rare 忒 / tè / "error")
No.175 内 (trad. 內) / nèi / "inside". Composed of a building / roof 冂 (cf. 宀) and the sign 入 / rù / “go in, enter”.
No.176 信 / xìn / “trust, believe, letter”. Significant 亻 “human” (/ rén /, is also interpreted by some as a phonetic) on the left, 言 “speaking” on the right. Eselsbrücke: "One man, one word". Rarer but very meaningful spelling with phonetic 心 / xīn / "heart": 訫.
No.177 表 / biǎo / “show, express”, also “wrist watch” (then trad. 錶). Originally a fur coat, composed of 毛 / máo / “fur” inside 衣 / yī / “piece of clothing”, graphically abbreviated. See No. 50 里 / lǐ / "inside" (trad. 裏).
No. 178 化 / huà / “change, change”, then “chemical” and the suffix of change “-ize, -ization”. Originally two andte people turned away from each other, the one on the right has "changed" his position and is rotated 180 degrees.
No. 179 老 / lǎo / "old, venerable". Heavily changed image of a figure 人 with hair, leaning on a stick. The figure became 耂, the stick 匕. B.Karlgren, on the other hand, said that 老 shows the color "change" (Nr, see no.178 化 / huà /) of the hair 毛.
No.180 给 (trad. 給) / gěi / / jǐ / "to give, to make available, for". Basic meaning "support, enrich", very rare in ancient texts. Left significant “silk” 纟 (糸), right phonetic 合 / hé / (Nr.171).
No.181 世 / shì / “Generation, World, Era”. There are three explanatory models: a) Variant of 止 / zhǐ / "foot". b) Originally “leaves” (cf. trad. 枼, var. 枽 / yè /, “herbs” 卉 / huì /), borrowed phonetically. c) derived from 卅 / sà / "thirty" years = one generation.
No. 182 位 / wèi / “Position, Status”, rewarding ZEW for people. Originally a variant of 立 / lì / “stand” (a person stands on the floor) with the addition of the signifier “human” 亻.
No.183 次 / cì / “sequence, times, secondary”. Originally “to consult, advise” (today 咨 / zī /). On the right the open mouth 欠 / qiàn /, and the "two drops of water" 冫 on the left are actually spit. (For the meaning “secondary”, however, 冫 could also be a variation of von “two”.)
No.184 度 / dù / “measure, measure, degree” also “spend time”. A hand 又 holds a stone 石 (/ shí // dàn /, possibly also phonetically). Regarding the unusual graphic of 石 “stone”: Analogously, 𤇈 (“heating stone in the fire”) became today's 庶 / shù /.
No.185 门 (trad. 門) / mén / "door, gate, entrance". In the traditional sign, the door leaves are still visible. One of the few basic characters that is used in more complex characters as a signifier (闭 / bì / 阔 / kuò / 阅 yuè / 闪 / shǎn /) and as a phonetic (问 / wèn / 闻 / wén / 闷 / mēn / 们 / men /) Is used.
Nr.186 任 / rèn / “hold, hold, hold an office, task, somebody (who, what)”. Significant "human" 亻 with phonetic 壬 / rén / (the ninth heavenly stem, origin unknown).
Nr.187 常 / cháng / “usual, regular, frequent”. Originally a skirt-like item of clothing (later 裳 / cháng // shang /) that was phonetically borrowed. Hence the signifier “substance” 巾 at the bottom with the phonetic 尚 / shàng / at the top.
Nr.188 先 / xiān / “first, earlier”. Originally 止 “foot, step” over 儿 person: “go ahead”.
No. 189 海 / hǎi / "sea" (also in 上海 Shànghǎi). Significant water 氵. Strong phonetic change from the basic phonetic 母 / mŭ / (mother, woman) to the phonetic 每 / měi / (woman with hair accessories) in 海 / hǎi /.
Nr.190 通 / tōng / "go through, reach, communicate, in general". Significant 辶 “movement” with phonetic 甬 / yǒng // tǒng / (“bucket”, see no.51 用 / yòng /).
191 教 / jiào / “teach, teach”. Two significa: 子 “child” + 攴 (= 攵) “hit with a stick”. Top left phonetic 爻 / yáo /, which is also contained in 學 / xué / “learn”. Both characters originally mean “instruct, learn”, and there was also a mixed form 斅 / 敩 (which today is assigned the pronunciation / xiào / (= possibly 校).
Nr.192 儿 (trad. 兒) / ér / / -r / “son, child”, (nominalization suffix in the Beijing dialect). According to many, the upper part of the traditional sign is a representation of the still open skull montanelle of a newborn, according to another interpretation a child's hairstyle.
Nr.193 原 / yuán / “source, origin, origin”. A rocky slope 厂 from which clear, “white” 白 water (水 → 小) gushes. See also 泉 / quán / “source”.
No.194 东 (trad. 東) / dōng / "east". Described according to folk etymology and in the "Shuowen" as the sun 日 behind a tree 木. Actually a representation of a tied bundle, phonetically borrowed, see 束 / shù / “bundle” (signifier in different “bundles”: 橐 / tuó / 㯱 / biăo / 㯻 / gŭn /).
No.195 声 (trad. 聲) / shēng / "sound, tone, voice". A “sound stone” (variant of 石 “stone”) that hangs on a string (糸 → 士). In the traditional sign you can still see the striking of the stone with a clapper (殳) and the additional signifier 耳 "ear", both of which have been deleted from the abbreviation. (Compare "Klangstein" 殸 or 磬 / qìng /)
Nr.196 提 / tí / “pick up, hold in hand, address (topic)“ Left radical “hand” 手 in the abbreviated form 扌, right 是 / shì / as phonetic (as in 题 / tí /).
No. 197 立 / lì / "stand upright, set up, establish". Original form 𡗓: A person standing upright on the floor 一. Closely related to No. 182 位 / wèi / “Position, Status”.
No.198 及 / jí / "to catch, reach (up to), equal, and". Original form similar to 仅: A hand 又 grabs a person 人. Historical variant also with “route”: 彶.
No.199 比 / bǐ / “compare”: Two people stand next to each other. In contrast to the archaic form of 从 / cóng / "follow", the people here looked to the right. A shape 夶 is also used. See also 匕 / bǐ /, which was once also used to designate people, and No. 178 化 / huà /.
