All humans have melanin

Why are there different skin colors?

Raven black, olive, coffee brown, creamy white ..., the point here is not to give a painter tips for his color palette, but to discover where the many different skin colors come from
Billions of people currently live on our earth and they all have the same ancestors who most likely lived in Africa about 7 million years ago. 40,000 and 20,000 years ago there were two great ice ages that forced our ancestors, who were hunter-gatherers, to wander the 5 continents in search of food. They had to adapt to the new climate, which led to changes in their body size. This is how the different skin colors came about.
In our outermost layer of skin, which is also called the epidermis, there are many small grains of color, depending on the skin color, which explains the great variety of color tones. These small granules are pigments called melanin. They are ceaselessly made up of a group of small cells Melanocytes, which lie on the basal layer of the epidermis. Their functioning depends on the genes you inherited from your parents.
The more of these pigments there are in the skin, the darker the skin appears. Depending on the skin color, the melanin granules are arranged differently. In light skin they form small isolated piles and in black skin they are distributed in all cells of the epidermis.
Melanin not only stains the skin, it also protects it from the sun. It absorbs some of the UV rays that cause sunburn. Melanin reacts like a natural filter and adapts to the strength of the sun's rays. In areas where the sun's rays are strongest (tropical zones), dark skin offers better protection than light: this is how you can see that our skin has adapted to its surroundings over time.
So many skin colors, but one common ancestor that unites us: We are all human!