What is a field of developmental psychology

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Point of viewKey FeaturesSignificance for the schoolCognitive developmentQualitative changesDeveloping more complex thinking: between 7 and 11 years of age, thinking becomes more flexible and organized. Children are now able to look at several aspects of a situation at the same time and can solve specific problems related to the current situation.Schoolchildren are increasingly able to grasp different aspects of a situation at the same time and in their context. For example, the child recognizes that the amount of plasticine remains the same when a ball of plasticine is formed into a worm. It can also form categories and series.Overcoming egocentrism: Around the age of nine, children manage to distance themselves from their own experience. The interest extends spatially and temporally to phenomena that the child has neither seen nor experienced.The child no longer has any difficulty in thinking into fictional situations and thus opens the doors for the development of reasoning. Exciting discussions can be held in class and knowledge gained.Deductive thinking: From a general fact about a class of objects, the conclusion is drawn about an instance of a class. For example, if the statements "All cats have four paws" and "Snoby is a cat" are true, then the statement "Snoby has four paws" is also true.

Through deductive and inductive thinking, the children's knowledge increases quickly. They show more uncertainty in inductive thinking than in deductive thinking, since one can never be sure that new information does not call the conclusion into question.

Inductive thinking: on the basis of individual observations, general conclusions are drawn. For example, "My cat Snoby has four paws. The neighbors' cats also have four paws. So all cats have four paws."Spatial thinking: The location and positions of objects can now be described from a different frame of reference than your own or from a different perspective.Children can now find their way home from school without any problems. Also ideas about distances between two places and the time it takes to reach a distant destination are becoming more and more precise.Quantitative changesThe Information processing becomes faster, which frees up more capacity to process further information.the speed with which cognitive operations can be performed increases markedly from middle childhood to early adulthood and has been associated with brain developmentmemory: Memory performance is getting betterThis is also because memory strategies (i.e. different techniques and means to improve memory performance) are increasingly being taught and used (e.g. external memory aids such as knots in a handkerchief, writing lists, repeating the content to be remembered, groupings / categorizations, etc.) . It is a good idea to try out as many strategies as possible at the beginning.There are different developmental courses for different types of memory (e.g. more pronounced increase in the visual memory span than the verbal memory span)Different types of memory (visual, verbal and tactile information channels) should be used in schoolCognitive control: Improvement of the cognitive control performance, which is mainly due to the maturation processes of the prefrontal cortex (maintenance of relevant information, inhibition of automated action tendencies, cognitive flexibility, coordination of multiple tasks, action planning)While it is still difficult for children in the lower grades to work independently on weekly work plans, children in the middle grades succeed in doing this increasingly betterconcentration: the attention span continues to increaseChildren can now concentrate for up to 20 minutesMetacognition: an understanding of one's own cognitive skills and functioning developsthe child can reflect on how best to learn, with guidanceLanguage developmentObjectification of language: an understanding is developed that language can be broken down into sentences, words and sounds.The child now relates letters and sounds and begins to write.the 6-year-old child is usually proficient in syntactic and morphological Basic structures of his mother tongue.these competencies are now being refined and supplemented in schoolLinguistic abilities increase in quantitative (e.g. volume of vocabulary) as well as qualitative (more differentiated understanding of word meanings)With the decrease in egocentrism, language becomes increasingly context-free and is used as a means of solving problems and presenting factsAt around 10 years of age, the child develops an understanding of Metaphors, ambiguities and witat the age of about 11 the child masters Stories to tell at a climax

Development of motivation and emotion

from pleasure orientation to Acceptance of external controlChildren can increasingly break free from self-determined and pleasure-oriented games and work on tasks given by adultsdeveloping a high Achievement motivation depends on what causes children ascribe to success or failure in achievement situationsDepending on how a child justifies his performance (success based on his own good abilities or chance), he or she will be motivated to face new challenges and not be discouraged so easily by failures, or they will approach the tasks pessimistically and give up quickly. In this case, the environment should help the child to correct his causal attribution and thus counteract his fear of performance situations.Reference standard orientation: if the achievements of weaker children are compared with the achievements of their classmates (social reference norm), the probability increases that the motivation of these children will decrease significantlyConsider the individual learning progress of the child instead of comparing it with the whole class! This prevents experiences of failure, frustration, fear and the avoidance of further performance situations.intrapersonal occur from middle childhood Emotions like pride, shame or guilt increasingly appear in the absence of other people or adults.Not every form of misconduct triggers shame or feelings of guilt, but primarily deliberate, intentional misconduct such as lying or stealing.the description of emotional states becomes more nuanced, and by the age of 10-11 children understand ambivalent emotions. They increasingly develop an understanding that the expression of emotions does not necessarily have to correspond to the actual emotional state.The child is looking forward to the holidays and is sad at the same time because it will then not be able to play with the friends

Personality development

Self-concept: As social comparisons with peers are made more and more frequently, the self-descriptions are increasingly differentiated, comprehensive and realisticThe school environment supports this tendency, especially if the performance of the children is repeatedly compared with one another, e.g. by giving grades.Self-esteem develops (subjective evaluation of the self-concept; what one thinks of oneself)school performance influences self-esteemA poorly performing child, with appropriate support and appreciation, can develop a high level of self-esteem if they are given the impression that others accept and like them for who they are.From the age of 8, external assessments of one's own competencies influence self-esteemSocial Developmentschool: When you start school, teachers and classmates become new caregiversRelationship with the teacher: Children need to be recognized by teachers, for fair judgment, for benevolence and understanding - absolute justice is expectedA good relationship between teacher and student has a positive effect on school success. Teachers are allowed to be strict from the children's point of view, they are allowed to demand performance, but they are not allowed to favor anyone and they are not allowed to accuse anyone of wrong motivesChildren can move at different speeds Friendships with peers build up. Socially competent children are more able to empathize with others, are less impulsive when making contact and are therefore more likely to be accepted.Because socially unskillful children are rejected by their peers, they lack contact with other children and cannot practice socially appropriate behavior. External support is required here.In school age, there is increasing recognition that friendships are based on reciprocity and that compromises are a part of it. Mutual trust is gaining in importance. An important friendship criterion is that you can tell each other secrets and you can rely on them not being passed onFrom the 3rd grade onwards, the sexes gradually move apartIn gymnastics and during breaks, the girls prefer to be in groups of two to three members, while the boys spend their free time with other boys in larger groups