No.200 员 (trad. 員) / yuán / "person". Originally "round", today 圆 / yuán /. In fact, 口 shows the round opening of a large bronze cauldron 鼎 dǐng, which has been graphically shortened, i.e. there is no etymographic relationship to "shell" 贝貝 or the apparently "human" figure.
No. 201 解 / jiě / “solve, explain”. A rare case of three semantic components: a cattle 牛 is cut off with a knife 刀 the horn 角 (/ jiǎo /, also phonetically).
No. 202 水 / shuǐ / “water, liquid”. Representation of flowing water, abbreviated as the sign on the left to 氵 (“three-point water” 三点水 / sāndiǎnshu /). See also 永 / y ng / "eternal", 川 "river".
No. 203 名 / míng / “Name, Title”.夕 / xī / is a variant of 月 / yuè / “moon”, combined with 口 “mouth”: “calling (his name) in the dark”. However, some authors are of the opinion that the phonetic similarity of 名 / míng / and 明 / míng / (no.121) cannot be a coincidence, and that the “moon” is a phonetic / ming / that has been lost today.
No. 204 真 (Var. 眞) / zhēn / “true, genuine”. Origin unclear: the main part looks in bronze inscriptions like 貝 “shell”, in oracle signs more like 鼎 “bronze vessel thing”, above spoon 匕 or a person 人.Despite the similarity, it is not related to 直 / zhí / “straight” (no.255).
No. 205 论 (trad. 論) / lùn / “debate, discuss”. In the abbreviation reform shortened from 15 to 6 lines in accordance with the usual abbreviations: on the left the signifier "language" 言 or 讠, on the right phonetic 侖 or 仑 / lún / ("ordered documents").
No. 206 处 (trad. Also 處) / chǔ / “place”, especially in written language. Already over 2000 years ago in the form 処 “resting place”: figure or legs 夂 that sit on a stool 几. Obviously later amalgamation with phonetic 虍 / hū / or 虎 / hǔ / "tiger", which also contains 几 or 儿 as "legs".
No. 207 走 / zǒu / “go, go away”. Originally a running person (variant of 大) over a “foot” 止 (see also 奔 / bēn / “run” over grass). As a significant in other signs on the left and below (like 起, 趟). Closely related to 彳 + 止 (as in 從), 辵 and 辶 / chuò /), which are all variants of the same concept.
No. 208 义 (trad. 義) / yì / originally “appearance, appearance”, today “just, righteous” and “meaning, meaning” (semantic overlap with 意 / yì /). Significant “sheep” 羊 (cf. 美 / měi / “beautiful”) with phonetic 我 (today / wǒ /), the simplified abbreviation is based on 乂 / yì / (“regulate”).
No. 209 各 / gè / “each / r / s individual, all”. Originally “enter” (antonym to No. 28 出 / chū / “go out”): a foot 止 / 夂 entering a cave 凵 (still present in 客 / kè / “guest”). Today's importance through phonetic borrowing already proven in the Zhanguo period (5th-3rd century BC).
No. 210 入 / rù / “enter, enter”. In contrast to No. 7 人 (rén / "human"), this sign was originally symmetrical (Λ) and is closely related to No. 175 内 (trad. 內) / nèi / "inside".
No.211 几 (trad. 幾) / jǐ / “how many, some”. Originally silk threads 幺 幺 / yōu / and 戍 / shù / "defend with a lance 戈", meaning possibly "dangerous situation", today's usage phonetically borrowed. Replaced as an abbreviation by 几 / jī / "stool, little table".
No.212 口 / kǒu / “mouth, opening”. Significant in many signs that express oral acts or particles, mostly on the left (吗, 吧, 吸), in some old signs also on the right (如, 知, 和). Phonetically in 扣 / kòu / "button, lock".
No.213 认 (trad. 認) / rèn / “know, acknowledge”. Shortened from 14 to 4 lines in the abbreviation reform: on the left the signifier "language" 言 or 讠, on the right phonetic 忍 / rěn / "bear", replaced by 人 / rén / "human".
No.214 条 (trad. 條) / tiáo / v.a. ZEW “Zweig, Stripes, Paragraph”. Below the signifier “wood” 木, above the phonetic 攸 / yōu / (with “beating hand” 攵: original form of today's 修 / xiū / “repair, decorate, cultivate” (cf. also 悠 / yōu /). The abbreviation became the phonetic smashed and is now functionless as 夂.
No.215 平 / píng / “even, flat, peaceful, balanced”. Theories of origins are very diverse and controversial, relationships with / biàn / 分 / fēn /, 八 / bā / and 亏 / kuī / are assumed and there is much talk of air and qi flows. Above all, I find the conceptual proximity to 秤 / chèng / “Libra” plausible.
No.216 系 / jì / “buckle up, fasten” or / xì / (traditional also 係 繫) “connection, system, faculty”. A hand 爪 (shortened to the upper, almost horizontal 丿 piě line early on) grasps silk threads / cords 糸 / mì / (as a signifier 糹 or 纟).
No.217 气 (trad. 氣, Japanese 気) / qì / “air, steam”, life energy # Qi / # Ch’i. Originally “clouds in the sky”. “Rice” 米 or “water” 氵 (today 汽 / qì / “steam”) was later added to differentiate between 三 / sān / “three”. Once also often used for 乞 / qǐ / "begging".
No.218 题 (trad. 題) / tí / once "forehead", today "subject, title". Right signifier "head" 页 / 頁, left 是 / shì / as phonetic (similar to no.196 提 / tí /).
No.219 活 / huó / “live, alive”. Originally the rippling of water. Left water 氵 ， right 舌, mostly interpreted as a signifier “tongue” (/ shé /), actually short form of a phonetic 氏 over 口: / guó / “hold in the mouth” (as in 刮 / guā / and no.170 话 / huà /).
No.220 尔 (trad. 爾) / ěr / Originally a.o. “du” (see No.32 你 / nǐ /). Mainly used in foreign-language proper names for "l" and "r" sounds, so that its occurrence has increased enormously with globalization (see no.168 斯 / sī /). Graphically, 尔 and 尒 are early abbreviations of the upper part of Darstellung (representation of a kind of silk spindle with three legs), the phon for the personal pronoun of the 2nd person. was borrowed.
