What is the Deccan Plateau covered with?

India

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DESCRIPTION

India, officially the Republic of India (Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area, the second largest country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the south, the Arabian Sea to the southwest and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal and Bhutan in the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is close to Sri Lanka and the Maldives. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a sea border with Thailand and Indonesia.
The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilization of the 3rd millennium BC. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. In the first millennium BCE, caste-based social stratification emerged, and Buddhism and Jainism emerged. Early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires; The later Peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced the cultures as far as Southeast Asia. In the Middle Ages, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam came along, and Sikhism emerged, which contributed to the diverse culture of the region. Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate; the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the Mughal Empire in the 17th century. In the middle of the 18th century the subcontinent came under the rule of the British East India Company and in the middle of the 19th century under the British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged at the end of the 19th century, which later became known for nonviolent resistance under Mahatma Gandhi and which led to India's independence in 1947.
In 2015, the Indian economy was the seventh largest in the world by nominal GDP and third largest by buying power parity. After market economy reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest growing economies and is considered an emerging market. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition and inadequate public health care. As a nuclear weapon state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth among nations in terms of military spending. India is a federal republic that is governed in a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union areas. It is a pluralistic, multilingual, and multiethnic society and is also home to a variety of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.

   
HISTORY

Ancient India
The earliest authenticated human remains in South Asia date from around 30,000 years ago. Almost simultaneous rock carvings from the Mesolithic have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. Around 7000 BC The first known Neolithic settlements emerged on the subcontinent in Mehrgarh and other places in western Pakistan. These gradually developed into the Indus Valley civilization, the first urban culture in South Asia; It flourished during 2500 to 1900 BC. In Pakistan and West India. In the vicinity of cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, and Kalibangan, which relied on various forms of livelihood, civilization was heavily involved in artisanal production and trade.
In the period 2000 AD. Many regions of the subcontinent changed culturally from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age. The Vedas, the oldest scriptures in Hinduism, were composed

   
GEOGRAPHY

India encompasses most of the Indian subcontinent that lies on the Indian tectonic plate and part of the Indo-Australian plate. India's defining geological processes began 75 million years ago when the Indian plate, then part of the southern supercontinent of Gondwana, began a northeastern drift through the ocean floor that spread to the southwest, and later, south and southeast. At the same time, the great oceanic crust of Tethyn began to subduct to the northeast under the Eurasian plate. These dual processes, powered by convection in the Earth's mantle, created the Indian Ocean and caused the Indian continental crust to undercut Eurasia and uplift the Himalayas. Immediately south of the emerging Himalayas, the movement of the plates created a huge trough that quickly filled with river sediments and now forms the Indo-Ganges plain. Cut off from the plain at the ancient Aravalli chain lies the Thar desert.
The original Indian plate survives as India Peninsula, the o

   
ARCHITECTURE

According to Emporis, there are 1,223 skyscrapers in Hong Kong, putting the city at the top of the world rankings. It has more buildings than 150 meters more than any other city. The high density and tall skyline of Hong Kong's metropolitan area is due to a lack of available urban sprawl, with the average distance from the harbor front to the steep hills of Hong Kong Island at 1.3 km (0.81 miles), much of it reclaimed land. This lack of space leads to a demand for dense high-rise offices and apartments. 36 of the 100 tallest residential buildings in the world are in Hong Kong. More people in Hong Kong live or work above the 14th floor than anywhere else on earth, making it the most vertical city in the world.
Due to the lack of space and the demand for construction, there are few older buildings and the city is becoming a center of modern architecture. The International Commerce Center (ICC) is the tallest building in Hong Kong at 484 m and the third tallest in the world

