Who has proven the existence of dark matter

New study Dark matter older than the universe?

Astronomers believe that around 80 percent of our universe is made up of dark matter. They are everywhere in the universe. Also in our solar system. But although the puzzling, not directly visible matter is so important in quantitative terms, there is no clear evidence of its existence. Because dark matter is what scientists call a postulate. Their existence is assumed because without their gravitational effects the movement and distribution of visible mass in space cannot be explained.

Not a relic of the big bang

For a long time, researchers believed that dark matter must be a remnant of the Big Bang, i.e. the starting point for the creation of matter, space and time 13.8 billion years ago. The physicist and astronomer Tommi Tenkanen from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, has doubts. "If dark matter were a real relic of the Big Bang, researchers should have found a direct signal from it in various particle physics experiments long ago ", writes the scientist in a study recently published in the Physical Review Letters.

Created before the Big Bang was over

Instead, Tenkanen believes it is possible that dark matter was created before the Big Bang was over and thus also before the universe. Namely during the so-called cosmic inflation, a phase of the faster-than-light expansion of space, during which matter and cosmos also emerged. According to some - but by no means all - definitions, the big bang was only over with this cosmic inflation. According to Tenkanen, it is believed that a certain type of particle was produced on a large scale during this rapid expansion. We are talking about scalars, of which only the so-called Higgs boson has so far been discovered.

Angelfish and their fields

It is known that the field around such a scalar - i.e. the scalar field - gives all elementary particles such as electrons their mass. Correspondingly, so the further assumption, a "dark" scalar field could also have produced dark matter.

Tenkanen's conclusion: "We don't know what dark matter is, but if it has anything to do with scalar particles, it may be older than the Big Bang." With the proposed mathematical model, the scientist said, one "does not have to assume any new types of interactions between visible and dark matter beyond gravity".

Connection between particle physics and astronomy

The study has also shown a new connection between particle physics and astronomy, Tenkanen concludes: "If dark matter consists of particles that were created before the Big Bang, these influence the distribution of galaxies in the universe in a unique way." This connection, in turn, could be used to identify dark matter through astronomical observations and to draw conclusions about the time before the Big Bang.