No.221 更 / gèng / “change, more”, comparative particle. Fusion of the yoke 丙 / bǐng / (also phonetically) with the hand (whip?) Beating 攴 / 攵. Such amalgamations of subgraphemes resulted mainly from the change of writing instrument from scratching / engraving to the brush 2500-2000 years ago, called 隶 变 Lìbiàn (changes to the “chancellery writing”).
Nr.222 别 (hist. Also 別) / bié / “separate, other, difference”, verbally also contraction of 不要 / bú yào /. No connection to 力 / lì / or 口 / kǒu /, but “to separate meat with a knife 刂 from the bone (另, originally 冎)”. (Graph.-sem. Also related to 另 / lìng / "other, separate".)
No.223 打 / dǎ / “hit, hit”, frequent function verb.丁 / dīng / “nail” (presumably also phonetically), for the activity extended by the signified “hand” 扌 (手).
No.224 女 / nǚ / “Woman, female”. Often depicted as a kneeling figure in ancient documents. Frequent signifier, e.g. for kinship names and characteristics ascribed to women. Graphically closely related to 母 / mǔ / "mother".
No.225 变 (trad. 變) / biàn / "change, change". Upper part phon. and sem.䜌 / luán / "(threads) to get mixed up" (cf. 乱 乿 亂 / luàn / "chaos"), abbreviated as a rule. The “beating hand” 攴 / 攵 added at the bottom.
No.226 四 / sì / "four". Originally four parallel (horizontal) lines 亖. The current form is probably a phonetic borrowing of an onomatopoeic word / sign for "exhale" (cf. the rare 呬 / xì / "exhale, rest").
Nr.227 神 / shén / "Geist (i.S.v." spirit "), supernatural being". Significant 礻 on the left (variant of 示 / shì / “altar”, used for numerous spiritual concepts and rituals), right 申 / shēn /, phonetic and semantic, variant of no.230 “lightning” 电 / diàn /.
No.228 总 (trad. 縂, 總) / zǒng / “bundle, collectively, conductively, at all times”. Left significant “silk” 纟 (糸), right phonetic / cōng / 悤 (short 总, originally “clever”, today 聪 / cōng /).囱 / cōng / = "Wall opening, chimney, window".
No.229 何 / hé / “what, why, how” (written). Originally “to carry over the shoulder” (today 荷 / hè /). Human 亻, who carries an object 可 (/ kě /, sem. And phonetic reference to 戈 / gē / "Hiebaxt") on the shoulder, phonetically borrowed.
Nr.230 电 (trad. 電) / diàn / "lightning, electricity, electronic". Above the signifier “rain” 雨, below (and abbreviation) an abstract representation of a lightning bolt. See No. 227 神 / shén /.
No.231 数 (trad. 數) / shù // shŭ / "number" / "count, calculate". The "beating hand" 攵, which possibly counts something through, is significant. Left 娄 (trad. 婁) / lóu / “weak” becomes a big phon despite today. Deviation interpreted as a phonetic.
No.232 安 / ān / "peaceful, quiet, safe". A woman under one roof. Some doubt that the meaning “woman” is decisive here, because originally this was only a kneeling (female) person who perhaps expressed “relaxation” through her sitting posture alone?
No. 233 少 / shǎo / “little (e)” / shào / “young”. Graphically (and phonetically) variant of no.83 小 / xiǎo / “small”, semantically differentiated by adding a line.
Nr.234 报 (trad. 報) / bào / "report, announcement, newspaper". On the right “subjugate” / fú / (hand Gef holds prisoners tight), left 幸 was originally 㚔 / niè /, the image of a kind of handcuffs. Closely related to 执 (執) / zhí / "hold on" with a similar meaning. Today's meaning seems to be carried over.
No.235 才 (trad. Also 材, 纔) / cái / "talent" / "just, just now". Origin unclear: While the Shuowen claims it is a plant, oracle bone and bronze forms seem to refer to a device.才 / cái / is phonetic on the left in number 6 在 / zài / “to be”!
No.236 结 (trad. 結) / jié / "to connect, knot, connect". Left significant “silk” “(糸), right phonetic 吉 / jí / (“ luck ”).
No. 237 反 / fǎn / “turn around, counter, counter, rebel”. Originally possibly “climbing” (cf. 扳 / 攀 / pān / “climbing”): A hand 又 on a rock wall 厂 (although the line direction in 反 runs from right to left today!). Today's meaning possibly as a short form of 扳 / bān / "turn around, switch over".
Nr.238 受 / shòu / “receive, accept, endure”. One hand 爪 gives an object 冖 (in bronze and oracle bone symbols of the 2nd millennium B.C.E., a boat 舟) from above into another hand 又.
No. 239 目 / mù / (classic :) “eye”, today morpheme in “program”, “goal, purpose”, “project”, etc. Representation of an eye. See also 眉 / méi / "eyebrows". ("Eye" today: 眼 / yǎn /)
No.240 太 / tài / "very, extremely". Variant of no.17 大 / dà / "large, extensive", semantically separated from this by adding a dot. (see also no.233 少 / shǎo / "little" vs. no.83 小 / xiǎo / "small")
No.241 量 / liàng // liáng / "Measure, amount, scope, estimate, measure". No etymographic reference to number 50 里, but the lower part (including the single horizontal line) is closely related to number 194 東 "bundle" or no. 140 重 "heavy". In the earliest forms, the upper part is a square 口 (variant 𨤦), a sun 日 or a field 田.
No.242 再 / zài / "again, again". Etymography controversial, early forms very diverse. In some of them there is a 一 “one” at the top and a 二 “two” at the bottom, but some versions were also similar to 鱼 “fish” or 因 “mat”.
Nr.243 感 / gǎn / “feel, feel, emotion”. Above as phonetic 咸 / xián / (today “salty”, earlier “kill”, then “perfect, whole”, with the weapon 戌 / xū /). Below the “emotional” signified number 90 心 / xīn / “heart”.
Nr.244 建 / jiàn / “build, found, build”. On the left the signif (once ∟), which occurs only in three characters and stands for fortified structures. In addition 聿, a hand that sets a stake in the ground.
