Calculators are allowed in SAT in India
Indian space travel
1 The Indian Space Travel India - a subcontinent with almost one billion inhabitants. India is considered a poor country, but also the largest democracy in the world. With its many peoples, religions and provinces from the Himalayas to southern India, it is also a land of many contrasts. A country with an old culture and long traditions in the sciences, it is considered a stronghold of mathematics and ingenious computer technicians. And it is also one of the world's space travel nations, with the ability to develop its own satellites and launch them into space with their own launch vehicles. Given its great distances and its poorly developed infrastructure, satellite technology also has its own justification and is not an end in itself for the state prestige. The Indian government established the Ministry of Space in 1972 to promote the development and application of space science and technology and to make it useful for the common good. The ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization), founded in 1969, was subordinated to the new ministry and is responsible for the space program. During the 1970s, the ability to use applications such as communications, broadcasting and earth observation in space was developed and demonstrated. Experimental satellites and launch vehicles were designed and built. These included the Aryabhata, Bhaskara, APPLE satellites and the experimental satellite carriers SLV-3 and ASLV. Today India has established operational systems as part of the national infrastructure and is a recognized part of the international space community. The history of the Indian space program Dr Vikram Sarabhai is considered to be the father of the Indian space program. Regarding the meaning of such a program, he stated: There are some doubts about the usefulness of space activities for a developing country. But for us there is no doubt about its usefulness. We do not have the imagination to compete with the economically advanced nations in the exploration of the moon or planets or in human spaceflight. But we are convinced that if we are to play a significant role as a nation and in the community of nations, we must at least be unmatched in the application of advanced technologies in solving the real problems of humanity and society. Map of India with the different space centers. Graphic: ISRO. a National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR = Indian National Committee for Space Research) was founded within the framework of the Ministry of Atomic Energy. In the same year, work began on the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS). A year later, in November 1963, the first sounding rocket was launched from TERLS. Further milestones were the establishment of the Space Science & Technology Center (SSTC) in Thumba in 1965 and the construction of a satellite earth station in Ahmedabad in 1967, followed by the establishment of the actual space organization ISRO, but still within the scope of the Atomic Energy Ministry. The development of Indian space travel began long before the space travel ministry was founded, three years later. In 1962, the SLV-3 at the launch site. Photo: ISRO.
2 own ministry and in the following years first airborne earth observation experiments. First Indian satellite Then the first highlight of the Indian space program: The first launch of an Indian satellite Aryabhata on board a Russian Interkosmos rocket on April 19, 1975 into low Earth orbit. On board three payloads for X-ray astronomy, solar physics and aeronomy. Bhaskara-I, an experimental Earth observation satellite, was then launched on June 7, 1979, also on board a Russian carrier. Bhaskara-II followed in these two satellites carried two cameras, for the optical and infrared range, as well as a passive microwave radiometer. APPLE (Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment), an experimental communications satellite, was launched on June 19, 1981 on board an Ariane and carried a C-band transponder. The first Indian satellite, Aryabhata, launched by a Russian rocket. Photo: ISRO. Only the third launch on May 20, 1992 is successful, SROSS-C is properly launched in an orbit. In the meantime, the first operational earth observation satellite IRS-1A and other communication satellites (INSAT-1C and INSAT-1D) have been successfully brought into orbit, followed by the first INSAT of the second generation. These heavy satellites will all be launched into space on foreign carriers. An Indian carrier system for heavy loads, the PSLV