What attracts girls more size or muscles

Physical Changes During Pregnancy

Although the body goes through a number of changes during pregnancy and “dog days” are unavoidable, most women do very well during this time.

Internal organs. Of course, as the embryo grows, so does the size of the uterus. If it weighs between 30 and 60 g in non-pregnant women, their muscle mass increases by 30 times to 1,200–1,500 g by the time they are born. Towards the end of pregnancy, the uterus takes up so much space that it even prevents the lungs from expanding completely, making breathing difficult. But months before that, she moves the other organs in the abdomen step by step aside, which causes typical pregnancy symptoms, e. B. Heartburn from the displacement of the stomach and constipation from the squeezing of the bowels. Due to the constant pressure of the uterus on the urinary bladder, the pregnant woman has the feeling of constantly having to go to the toilet, but she can only urinate a little (pollakiuria). But also for hormonal reasons, an increased urge to urinate is completely normal during pregnancy.

In the course of pregnancy, the uterus also presses on the pelvic veins, which encourages blood congestion in the veins of the legs. Varicose veins can be the result. Movement, wearing support stockings and regular elevation of the legs work against this.

The veins from the region of the large intestine are also compressed. A congestion in these blood vessels can cause hemorrhoids - these can be treated with analgesic creams or suppositories.

In addition, due to pregnancy, 6–7 l more water than usual is stored in the body. This accumulation of water (edema) in the tissue is the reason why many women complain about arms and legs falling asleep during pregnancy - the water from the tissue presses on the nerves and temporarily paralyzes them. These complaints also disappear after the birth at the latest.

Weight gain. Weight gain of up to 15 kg is harmless during pregnancy. However, if you are overweight or obese, doctors recommend staying well below this limit of 15 kg. To achieve this, eating a healthy diet and exercising is helpful.

More than half of the weight gain is due to the above-mentioned accumulation of body fluid, mostly in the lower half of the body. The result is uncomfortable swelling in your hands and feet, which is usually not a cause for concern. A lot of exercise and a balanced diet can prevent excessive fluid build-up.

Breasts. Due to hormones, the mammary glands enlarge in the first few days after the child is implanted in the uterus; by the due date they multiply their volume and weight. Due to the considerable stretching of the surrounding skin areas, the subcutaneous connective tissue can tear; this can lead to the formation of stretch marks. The nipple (nipple) also grows, and the areola (areola) becomes darker and larger. Physical measures to harden the nipple are no longer recommended these days, as they destroy the natural protective layer of the skin and thus dry out the skin. Only in the case of flat nipples, inverted nipples and inverted nipples is it helpful to put on a niplette several times a day from the 5th month of pregnancy to prepare the nipples.

Move. Many pregnant women struggle with back pain, especially in the last trimester of pregnancy. No wonder: the bigger the belly, the more the extra weight puts a strain on the back. To compensate for this burden, many pregnant women make a hollow back, which overstrains the back muscles.

In addition, the hormone progesterone loosens the ligaments that stabilize the joints in preparation for childbirth. When the child's head presses on the sacrum towards the end of the pregnancy, pain is inevitable. Even if back pain is inevitable, especially towards the end of pregnancy, it can be prevented.

How to prevent:

  • Leave heavy lifting to others! If you really want to pick up something heavy, bend your knees and keep your back straight, even when you get up.
  • Avoid standing for long periods.
  • Pay attention to your footwear: flat heels are easier on the back than high heels.
  • Put your feet up while sitting.
  • Sleep on a firm mattress. If you lie on your side, you make a "humpback" to relieve the spine.
  • Regular exercise prevents pain; Swimming and pregnancy exercises are ideal. Yoga for pregnant women and Shiatsu by a therapist who is experienced with pregnant women also help the back.

And if the back pain is already there, use the following measures:

  • Warmth relaxes. Pamper your back muscles in a warm full bath (but not too warm, i.e. up to a maximum of 39 ° C). A hot water bottle or a warm, damp towel on your back will also help.
  • Bring the muscles back to their "normal" position: lying on your side with a cat's back and a pillow between your knees and under your stomach can relieve pain.
  • Inquire with your health insurance company about specific movement therapies; many health insurances cover the costs of pregnancy yoga, for example.
  • Massage the sore back area. Your doctor may prescribe massage if necessary. But be careful: a massage in the sacrum area can lead to contractions of the uterus in late pregnancy.
  • If the pain cannot be relieved in this way, Paracetamol® is permitted as a pain reliever during pregnancy - 1,000 mg max. 3 times a day (6 tablets of 500 mg each).

Teeth. Interestingly, pregnancy also affects teeth. The body needs more calcium and fluoride, two substances that harden and protect the teeth. During pregnancy, these “hardeners” are the first available to the child and their own teeth are missing. In addition, the pH of the saliva drops due to a change in the saliva composition. The result: pregnant women are more prone to tooth decay.

The changed hormone balance also increases the growth of blood vessels in the teeth supporting structure. This leads to more frequent bleeding gums and pregnancy-related inflammation of the mucous membranes (Pregnancy gingivitis). To avoid pain, pregnant women should take care of their oral hygiene. H. Brush your teeth regularly and massage the gums with a care balm (details gum balm).

Many dental treatments that are subject to additional payment in Germany can be carried out by the dentist free of charge during pregnancy. One more reason to plan a visit to the dentist during pregnancy.

Changes in the immune system. Similar to a transplant, the immune system must be made to not only tolerate the "foreign body child" (because it is 50% genetically different from the mother), but also to support it in growing. This is achieved through special antibodies that neutralize the maternal defense reactions and thus prevent rejection.

The change in the immune system is noticed above all by pregnant women who have a chronic disease in which the immune system is involved, such as neurodermatitis or a rheumatic disease, e.g. B. systemic lupus erythematosus. In almost all of them, the symptoms of the disease change, often less severe, but sometimes worse.

From the 20th week of pregnancy, antibodies against pathogens pass through the placenta to the child from the mother's blood and protect it from infections until about six months after birth (Nest protection).

Sleep in Pregnancy. At the beginning of pregnancy, many women have an increased need for sleep. You feel tired during the day and sleep more than usual at night. The cause of this is probably the pregnancy hormone progesterone. During pregnancy, especially in the last three months, many women complain of particularly poor sleep. Studies show that sleep patterns change: the periods of deep sleep decrease and the tendency to wake up at night increases. In the last phase of pregnancy, sleep disorders occur frequently, e.g. B. due to leg cramps, back pain, heartburn, movements of the unborn child, general malaise or increased urination.

Tips against sleep disorders

  • Make sure you have a regular sleep and wake rhythm. Even if you are already on maternity leave and no longer work, set the alarm clock so that you always get up at the same time in the morning.
  • Get outdoors for half an hour at least once a day. "Gentle" sports such as swimming or pregnancy gymnastics also contribute to better falling asleep and staying asleep.
  • Avoid excessive stress.
  • Muscle relaxation exercises promote sleep.
  • Do not eat heavy or spicy foods three hours before bed. This will avoid heartburn and calm your digestion in time.

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Authors

Dr. med. Katja Flieger, Dr. med. Arne Schäffler in: Gesundheit heute, edited by Dr. med. Arne Schäffler. Trias, Stuttgart, 3rd edition (2014). | last changed on at 12:03