No.245 务 (trad. 務) / wù / “Matters, obligations, must”. Hit with a lance 矛 / máo / 攴 / 攵 = 敄 / wù / (preserved as phonetic in some other characters). Later 力 “strength” was added and the “beating hand” shortened to 夂 (as in No.214 条 / tiáo /).
No.246 做 / zuò / "make, produce". Very late, but now widespread variant of number 49 作 / zuò / with added striking hand 攴 / 攵 with the same meaning.古 was actually 乍.作 is mainly used for compound words, 做 as a single verb. (It is astonishing that this pointless character was not given up with the token reform.)
No.247 接 / jiē / “receive, pick up, connect”. Left signifier “hand” 手 in the abbreviated form 扌, right 妾 / qiè / (“concubine”) as phonetic.
No.248 必 / bì / “must, certainly”. Despite the similarity, there is no etymographic connection to No. 90 心 / xīn / “heart”, but a weapon 弋 that splits an object into two parts (丿 丶, also interpreted by some as the phonetic 八 bā), phonetically borrowed for today's meaning.
No.249 场 (trad. 場) / chǎng / "Place, wide place, market place, sports field". Significant 土 (/ tǔ /) "earth" and phonetic 昜 / yáng /, a shining sun.
No.250 件 / jiàn / # Counting unit word (ZEW) for affairs and items of clothing, morpheme in “item”, “condition”, “requirement”. A person 亻, a cow 牛: Originally “part, share”. #Chinese #Hanzi
No.251 计 (trad. 計) / jì / “calculate, plan, scheme, stratagem”. Significant “speak” 言 or 讠 on the left, 十 (/ shí /) “ten” on the right.
No.252 管 / guǎn / "Tube, line, manage, manage, take care". Originally a bamboo pipe (“water pipe”!) Or a bamboo flute: Significum 竹 / “bamboo” with phonetic 官 / guān / (originally “public building”, then “civil servant”).
No. 253 期 / qī / “period, period”. Right signifier Sign “Moon” as a symbol for time, left phonetic 其 / qí / (“Worfschaufel”, see No. 85).
No. 254 市 / shì / “Market, City (as an administrative unit)”. In ancient forms, the lower part is reminiscent of 丁, 兮 or a two-part gate. Above, phonetic 之 / zhī / 止 / zhǐ / (“foot”, see No. 44). A foot stepping through a gate? (Ahistoric) donkey bridge: “cloth” 巾 under one roof 亠.
No.255 直 / zhí / “straight, vertical, straight ahead, upright”. One eye 目 looks straight ahead at a target. Possibly.Phonetic 十 / shí /. The bottom line, which forms an angle ∟ in Japanese Kanji and various traditional forms, refers in my opinion to the word field “build” (cf. 廴 in no.244 建 / jiàn /).
No.256 德 / dé / "Virtue, Morality", since the 19th century German, too". The “straight ahead” eye 直 / zhí / (no.255), 彳 “path” and 心 “heart”: Those who walk the straight path of the heart are virtuous - still one of the most beautiful characters.
No.257 资 (trad. 資) / zī / "property, resources, capital". Significant "shell / money" 贝 / 貝, above it phonetic 次 / cì / (Nr.183).
No.258 命 / mìng / “Life, Fate” and “Command”. Composed of the signifier “mouth” 口 and a variant of 令 / lǐng / “command”, which in turn represents a mouth speaking from above over a kneeling figure 卩.
No. 259 山 / shān / “mountain, mountain”. Abstracted illustration of a mountain range. Significance in mountain names and words for landforms.
No.260 金 / jīn / "Metal, Gold, Money". Significant 钅 (trad. 釒) especially in symbols for metals. Originally "copper", representation of two (in many old characters also four) pieces of copper and a smelting or mining device. Above phonetic 今 / jīn / (number 336).
No.261 指 / zhǐ / “Finger, hint, point”. Significant “hand” 扌 (手) with phonetic 旨 / zhǐ / (“purpose, decree”, originally “tasty”: spoon 匕 over mouth 口, possibly related to 舌 / shé / “tongue”).
No. 262 克 / kè / “overwhelm, overcome”, today also “gram” as well as phonetic transcription for K-sounds in foreign-language proper names. Originally “shoulders”, etymography unclear; possibly 古 / gŭ / as a phonetic, but never with two “legs” in ancient forms.
No. 263 许 (trad. 許) / xǔ / “agree, allow, allow”, morpheme in “maybe” 也许 / yĕxǔ / and “many” 许多 / xǔduō /. Left signifier “language” 言 / 讠, right phonetic 午 / wǔ / (“pestle”, today mainly “lunchtime”).
No.264 统 (trad. 統) / tǒng / "complex system, summarize, total". Originally "central thread strand": left signifier "silk" 纟 (糸), right phonetic 充 / chōng / ("fill up, sufficient")
No. 265 区 (trad. 區) / qū / (as a surname Ōu) Originally “hide” (goods 品 in a container 匸), today “divide” and “zone, district, district”.
No. 266 保 / bǎo / “protect, defend, secure”. A person 亻 carries a child (otherwise 子, here with a sling 呆) on their back. (No reference to the 呆 / dāi / "remain, freeze, stupid", which was only proven from the Yuan period.)
No.267 至 / zhì / "arrive, up (to)". An upside-down arrow 矢 “reaches” the ground 土. Compare the less written language number 22 到 / dào / with almost the same meaning.
No.268 队 (trad. 隊) / duì / "Team (row), team". Once "hang down, fall down" (today 坠 墜 / zhuì /): Composed of the signifier "chain of hills" 阜 and the phonetic 㒸 / suì / ("follow" an animal), which in the abbreviation reform replaces the signifier 人 "man" has been.
No.269 形 / xíng / "(appearance) form, appearance". Significant Sign “shadow” on the right, variant of the phonetic ǐ / jǐng / “fountain” on the left. No etymographic reference to number 94 开 (開) kāi "open".
No. 270 社 / shè / “Society, community, organization”. Originally “god of the earth”, hence a combination of the significa for “ritual” 示 and “earth” 土.
No.271 便 / biàn / "practical, pleasant", written language. Consecutive particle “then, then” / pián / in “cheap”. Composed of no.221 更 / gèng / “change, more” (not phonetic, s.d.) and the significant 亻 “human”.
