What black on black crime perpetuates
That is why blacks in the US live less long than whites
Blacks in the US not only earn less than whites and go to jail more often, but they also live less long on average than white Americans. Why?
Discrimination based on skin color is often difficult to measure in the USA: it can be a crooked look, insults or canceled job interviews. It is different with what politicians in the USA call "systematic racism". Even around 50 years after legal equality, the structural disadvantage of blacks can still be measured in many ways: On average, they live shorter lives, are poorer and less healthy than white Americans.
Dead in police operations
According to an evaluation by the Washington Post, police officers in the USA have shot around 5,400 people, most of them armed, since 2015. Of these, 45 percent were white, although whites make up around 60 percent of the US population. Blacks, who make up only 13 percent of the population, represented 23 percent of those killed by the police.
The statistics of firearm deaths give only a small insight into the actions of the police: In the case of George Floyd, no shot was fired - without the cell phone videos of passers-by, his killing would hardly have been so well known. Government studies show that police officers are more likely to use force against blacks overall.
Harsher penalties for black people
According to many studies, blacks are also checked by the police more often than whites. If convicted later, blacks receive almost 20 percent longer sentences than whites for the same crime, according to a government report for the period 2011-2016. According to the civil rights organization NAACP, African Americans make up around 34 percent of all approximately 2.2 million prison inmates. Measured against their share of the population, five times more Afro-Americans are imprisoned than whites.
One in three black people could end up in jail
In other words, every third African-American man born in 2001 will statistically end up in prison once in his lifetime, but only every 17th white male American, as the civil rights group Sentencing Project explains. "Afro-Americans are more likely than white Americans to be arrested, after arrest they are more likely to be found guilty (...) and are more likely to face severe sentences," the group explains.
Unemployment and income
The unemployment rate for African Americans in the US is generally significantly higher than that for white Americans. In May, the rate for blacks was 16.8 percent and that for whites was 12.4 percent. In addition, studies show that blacks are paid on average only three quarters of what whites earn for comparable work. One in five black people in the US lives below the poverty line of around 26,000 US dollars for a family of four, as the Institute for Economic Policy (EPI) explains.
Assets and Home Ownership
According to studies, the wealth of an average white family is up to ten times greater than that of a black family. This is also due to the fact that white families have been able to accumulate property and pass it on for generations. In absolute terms, the US Federal Reserve (Fed) puts it this way: Whites in the USA controlled assets of a good 95 trillion dollars at the end of 2019, blacks just under 5 trillion dollars.
The difference in wealth is also reflected in the question of home ownership, which is the norm in the US. Today just under 74 percent of whites in the US own their homes, but only 44 percent of blacks, as the latest official data from the end of April show.
Education and leadership positions
At the age of 25, 15 percent of blacks and only 8 percent of whites do not have a high school diploma. Overall, 35 percent of whites have a university degree at this age, but only 21 percent of blacks, according to data from the Ministry of Education. African Americans are also significantly underrepresented in management positions in large companies. Among the Fortune 500 companies, for example, there are only four black CEOs.
It is similar in politics: in President Donald Trump's cabinet, for example, there is only one African American, Housing Minister Ben Carson. In the military, around 40 percent of the soldiers are African American, but only two of 41 top generals are black, as reported by the New York Times.
According to experts, health care for African Americans is on average worse than that for whites. This is due to a bundle of factors such as different levels of education, wealth, a lack of trust in white doctors - but also discrimination. A prestigious 2016 study showed that black people who complain of pain get less help.
The reason is that many white laypeople, medical students and young doctors "wrongly believe in biological differences between blacks and whites". This perception then leads to inadequate treatment, it was said. Only 4 percent of doctors are black, although 13 percent of the US population is black.
Whites live longer
The life expectancy of whites was 78.5 years in 2017 and blacks 74.9 years, as figures from the CDC show. In the USA, for example, 13 white mothers die per 100,000 births, but more than three times as many black women: 41 deaths per 100,000 births, according to CDC data. An estimated 11.9 percent of the white population suffer from diabetes, while 16.4 percent of the black population are diabetic. The same applies to the risk factors high blood pressure and obesity.
Health insurance and coronavirus
There is no general government health insurance in the United States. In 2018, around 28 million people had no insurance at all. That was the case for 5.4 percent of white Americans. Among blacks, it was 9.7 percent, according to data from the referendum. Blacks are also particularly affected by the corona virus. It is estimated that a quarter of all corona deaths have so far been black.
In the capital Washington, for example, three quarters of all 500 corona deaths were African American. The CDC explains that the death rate of blacks per 100,000 inhabitants is twice as high as that of the white population. “Economic and social framework conditions” are often responsible, explains the authority.
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