rocket, is only available from the first launch with IRS-1E on board but fails and the payload is lost, then two payloads are launched into space with their own rockets. First an ASLV rocket, which successfully launched the SROSS-2C on May 4, 1994. And then the launch of the PSLV missile on October 15, the payload IRS-P2 will happily in First Indian launcher In the same year, on August 10, the launch of the first Indian launcher SLV-3 (Satellite Launch Vehicle). However, it was not possible to place the experimental Rohini payload in orbit. Then the second highlight, the successful launch of an SLV-3 on July 18th. This time the Rohini payload could be safely deposited in earth orbit. India thus joined the ranks of nations that can bring their own payload into space with their own carrier system. In the following years, other successful SLV-3 launches were carried out. At the same time, heavy satellites were launched into space with foreign rockets, mainly from Russia. The first of these, the INSAT-1A communications satellite, was launched in April 1982, but already in the Rohini, the first satellite launched by an Indian launcher. Photo: ISRO. Deactivated September then followed INSAT-1B. In 1984 India took part in a manned mission together with Russia, the Indian cosmonaut Rekesh Shrma was able to fly into space aboard a Soyuz capsule and carry out experiments on the Salyut-7 space station for a few days. Further developments The new ASLV launcher flies on March 24, 1987, but the SROSS-1 (Stretched Rohini Series Satellite) payload cannot be placed in Earth orbit again. SROSS-2 cannot be launched into orbit on July 13, 1988 either. The INSAT-2E satellite, a multipurpose telecommunications, TV broadcast and meteorological satellite, launched in 1999 by a European Ariane rocket. Photo: ISRO
3 exposed to a polar synchronous orbit. The two satellites INSAT-2C and IRS-1C will again be launched into space with alien rockets. A year later, an Indian carrier, a PSLV rocket, can launch the earth exploration satellite IRS-P3 in a polar sun-synchronous orbit. A PSLV launch with IRS-1D on board was also successful in 1997. The INSAT-2D, which was started in the same year, becomes unusable after a short period of use. The ARABSAT satellite, which is already in orbit, will therefore be purchased and the last copy of the second generation of the INSAT series, INSAT-2E, will be launched with an Ariane rocket as INSAT-2DT. In the same year, the first commercial launch with the two foreign satellites KITSAT-3 and DLR-TUBSAT on an Indian launcher took place on May 26th. Also on board the PSLV-C2 rocket is the Indian satellite IRS-P4 (OCEAN-SAT). In 2000 the GSLV-D1 missile will start again. Photo: ISRO. Mission sequence of the INSAT-3C satellite mission. Graphic: ISRO. the first satellite of the third INSAT generation, INSAT-3B, was launched by a European Ariane rocket. On April 18, 2001, the new GSLV-D1 carrier system will start from Sriharikota for the first time. The payload on board was GSAT-1. The GSLV launcher should be able to bring masses of up to 2,500kg into geostationary orbit. However, the development has not yet been completed and the system has therefore not yet been introduced. The tried and tested PSLV rocket in the PSLV-C3 version brought commercial payloads into space for the second time on October 22, 2001. In addition to the Indian satellite TES (Technology Experiment Satellite), the German BIRD and the Belgian PROBA are on board. IN-SAT-3C will be launched again in 2002 by an Ariane and the PSLV-C4 rocket will place the METSAT satellite in a geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) on September 12, 2002. From there, the satellite was lifted into geostationary orbit by its own Apogee motor. METSAT is ISRO's first meteorological satellite to be built exclusively for this purpose. The INSAT system INSAT, introduced in 1983, is a multi-purpose satellite system for telecommunications, television broadcasting, meterology and rescue services. It is one of the world's largest national communication systems and currently consists of five satellites, INSAT-1D, INSAT-2B, INSAT-2C, INSAT-2DT and INSAT-2E. In addition to telecommunications and regular broadcasts, it is also used extensively for interactive educational purposes in rural areas. The ability to obtain meteorological data and direct communication with ground stations also makes it possible to use INSAT to warn of dangerous cyclones. INSAT also has transponders on board that can be used in rescue operations as part of the international COSPAS / SARSAT program.