No. 272 空 / kōng // kòng / “Empty, void, in vain”. Above the signifier "cave" 穴 (/ xué /), below the phonetic 工 / gōng / (no.118).
No.273 决 (trad. 決) / jué / “decide”. Originally “derive water”: on the left the signifier 氵 “water” (shortened to 冫 “ice” probably because of the lack of semantic reference to water today), on the right semantically and phonetically the basic sign 夬 (also 叏) / guài / “decide”.
N ° 274 治 / zhì / “regulate” both a state - “govern, administer” - as well as the human body - “treat”. On the left the signifier 氵 "water", on the right the (no longer obvious) phonetic 台 / tái /.
No.275 展 / zhǎn / “roll out, expand, develop, open” (also 辗 or 輾). Originally "turning a human body over". Significant is a human body 尸, the abbreviated phonetic was originally 𧝑 (four 工 within 衣).
No.276 马 (trad. 馬) / mǎ / "horse". In the traditional sign, legs and mane can be seen much better. However, it can be assumed that / mǎ / is found so often in today's PRC literature, mainly because of "(Karl) Marx" (马克思) ...
No.277 科 / kē / “Department, Scientific Discipline”. Originally “measure, categorize”: Weighing grain 禾 (/ hé /) with a measuring container 斗 (/ dǒu /).
No. 278 司 / sī / “control, direct” (e.g. in 公司 “company” or 司机 “chauffeur”). Some see a mirror-inverted number 48 后 / hòu / “Queen” - in view of the word field, I think the interpretation “hand over the mouth (giving an order)” is the more convincing.
No.279 五 / wǔ / “five”: Archaic forms resembled a Roman X, framed in two horizontal lines - obviously a quick spelling of five horizontal lines.
No.280 基 / jī / “basis, foundation, fundamental”. Below “Earth” 土 (/ tǔ /) as a signifier, above the Worfschaufel 其 / qí / (No.85) as a phonetic.
No. 281 眼 / yǎn / “eye, look”. Significant number 239 目 / mù / "eye", combined with phonetic 艮 / gèn / ("look back"), which in turn is related to the "running eye" number 153 见 (trad. 見) / jiàn /.
No.282 书 (trad. 書) / shū / "Written, document, book". The traditional symbol shows a hand holding a writing implement 聿 including a speaking mouth 曰. In the abbreviation reform, the italic form 书 was raised to the standard.
No. 283 非 / fēi / “opposite, not, a-” (negation prefix for nouns), also phonetically for “African”. Some assume a phonetic borrowing of “two bird wings” (cf. phon. 飞 飛 / fēi / “fly”), others two people or objects standing back to back (cf. no.315 北 / běi /).
Nr.284 则 (trad. 則) / zé / “rule, principle, obey” “then, on the other hand”. Etymographically, 贝 is not a "shell", but a short form of the bronze kettle 鼎 / dǐng / (as in no.200 员 / yuán /), in which with a knife 刂 (刀 / dāo /) "rules" were engraved.祝 大家 新年 愉快！
Nr.285 听 (trad. 聽) / tīng / “hear, listen, obey”. Once 耳 “ear” and 口 “mouth” (still preserved in 聖 / shèng /, there also, as in 聽, phonetic 壬 / tǐng /!). The form with the right component as in 德 / dé / is relatively young. Today with 口 "mouth" and graphically incorrect phonetic 斤 / jīn / (correct would be 厅 / tīng /).
No. 286 白 / bái / “white, bright, free”. Folk etymologically a sun 日 with an additional ray of light - the archaic forms, however, taper to a point at the top, thus contradicting this interpretation: There next to “white” also as “thumb”, “elder” (伯 bǎi / bó) and “hundred” (百 bǎi ) is used.
No.287 却 (trad. 卻) / què / "to withdraw, but". A kneeling or crouching figure 卩 (also in No. 258 命 / mìng / “command”) with the phonetic / jué / (once two 人 over 口, later identical to 谷 / gŭ / written), which was also written earlier by the more familiar 去 / qù / "go away" has been replaced.
No. 288 界 / jiè / “border, area, world”. Already 介 / jiè / alone means "to stand / be between something" and originally showed a person between two lines. Narrowing of the meaning to “area” by adding the signified 田 (/ tián /) “field”.
No.289 达 (trad. 達) / dá / “to arrive, to reach”. Significant "locomotion" 辶 with phonetic 大 / dà /, already found in the abbreviated form on oracle characters. The irritating component of the traditional character, which can easily be confused with 幸 / xìng /, is an alienation of the phonetic 羍 / dá / "lamb".
No.290 光 / guāng / "shining, brilliant, empty, only". Originally a kneeling (“enlightened”?) Figure (卩 or 女, today 儿) with fire 火 or a torch on his head. Donkey bridge: 光头 / guāngtóu / "bald head".
No. 291 放 / fàng / "let go, release, put down, put down". As a functional verb similar to English "to put". Significant "beating hand" 攴 / 攵 with phonetic 方 / fāng /.
Nr.292 强 (trad. 強) / qiáng / "strong, strong, with force". Originally “rice grain beetle”, meaning is lower right 虫 “insect”, phonetic 弘 / hóng / (“large, expand”). The "bow" 弓 / gōng / is believed to be phonetic; there is no semantic or phonetic relation to 虽 / suī /.
No.293 即 / jí / "immediately, immediately, that means". A kneeling figure 卩 (see no. 287 却 / què /) at a hotplate (皀, see signifier 食 / 饣 "eat"), today only in an abstract function. Both 皀 / jí / and 卩 / jié / can also be interpreted as a phonetic.
No.294 像 / xiàng / “image, resemble, like”. A person 亻, an elephant 象 / xiàng / as a phonetic. Abolished in 1964 in favor of 象, 像 was reintroduced in the VR in 1986. To this day, however, there are still uncertainties as to which words 像 and which only 象 (Nr.300) should be written.
No.295 难 (trad. 難) / nán / "difficult" / nàn / "catastrophe". Folk Etymology: It is difficult to catch 又 a bird by hand. Originally the name of a bird, with the component / jiān / on the left, which some consider to be a bound prisoner (analogous abbreviation from 漢 to 汉 / hàn / and in the closely related 艱 艰 / jiān / "difficult".