   
CULTURE

Indian cultural history spans more than 4,500 years. During the Vedic period (around 1700-500 BC) the foundations of Hindu philosophy, mythology, theology and literature were laid, and many beliefs and practices that still exist today, such as: B. dh & aacute; rma, k & aacute; rma, y ​​& oacute; ga and mokṣa were founded. India is notable for its religious diversity, with Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity and Jainism among the major religions in the country. The predominant religion, Hinduism, was shaped by various historical schools of thought, including the Upanishads, the Yoga Sutras, the Bhakti movement and Buddhist philosophy. Art and architecture
Much of Indian architecture, including the Taj Mahal, other works of Mughal architecture, and South Indian architecture, blends ancient local traditions with imported styles. The architecture of the area is also very regional in flavors. Vastu shastra, literally "science of construction" or "architecture" and attributed to Mamuni Maya, explores how the laws of nature affect human habitation; it uses precise geometry and directional alignments to reflect perceived cosmic constructs. As usual in Hindu temple architecture, it is influenced by the Shilpa Shastras, a series of fundamental texts whose basic mythological form is the Vastu Purusha mandala, a square that embodied the "absolute". The Taj Mahal, which was built between 1631 and 1648 on the orders of Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife in Agra, was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List as the "Jewel of Muslim Art in India and one of the world's most admired masterpieces of the Die Architecture of the Indo-Saracenic Revival, developed by the British in the late 19th century, drew on the Indo-Islamic architecture. Literature
The earliest literary writings in India, dating between 1700 BC. BCE and A.D. 1200, were in the Sanskrit language. Prominent works in this Sanskrit literature include epics such as the Mahābhārata and the Ramayana, the dramas of Kālidāsa such as Abhijntilde; ānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Sakuntalā) and poetry such as the Mahākāvya; Kamasutra, the famous book on sexual intercourse, was also written in India. The in South India between 600 BC. Sangam literature, consisting of 2,381 poems, is considered to be the forerunner of Tamil literature. From the 14th to the 18th centuries, India's literary traditions underwent a dramatic change as devoted poets such as Kabīr, Tulsīdās, and Guru Nānak developed. This period was marked by a diverse and wide range of thoughts and expressions; As a result, the medieval Indian literary works differed significantly from the classical traditions. In the 19th century, Indian writers took a new interest in social issues and psychological descriptions. In the 20th century, Indian literature was influenced by the works of the Bengali poet and novelist Rabindranath Tagore, who received the Nobel Prize in Literature. The performing arts and Indian music span different traditions and regional styles. Classical music encompasses two genres and their different folk branches: the northern Hindustani and southern Carnatic schools. Regionalized popular forms include filmi and folk music; The syncretistic tradition of the bols is a well-known form of the latter. Indian dance also features various folk and classical forms. More famous folk dances include the Bhangra of Punjab, the Bihu of Assam, the Chhau of Odisha, West Bengal and Jharkhand, Garba and Dandiya of Gujarat, Ghoomar of Rajasthan and the Lavani of Maharashtra. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been designated as classical dance by the National Academy of Music, Dance and Drama in India. These are: bharatanatyam of Tamil Nadu state, kathak from Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniyattam from Kerala, kuchipudi from Andhra Pradesh, manipuri from Manipur, odissi from Odisha and sattriya from Assam. The theater in India combines music, dance and music of improvised or written dialogue. Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowed from medieval romances or social and political events, Indian theater includes the Bhavai of Gujarat, the Jatra of West Bengal, the Nautanki and Ramlila of North India, Tamasha of Maharashtra, Burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh, Terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu and the Yakshagana of Karnataka.Motion pictures, television
The Indian film industry produces the most watched cinema in the world. Established regional film traditions exist in the languages ​​Assamese, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi, Odia, Tamil and Telugu. South Indian cinema attracts more than 75% of the national film revenue.
Television began as a state communication medium in India in 1959 and has had slow expansion for more than two decades. The State's monopoly on television broadcasting ended in the 1990s, and since then satellite channels have increasingly shaped the pop culture of Indian society. Today television is the most pervasive medium in India. According to industry estimates, there have been more than 554 million television consumers since 2012, 462 million of them with satellite and / or cable connections, compared to other mass media such as the press (350 million), radio (156 million) or the Internet (37 million)
Indian cuisine encompasses a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines, often depending on a particular state (such as Maharashtrian cuisine). Indian food staples include pearl millet (bājra), rice, whole wheat flour (aṭṭa) and a variety of lentils such as masoor (mostly red lentils), toor (pigeon peas), urad (black gram), and mung (mung beans). Lentils can be used whole, peeled, for example Dhuli Moong or Dhuli Urad or Split. Split lentils, or dal, are used extensively. The spice trade between India and Europe is often cited by historians as the main catalyst for Europe's Age of Discovery. society
Traditional Indian society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy. The Indian caste system embodies much of the social stratification and many social restrictions on the Indian subcontinent. Social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often referred to as jātis or castes. India declared untouchability illegal in 1947 and has since passed other anti-discrimination laws and welfare initiatives. In the workplace in urban India and in international or leading Indian companies, cash register-related identification has lost its importance.
Family values ​​are important in Indian tradition, and multi-generational patriarchal mixed families have been the norm in India, although nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas. An overwhelming majority of Indians, with their consent, have arranged their marriages through their parents or other family elders. It is believed that marriage is lifelong and the divorce rate is extremely low. As of 2001, only 1.6 percent of Indian women were divorced, but that number rose due to their education and economic independence. Child marriages are common, especially in rural areas; Many women married before they turned 18, which is their legal marriageable age. Female child murder and female feticide in the country have created a gender gap, as it was estimated in 2005 that there were 50 million more men than women in the nation. However, a 2011 report showed an improvement in the gender balance. The payment of dowry, even if it is illegal, remains widespread across class boundaries. Dowry-related deaths, primarily from bridal burns, are on the rise.
Many Indian festivals are of religious origin. The most famous are Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Thai Pongal, Holi, Durga Puja, Eid ul-Fitr, Bakr-Id, Christmas and Vaisakhi. There are three national holidays in India that are observed in all states and union areas. Republic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti. Other holidays that fall between nine and twelve are officially observed in individual states. Clothing
Cotton was born in India around 4000 BC. Chr. Domesticated. Traditional Indian clothing varies in color and style in the regions and depends on various factors including climate and beliefs. Popular clothing styles are draped garments such as the sari for women and the dhoti or lungi for men. Sewn clothing, such as the Shalwar Kameez for women and kurta & pajama combinations, or European pants and shirts for men, are also popular. The use of delicate pieces of jewelry that are modeled on real flowers of ancient India is part of a tradition that is over 5000 years old; Gemstones are also worn as talismans in India. Sports In India, some traditional indigenous sports are quite popular, such as Kabaddi, Kho Kho, Pehlwani, and Gilli-Danda. Some of the earliest forms of Asian martial arts such as Kalarippayattu, Moti Yuddha, Silambam, and Marma Adi originated in India. Chess, commonly originated as chaturaṅga in India, is gaining popularity again with the increase in the number of Indian grandmasters. Pachisi, from whom Parcheesi comes from, was played by Akbar in a huge marble court.
The improved results that the Indian Davis Cup team and other Indian tennis players garnered in the early 2010s have made tennis increasingly popular in the country. India has a comparatively strong presence in the shooting sport and has won several medals in the Olympic Games, the World Shooting Championships and the Commonwealth Games. Other sports that Indians have enjoyed internationally are badminton (Saina Nehwal and PV Sindhu are two of the top ranked badminton players in the world), boxing, and wrestling. Soccer is popular in West Bengal, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and the northeastern states. India will host the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup.
Field hockey in India is administered by Hockey India. The Indian national hockey team won the hockey world cup in 1975 and won eight gold, one silver and two bronze medals in 2016, making it the most successful Olympic team in the sport.
India has also played an important role in popularizing cricket. Thus, cricket is by far the most popular sport in India. The Indian cricket team won the Cricket World Cup events in 1983 and 2011, the ICC World Twenty20 in 2007, shared the ICC Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka in 2002 and won the ICC Champions Trophy in 2013. Cricket in India is administered by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI); the Ranji Trophy, the Duleep Trophy, the Deodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy and the NKP Salve Challenger Trophy are national competitions. The BCCI also conducts an annual Twenty20 competition known as the Indian Premier League.
India has hosted or co-organized several international sporting events: the Asian Games of 1951 and 1982; the Cricket World Cup tournaments in 1987, 1996 and 2011; the 2003 Afro-Asian Games; the ICC Champions Trophy 2006; the 2010 World Hockey Championship; and the 2010 Commonwealth Games. Major international sporting events held annually in India are the Chennai Open, the Mumbai Marathon, the Delhi Half Marathon and the Indian Masters. The first Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix took place at the end of 2011, but has been removed from the F1 season calendar since 2014.
India has traditionally been the dominant country in the South Asian Games. An example of this dominance is the basketball competition in which Team India has won three out of four tournaments so far.
The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and the Arjuna Prize are the highest forms of state recognition for athletic achievement; The Dronacharya Award is given for excellence in coaching.

