What does advertising mean
2. term: Advertising is the influencing (“influencing of opinion” Kroeber-Riel 1988, 29) of behavior-relevant attitudes by means of specific means of communication that are disseminated via communication media. Advertising is one of the instruments of communication policy in the marketing mix. Due to the cost-intensive use of advertising media, it is the most conspicuous and most important instrument of marketing communication.
2. features: In the narrower sense, in the context of business communication, advertising means the addressing of sales markets. Companies also advertise personnel, financial resources or economic and legal frameworks that make it easier for you to do business. In the context of social communication, political, cultural and social organizations primarily pursue non-commercial advertising goals. Political parties advertise e.g. for voters, municipalities for the attractiveness of their cities, aid organizations for donations and cultural institutions advertise their right to exist. Advertising is therefore a basic element of social coexistence that is already documented in early cultures.
3. Differentiation from other, similar terms: The following further instruments can be distinguished: sales promotion, personal sales, public relations, sponsoring, product placement, event marketing, advertising bartering, licensing. A distinction is made between “Below-the-line” for persuasive communication in non-classical media and “Above-the-line” as an umbrella term for persuasive communication in classical media. The classic media of mass communication include print media (newspapers, magazines, outdoor advertising) and electronic media (radio, TV, Internet, cinema, etc.).
Ambient media are innovative advertising media in the immediate environment of the recipients (e.g. floors, toilets, shelf dispensers, subway trains, fuel nozzles, etc.).
A distinction must be made between classic media and advertising media that are geared towards establishing direct contact with the addressee through a targeted individual approach and initiating follow-up communication. This type of advertising, known as direct advertising or direct marketing, extends largely to advertising letters, brochures, pamphlets, etc. (direct mailing). More and more often, individual measures are systematically combined into multi-stage direct advertising campaigns.
The success of direct mail is primarily due to the direct and targeted addressing of consumers. In contrast to media advertising, these can react directly to the communication offer. The success of direct mail can be measured directly through the response of the addressees.
In addition to classic direct advertising by letter, direct mail, etc., the electronic variant in the form of newsletters and e-mails or SMS has emerged. So-called spam mails, i.e. e-mails that are automatically sent to every accessible e-mail address, have led to massive defensive behavior on the part of the recipient. In general, a problem with direct mail is the increasing inundation of consumers with “advertising mail”. In order to counter the resulting rejection reactions, it is increasingly only being sent to addressees who have given their consent beforehand, which is of course possible, especially in the electronic field. In the context of so-called one-to-one marketing, instruments for the individualization of direct mail are being developed, the use of which means that the addressee feels directly addressed, that the advertising information is useful for himself and should therefore accept it.
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