No. 296 且 / qiě / “also, in addition, beyond”. Purely grammatical particles, originally a representation of a stele or a (phallic?) Object of ancestor worship (cf. 祖 / zŭ / “ancestor”, 俎 / zŭ / “sacrificial altar”).
No.297 权 (trad. 權) / quán / "power, law, authority". Originally a wooden weight for scales. On the left the signifier “wood” 木, the phonetic 雚 / guàn / (“heron”) (on the right) was generally shortened to 又 in the abbreviation reform.
No.298 思 / sī / "think, consider, thoughts". At the bottom the heart 心 as a characteristic of emotional processes, at the top the “brain” 囟 / xìn / (cf. today 脑 / nǎo / “brain”), which here early - presumably for reasons of writing convenience - changed into “field” 田Has.
No.299 王 / wáng / "King", family name Wang / Wong. Once an ax with a rounded bottom, later homograph with / yù / "Jade", which is why a point was added to "Jade": 玉. If the grapheme 王 is on the left in a sign (玩 理 现 etc.), it is etymographically the signifier “jade”.
No.300 象 / xiàng / "elephant" (at the very top the trunk, the legs to the left as with many characters representing animals), also borrowed for "figure, image" as in 对象 / duìxiàng / "partner, opposite" or 印象 / yìnxiàng / "impression". See number 294 像 / xiàng /.
No.301 完 / wán / “complete, finish, finish”. A building with a roof 宀 as a signifier, including the phonetic element 元 / yuán /.
Nr.302 设 (trad. 設) / shè / “erect, work out, set up”. Historically “to arrange”: on the left the signifier “speak” 訁 / 讠, on the right a hand with a device 殳 (like 没, trad. 沒 / méi /, but which has a different etymography, see no.72).
No.303 式 / shì / “Style, manner, formula, method”.工 / gōng / “work” (no.118) as a signified, 弋 (today / yì /, “stick with string”) as a phonetic.
No.304 色 / sè / “Color, Shade, Appearance”. Etymography dubious: Most sources establish close, no longer visible connections to 印 / yìn / "imprint, impression" and 抑 / yì / "suppress, keep small", in which one person pushes another to the ground, and postulate as Original meaning "angry (reddened?) Facial expression".
No. 305 路 / lù / “Weg, Straße”. Variant of the signified “foot” 足 on the left, but also the right element 各 / gè / (no.209), a foot 夊 that enters a cave,, could be semantic. Since several characters with 各 are / lu / or / luo /, a phonetic function is also conceivable.
No.306 记 / jì / “memorize, log, note”. Left signifier “language” 言 or 讠, right phonetic 己 / jǐ / (today “self”, no.162).
No. 307 南 / nán / "south". Already in the 2nd millennium B.C.E. used for the direction "south". Originally probably a representation of a percussion musical instrument, which was already unknown to the author of the dictionary "Shuowen" (100 AD).
No. 308 品 / pǐn / “Products, articles, type, rank, quality” and “try”. The latter also fits the meaning “mouth” for 口, but the original meaning of 品 is “diversity”; it represents an accumulation of various offerings or objects.
No. 309 住 / zhù / “stop, pause, live, inhabit”. Significant Sign “human” on the left, phonetic 主 / zhǔ / (No.87) on the right.
No.310 告 / gào / “communicate, inform”. Today often described as mouth 口 plus “beef” 牛 (/ niú /). However, the oldest forms clearly show a close relationship to “tongue” 舌 / shé / and “speak” 言 / yán /, which also seems etymographically more plausible.
No.311 类 (trad. 類) / lèi / “type, variety, category”. Historically originally 頪 (rice varieties?), Later expanded by “dog” 犬 (to animal species?). The “head” 頁 was deleted in the abbreviation reform, the “dog” 犬 shortened to 大, so that only the rice 米 has survived to this day.
(see also 颣 / lèi / "knot, inextricable")
No.312 求 / qiú / “ask, strive, demand”. The Shuowen suspected a fur coat (later 裘 / qiú /); in fact, it is a picture of a millipede (later 蛷 / qiú /, today mostly 蜈蚣 / wúgong /), phonetically borrowed for today's meaning.
No.313 据 (trad. 據) / jù / “occupy, according to, proof”. Once “to lean on (on a stick)”: Significant “hand” 扌 (手) with phonetic 豦 / qú / (“wild boar”) or 居 / jū / (“inhabit”).
No.314 程 / chéng / “rule, program, route”. Originally a (small) unit of length. Significant 禾 “grain” on the left, phonetic 呈 / chéng / on the right (“present”, with 壬 / t /ng / below, also in No. 285 聽 / tīng /, today 听).
No. 315 北 / běi / “North”. Originally “back”: two figures turn their backs on each other. Meaning expanded to the direction in which one looks when the back is pointing to the sun. A form 背 / bèi / (with “meat” 肉 / 月) has become established for “back”.
No.316 边 (trad. 邊) / biān / "side, edge, border". Significant 辵 / 辶 “movement”. The complicated phonetic component 臱 / mián // biān / 自 + 穴 (or 丙) + 方 has been replaced in the abbreviation by a graphically simple 力 (/ lì / "force").
No. 317 死 / sǐ / “to die, death”. Two significa: 歹 / dăi / “bones, skeleton” (today “bad, evil”) and a “person” standing next to it (mourning?) In the form 匕 (see no.199 比 / bǐ /, no. 315 北/ běi /). Closely related to 屍 尸 / shī / "corpse".
No.318 张 (trad. 張) / zhāng / "span, span (ZEW), enlarge", family name Zhang / Chang. Originally the drawing of a bow 弓 (/ gōng /);长長 / cháng // zhǎng / (“long”) is a phonetic, but can also be interpreted semantically here.
319 该 (trad. 該) / gāi / “should, must, those / s / r”. On the left the signifier "language" 言 or 讠, on the right phonetic 亥 / hài /, the etymography of which is still unclear today (some assume "roots", some a variant of 豕 "pig").
No.320 交 / jiāo / “exchange, communicate, mix”. Expansion of the meaning of originally “cross over”: Representation of a person 大 with legs crossed.