   
PERFORMING ARTS

Indian music spans different traditions and regional styles. Classical music encompasses two genres and their different folk branches: the northern Hindustani and southern Carnatic schools. Regionalized popular forms include filmi and folk music; The syncretistic tradition of the bols is a well-known form of the latter. Indian dance also features various folk and classical forms. More famous folk dances include the Bhangra of Punjab, the Bihu of Assam, the Chhau of Odisha, West Bengal and Jharkhand, Garba and Dandiya of Gujarat, Ghoomar of Rajasthan and the Lavani of Maharashtra. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been designated as classical dance by the National Academy of Music, Dance and Drama in India. These are: bharatanatyam of Tamil Nadu state, kathak from Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniyattam from Kerala, kuchipudi from Andhra Pradesh, manipuri from Manipur, odissi from Odisha and sattriya from Assam. The theater in India combines music, dance and music of improvised or written dialogue. Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowed from medieval romances or social and political events, Indian theater includes the Bhavai of Gujarat, the Jatra of West Bengal, the Nautanki and Ramlila of North India, Tamasha of Maharashtra, Burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh, Terukkuttu from Tamil Nadu and the Yakshagana from Karnataka.

   
KITCHEN

Indian cuisine encompasses a wide variety of regional and traditional dishes, often depending on a particular state (such as Maharashtrian cuisine). Indian food staples include pearl millet (bājra), rice, whole wheat flour (aṭṭa) and a variety of lentils such as masoor (mostly red lentils), toor (pigeon peas), urad (black gram), and mung (mung beans). Lentils can be used whole, peeled, for example Dhuli Moong or Dhuli Urad or Split. Split lentils, or dal, are used extensively. The spice trade between India and Europe is often cited by historians as the main catalyst for the European Age of Discovery.