4 The IRS system This system of five earth observation satellites, introduced in 1988, has the world's largest constellation of five such spacecraft stationed in space. These satellites, IRS-1B, IRS-1C, IRS-1D, IRS-P3 and IRS-P4 (OCEANSAT-1) offer a wealth of data from space over the earth, in a wide spectral band and in different resolutions. This data is used for many purposes, including agriculture, water resources, urban development, mineral resource exploration, environmental protection, forest management, drought and flood warning, and marine resource monitoring. This should enable the Indian government to promote the sustainable development of socio-economic opportunities. Launch vehicle India has developed and introduced a launch vehicle called PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle), which can bring a satellite with a mass of up to kg into a sun-synchronous polar orbit of a maximum height of 820 kilometers. Heavier payloads can be transported into low Earth orbit. After an initial false start and two successful starts in 1994 and 1996, this carrier system has been operational since 1997. Since then there have been a total of three regular starts. A satellite, METSAT, was also brought into a geostationary transfer orbit. The PLSV launcher at launch. Photo: ISRO. other stages work with liquid rocket fuel. In addition, six solid matter boosters are installed on the first stage. At the top of the rocket is a payload fairing 3.2 meters in diameter. The GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch System) rocket will even be able to launch a payload weighing kg into geostationary orbit and is currently in development. A first experimental launch in 2001 was successful, the second launch took place on May 8th The first carrier system, called SLV-3 (Satellite Launch Vehicle), was launched for the first time in 1980, followed by two further launches. The weight of the rocket was 17 tons, at a height of 22 meters a payload of 40 kilograms could be transported into low earth orbit. The second system was the ASLV (Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle) with two failures and two. The current version of the PSLV rocket weighs 294 tons at launch and is 44.4 meters high. It consists of four stages, the first and third stage having a solid fuel motor and the two 560 at the launch site. Photo: ISRO. The sounding rocket RH The carrier rocket GSLV. Graphic: ISRO.
5 Scheme of the GSLV rocket. Graphic: ISRO. successful flights. The missile had five stages and was operated with solid-fuel motors. With a weight of 39 tons and a total height of 23.5 meters, a 150 kilogram satellite could be launched into a low orbit. Both missiles are no longer in service. In addition, there are a number of sounding rockets for scientific and technological experiments. Currently these are the Rohini sounding rockets in the three models RH 300 MkII, RH560 and RH560 Mk II with payload capacities of up to 100 kilograms. Space research The launch systems for the GSLV rocket. Photo: ISRO. A measuring device for gamma rays was brought into space on board the SCROSS-C2 satellite in 1996. The IRS-P3 satellite, launched the same year, carried an X-ray astronomy payload into orbit. Scientific research is also carried out within the framework of the soil network, including the mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radar (MST). Systems for the data of the earth observation satellites. A large number of academic and scientific institutions and some industrial companies are also involved in the Indian space program. The relevant companies have acquired corresponding highly developed skills in the field of high technology and can also offer them for other purposes and customers. There are certainly also corresponding cross-connections to the military sector, as India has both nuclear weapons and corresponding missile carriers, at least with a medium range. Offers for the international space market Launch of a PSLV rocket. Photo: ISRO. Infrastructure For the implementation of the space program, a corresponding infrastructure was built in India with numerous centers spread all over the country. This includes systems for the development of satellites and launch vehicles, a network for telemetry radio as well as tracking and control of the spacecraft and receiving and evaluating the DLR satellite Tubsat. Photo: ISRO. Orders for the international space market are processed through the company Antrix.
6 The GSLV rocket during integration. Graphic: ISRO. This includes the receipt of earth observation data by the USA, Dubai, Japan, Germany and Korea, the rental of transponders on the INSAT-2E satellites to the international INTELSAT organization and the launch of scientific payloads on sounding rockets. The two satellites KITSAT-3 from Korea and DLR-TUBSAT from Germany were also launched on board an Indian PSLV launcher in May 1999 as part of a commercial contract. International cooperation India also takes part in the relevant international forums such as the UN, IAF, COSPAR & CEOS and places great value on cross-border cooperation. The Center for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia, established in India, is sponsored by the United Nations. Courses are also offered for personnel from developing countries as part of the Sharing of Experience in Space (SHARES) program. Last but not least, India was also the venue for the second UN ESCAP ministerial conference on space applications for sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific in New Delhi in November. ISRO was also represented at the last UNISPACE exhibition in Vienna with a booth where the various hardware parts of the space program could be seen in impressive models. EF, source: ISRO information sheet and homepage. The stages of the GSLV rocket: The first stage - S125, with a diameter of 2.8m and a fuel load of 129 tons. One of the first stage L40 boosters. Each of them has 40 tons of hypergolic fuel loaded and each has two independent tanks with a diameter of 2.1m. The second GSLV stage with a diameter of 2.8 m and a load of 37.5 tons of liquid fuel (UDMH & N2O2). The third GSLV stage, also with a diameter of 2.8 m and liquid fuel (LH2 and LOX) in two separate aluminum tanks, overall integration of the Antrix sales organization in the Indian space program. Graphic: ISRO. 12.5 tons of fuel. Photos: ISRO.
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