No.321 规 (trad. 規) / guī / “rule, custom, unwritten law”. Today a man 夫 and an eye 見 见 who seem to watch over the observance of the rules. Some archaic forms show instead of 夫 a hand 彐 holding a pointed object (arrow 矢 or compass).
No.322 万 (trad. 萬) / wàn / "ten thousand". Phonetic borrowing from an old sign for "Scorpio" 萬 / 蠆. The abbreviation 万, which has a different origin, was also used in this meaning 2000 years ago. Possible connection to the Buddhist swastika 卍, which is also read / wàn /.
323 取 / qǔ / “take, take with you”. It is astonishing that this martial sign has been preserved to this day: A hand ift grabs an ear 耳 - it was once customary to cut off the left ear of the killed enemy and take it with him: 獲 者 取 左耳 (周禮 "Rites of the Zhou") .
No.324 拉 / lā / “pull, carry, extend”. Originally “break, destroy”. Significant “hand” 扌 (手) with phonetic 立 / lì / (“stand upright”).
No.325 格 / gé / "(diamond) pattern, division, standard". Originally probably a name for long #wood 木, with phonetic 各 / gè / (No. 209, see also No. 305 路 / lù /.)
No.326 望 / wàng / “expect, consider, hope”. Once an eye 臣, a moon 月 and a 壬 / tǐng / (meaning unclear). Presumably a combination of convenience and phoneticism was responsible for the fact that 臣 soon simplified to 亡 / wáng / and 壬 to 王 / wáng /, so that today this symbol actually (the only one?) Has two phonetics.
Nr.327 觉 (trad. 覺) / jué // jiào / “feel, perceive, awareness”. Significant "running eye" 见見 (no.153), above the same subgraphem as in no.66 学 (trad. 學) / xué / "learn", to which there is a close graphic, semantic and phonetic relationship.
No.328 术 (trad. 術) / shù / "Artistry, #Technology". No connection to “wood” 木;术 represented the sorghum millet (today 秫 / shú /);術 Significant 行 "Crossroads" once referred to urban crossroads, meaning later abstracted to "Path, process, technology".
No.329 领 (trad. 領) / lǐng / "neck, leadership, lead, induce". Significant on the right “head” 页 頁 with phonetic 令 / lìng / “befehlen” (No. 378), which can also be interpreted semantically here.
No.330 共 / gòng / "together, shared". Two hands coming from below (in other characters 廾 / gǒng /, also phonetically) grab a “common” object (艹 or 廿). Including morpheme in 共产 / gòngchăn / "communist".
No.331 确 (trad. 確) / què / “sure, true, actually”. Originally “firm, stable”. Significant “stone” 石 with phonetic 隺 / hè / (“heron”) or in the abbreviation the phonetically closer 角 / jiǎo // jué / (“horn”).
No.332 传 (trad. 傳) / chuán / “pass on, transmit, spread” / zhuàn / “written commentary, transmission”. Significant Sign “person” on the left, phonetic 專 (abbreviated 专) / zhuān / (a hand 寸 lets a spinning wheel “rotate”, see no. 376 转轉 / zhuǎn // zhuàn /).
333 师 (trad. 師) / shī / "Master, #teacher". On the left a mound of earth 𠂤 (related to 阜 / 阝 "mound of earth"), which was used as a synonym for "master" in archaic times to a certain extent, "elevating". In addition the unusual phonetic 帀 (today like 匝 / zā /).
No.334 观 (trad. 觀) / guān / "watch, look". Right significant 见 見 “behold” (Nr.153, / jiàn /, the “eye on legs”); the phonetic 雚 / guàn / (“heron”) (on the left) was generally shortened to 又 in the shorthand reform, see No. 297 权 權 / quán /.
335 清 / qīng / "clear, pure, understandable", name of the last (Manchurian) imperial dynasty Qing (17th - 20th centuries). On the left the signifier "water" 水 in the form on the left 氵, on the right phonetic 青 / qīng / ("dark green / -blue").
336 今 / jīn / “today, nowadays”. Mouth speaking from above (as in No. 378 令 / lìng / “command” or 食 / shí / eat), once possibly “sing”, “sigh” or “scream” (today 吟 / yín /), today only in its borrowed meaning.
337 切 / qiē / “cut, scratch” (basic meaning) / qiè / “correspond, urgently”;一切 / yíqiè / "everything". Phonetic 七 / qī / ("seven") in angular form because it is on the left (cf. also No. 199 比), and on the right signifier "knife" 刀 (in this position one would actually expect 刂).
338 院 / yuàn / “surrounding wall, building with inner courtyard”, today mostly “institute (ion)”. On the left significant 阝 (阜 "earth mound"), on the right no.301 完 / wán / ("finish"), which today is mostly interpreted as a phonetic, but possibly represented the original form of the concept described here.
No.339 让 (trad. 讓) / ràng / “induce, let, give in, allow”. Reduced from 24 to 5 lines in the abbreviation reform. On the left the signifier "speak" 言 or 讠, on the right phonetic 襄 / xiāng / ("bare arms" / "help"?) Or 上 / shàng /.
Nr.340 识 (trad. 識) / shí / "know, know". Significant Sign or sprechen on the left, phonetic 戠 / zhí / or 只 / zhǐ / on the right.
No.341 候 / hòu / "wait, expect, duration, greet". Originally "watching". A person 亻 as a signified, as a phonetic, a “prince” 侯 (also 矦) / hóu / shooting an arrow 矢, whose 亻 in turn has shrunk in 候 to a vertical line.
No.342 带 (trad. 帶) / dài / "belt, zone, to carry with you". The “belt loops” can be seen even better in the long character, underneath 巾 “fabric”. This is the “Belt” from the hardly translatable “Belt and Road Initiative” 一带 一路 / yīdài-yīlù /, meaning large regions or “belts” of the earth. #beltandroad
No.343 导 (trad. 導) / dǎo / “to lead, to lead”. Significant “hand” 寸 with 道 / dào / “way” (No. 52), which has a phonetic and semantic (“showing a way”) function. Replaced in the abbreviation by the purely graphic 巳 (/ sì /).
Nr.344 争 (trad. 爭) / zhēng / "fight, argue, compete, strive for". Two hands (爫 and 彐) grab an object 亅 (see also 58 事 / shì /).