   
SPORTS

In India, some traditional indigenous sports such as Kabaddi, Kho Kho, Pehlwani and Gilli-Danda are quite popular. Some of the earliest forms of Asian martial arts such as Kalarippayattu, Moti Yuddha, Silambam, and Marma Adi originated in India. Chess, commonly originated as chaturaṅga in India, is gaining popularity again with the increase in the number of Indian grandmasters. Pachisi, from whom Parcheesi comes from, was played by Akbar in a huge marble court.
The improved results that the Indian Davis Cup team and other Indian tennis players garnered in the early 2010s have made tennis increasingly popular in the country. India has a comparatively strong presence in the shooting sport and has won several medals in the Olympic Games, the World Shooting Championships and the Commonwealth Games. Other sports that Indians have enjoyed internationally are badminton (Saina Nehwal and PV Sindhu are two of the top ranked badminton players in the world), boxing, and wrestling. Soccer is popular in West Bengal, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and the northeastern states. India will host the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup.
Field hockey in India is administered by Hockey India. The Indian national hockey team won the hockey world cup in 1975 and won eight gold, one silver and two bronze medals in 2016, making it the most successful Olympic team in the sport.
India has also played an important role in popularizing cricket. Thus, cricket is by far the most popular sport in India. The Indian cricket team won the Cricket World Cup events in 1983 and 2011, the ICC World Twenty20 in 2007, shared the ICC Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka in 2002 and won the ICC Champions Trophy in 2013. Cricket in India is administered by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI); the Ranji Trophy, the Duleep Trophy, the Deodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy and the NKP Salve Challenger Trophy are national competitions. The BCCI also conducts an annual Twenty20 competition known as the Indian Premier League.
India has hosted or co-organized several international sporting events: the Asian Games of 1951 and 1982; the Cricket World Cup tournaments in 1987, 1996 and 2011; the 2003 Afro-Asian Games; the ICC Champions Trophy 2006; the 2010 World Hockey Championship; and the 2010 Commonwealth Games. Major international sporting events held annually in India are the Chennai Open, the Mumbai Marathon, the Delhi Half Marathon and the Indian Masters. The first Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix took place at the end of 2011, but has been removed from the F1 season calendar since 2014.
India has traditionally been the dominant country in the South Asian Games. An example of this dominance is the basketball competition in which Team India has won three out of four tournaments so far.
The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and the Arjuna Prize are the highest forms of state recognition for athletic achievement; The Dronacharya Award is given for excellence in coaching.

   
BIODIVERSITY

India lies within the Indomalaya Ecozone and contains three hotspots for biodiversity. One of 17 megadiverse countries is home to 8.6% of all mammals, 13.7% of all birds, 7.9% of all reptiles, 6% of all amphibians, 12.2% of all fish and 6.0% of all flowering plant species. Approximately 21.2% of the country's landmass is covered by forests (canopy density & gt; 10%), of which 12.2% comprises moderately or very dense forests (canopy density & gt; 40%). Endemism is high in plants, 33%, and among ecoregions such as the Shola Forests. The habitats range from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman, Western Ghats and Northeast India to the coniferous forest of the Himalayas. The damp deciduous forest of East India lies between these extremes; the dry deciduous teak forest of central and southern India; and the Babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Ganges plain. The medicinal neem, widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies, is a key Indian tree. The lush pipale fig tree seen on the seals of Mohenjodaro shadowed Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment.
Many Indian species are descended from taxa that originated in Gondwana, from which the Indian plate separated more than 105 million years ago. Peninsular India's subsequent movement and clash with the Laurasian landmass triggered a mass exchange of species. Epochal volcanism and climatic changes 20 million years ago forced a mass extinction. The mammals then came from Asia through two zoogeographic passes that flanked the ascending Himalayas. While 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians are endemic, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are. Among them are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and Beddomes toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172 endangered IUCN species or 2.9% of the endangered species. These include the Asiatic lion, Bengal tiger, snow leopard, and Indian white-fined vulture, which would have almost become extinct if the carcass had been trapped with diclofenac cuts.
The pervasive and ecologically devastating human intervention of the past few decades has put Indian wildlife at great risk. In response, the system of national parks and protected areas established in 1935 was expanded significantly. In 1972 India passed the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to protect vital wildlife; the Forest Conservation Act was enacted in 1980 and amended in 1988. India is home to more than five hundred nature reserves and thirteen biosphere reserves, four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. 25 wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.

   
TOURISM

Due to the lack of space and the demand for construction, there are few older buildings and the city is becoming a hub for modern architecture. The International Commerce Center (ICC) is the tallest building in Hong Kong at 484 m and the third tallest in the world

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