No.345 运 (trad. 運) / yùn / "move, transport, fate". Significant 辵 / 辶 “movement”. The phonetic 軍 / jūn / ("military") was replaced in the abbreviation by 云 / yún / ("cloud").
346 笑 / xiào / “laugh, smile”. Significant 竹 / “bamboo” with phonetic 夭 / yāo / (not 天 / tiān /). Origin obscure: Allegedly once grass 艹 about dog, which does not explain anything. I think the following derivation is much nicer: “bend over with laughter like bamboo in the wind”.
No.347 飞 (trad. 飛) / fēi / "to fly". Illustration of bird wings with feathers. Related to no.283 非 / fēi /, in my opinion also with 升 / shēng / meaning “to rise” (unfortunately no evidence was found).
No.348 风 (trad. 風) / fēng / "wind", then "behavior, mood". Unusual structure: an insect 虫 (flying in the air), surrounded by the phonetic 凡 / fán / (“carry, usually”).
No.349 步 / bù / “step (s)”. Representation of two footprints 止 on top of each other, of which the lower, mirror-inverted one is no longer recognizable as such. (These two "steps" 步 are etymographically part of the traditional character 歳 (岁) / suì /.)
No.350 改 / gǎi / "change, improve". Significant “beating hand” 攴 / 攵 with left phonetic 己 / jǐ /.
No.351 收 / shōu / "receive, collect, reap". Significant "beating hand" 攴 / 攵 with phonetic 丩 / jiū /.
No.352 根 / gēn / "root, base". Significant 木 “wood” with phonetic 艮 / gèn / (“look back”).
No. 353 干 / gān / originally “shield, defend” (later with “hand”: 捍, 攼 / hàn /); as a shorthand also / gān / "dry" (trad. 乾) and / gàn / "trunk, trunk, make" (trad. 幹; both with phonetic 倝 / gàn // hán / "sunrise": 早 + 㫃 / yăn / ).
354 造 / zào / “construct, form”, originally “arrive”. Significant 辵 / 辶 “locomotion”, phonetic once c / căo / (var. From 艸 艹 / căo /) to 口, changed early to the (phonologically irregular) 告 / gào / (No. 310: “communicate, inform”).
No.355 言 / yán / “words, speech, language, speak”. Illustration of a mouth 口 from which words flow (similar to 音 / yīn / "sound").言 / yán / is a signifier 訁 (in abbreviation 讠) in numerous characters that are associated with “speaking”.
No.356 联 (trad. 聯) / lián / “to connect, join together” (closely related to No.399 连 / lián /). Once an ear jewelry, hence the significa “ear” 耳 and “thread” 糸 / 絲 / 幺 幺; phon. Relation to 䜌 / luán /. Addition of 丱 / guàn / obscure, possibly mixed with no.127 關 关 / guān / “connect”.
357 持 / chí / "hold on". Originally only 寺 (signifier 寸 "hand" with phonetic 士 / shì /). To distinguish the verb from the extended meaning “official seat, temple” / sì / a signifier “hand” 扌 was added. See number 25 時 / shí / and number 158 等 / děng /.
No.358 组 (trad. 組) / zǔ / "put together, link, group, department". Originally "wide silk ribbon". Left signifier “silk” Seide (糸), right phonetic 且 / zǔ / (see no.296 且 / qiě /).
359 每 / měi / “each / r / s”. Originally an adult woman 母 (today / mǔ / "mother" with a headdress, phonetically borrowed.
Nr.360 济 / jì / “crossing a river”, then “helping”; today mainly in 经济 / jīngjì / "economy", like many modern concepts a term originally formed in Japanese. On the left the signifier "water" 氵, on the right phonetic 齐 / qí / ("tidy").
No.361 车 (trad. 車) / chē / "vehicle, car". Originally a more complicated depiction of a two-wheeled cart (pulled by horses or cattle). Also significant in some signs.
Nr.362 亲 (trad. 親) / qīn / "Relatives, familiar, personal", originally "yourself". Original signifier “see” 見 / 见. Phonetic / Abbreviation once “hazelnut tree” (amalgamation from “wood” 木 with phonetic 辛 / xīn /).
No.363 极 (trad. 極) / jí / "extreme, extremely". Significant “wood” 木 with phonetic 亟 / jí / (same meaning, a person between heaven and earth) or no.198 及 / jí / “to catch, reach (up to)”.
No. 364 林 / lín / “forest, wood”, family name Lin.Two trees 木. (And this thread is in its sophomore year.)
Nr.365 服 / fú / “yield, obey” and “clothing”. Basic meaning of 𠬝 / fú / “submit”: a hand 又 holds a prisoner. Later on the left 凡 “Carry”, 舟 “Boot” and finally 月 “Body part” added.
No.366 快 / kuài / “quickly, soon”. On the left the signifier 心 “heart, feeling” in the variant 忄 (cf. No. 90), on the right the phonetic 夬 / guài / (“decide”).
No.367 办 (trad. 辦) / bàn / "do, manage, deal with". Significant 力 "force" between phonetic 辡 / biàn / (two chisels?), Greatly simplified in the abbreviation.
Nr.368 议 (trad. 議) / yì / "Opinion, discuss". On the left the signifier "language" 言 or 讠, on the right phonetic 義 or 义 / yì / (see no.208).
No.369 往 / wǎng / “go, to, in the direction”. Significant originally 彳 + 止 (variant of 辵 and 辶 "locomotion" (see No. 98 從 / cóng /), but the foot 止 here was shortened to a point 丶 at an early stage. In contrast to the easily confused 住 / zhù / (No. . 309) is 王 / wáng / phonetic.
No. 370 元 / yuán / "first, head, Yuan dynasty" (related to 原 / yuán / "origin"), also used for almost all currency units (yuan, yen, dollar, euro, here synonymous with 圓圆 / yuán / "Round", see No. 200 员 / yuán /). Representation of a person 兀 with reference to the head (see no.290 光 / guāng /).
No.371 英 / yīng / “blossom”, expanded early to “hero”, phonetically borrowed for “English”. Significant 艸 / 艹 “grass, plant”, phonetic 央 / yāng / (prisoner in a yoke, today “central”).
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