What does the development of a country mean


1. Improving the living standards of an economy over time; The development of a country has not only economic but also social and political dimensions. In principle, the term development can be used in two ways: If you want to consider the point in time, development is used in the sense of "state of development". If you want to describe temporal processes, the term is used in the sense of "development process". A country's level of development depends on the level of prosperity its inhabitants can achieve; the development process accordingly indicates how this level of prosperity changes over certain periods of time. However, since the concept of prosperity is difficult to grasp empirically, one orientates oneself i. d. Usually on the objectively ascertainable living conditions, which are expressed in the standard of living. The standard of living includes the satisfaction of basic needs as well as additional needs, which primarily include working conditions, recreation, entertainment, social security, human freedoms and the consumption of "non-essentials". While increasing the absolute extent of the goods and services produced by an economy is not only the focus of economic policy activities in developing countries but also in industrialized countries, the consideration of the distribution of macroeconomic output among the individual members of society is of particular importance in the countries of the Third World Regarding: On the one hand, there are significantly greater distribution differences in many developing countries than in the industrialized countries; on the other hand, those on low incomes are often unable to meet their basic needs. For the economic treatment of the phenomenon of development, a distinction is made between development theory and development policy. In the context of development theory, those factors are to be shown that determine the actual development process of a country. The subject of development policy is all economic policy measures that are suitable for initiating, maintaining or accelerating an economic development process in third world countries. Particular importance is attached to those measures that are carried out in the context of development aid by foreign governments or international institutions. 2. Knowledge gained through research or practical experience in the "production of new materials, products and devices, ... new processes, systems and services and their substantial improvement" (OECD). The development expenses required for this are summarized in development budgets as part of the research and development budget. The delimitation of development from the production of prototypes, the solution of application-related problems, the test production, the elimination of unforeseen malfunctions after the sale of products or the construction work is controversial and practically difficult to solve according to the criterion of the primarily intended purpose. Ongoing quality checks and routine tests are not part of the development, even if they are often actually carried out in the development area. (The Frascati manual gives recommendations for delimitation.) For example, prototypes that are not required for further tests and are therefore sold are excluded from development. Production on the scale intended for the market must also be ruled out, even if a pilot or pilot series, which cannot be sold later, is initially produced to run in and adjust systems, etc. Post-development is a special development activity. A distinction is also made between in-house and third-party developments. According to the subject, a distinction is made between product and process development and according to the degree of novelty between new, further and improvement developments. The dividing lines are arbitrary here. Differentiated proposals for the organization and management of both areas are derived from a differentiation of the task, uncertainties, communication requirements between research on the one hand and development on the other hand, as well as assumed differences in training and personality of researchers on the one hand and developers on the other. But they are controversial. As an explanation for the direction and scope of development activity, the induction of demand (demand pull) is more important than the autonomous induction (pressure of knowledge, technology push). Both effects work together. Literature: Hemmer, H.-R., Wirtschaftsprobleme der Entwicklungsländer, 2nd ed., Munich 1988. Timmermann, V., Entwicklungsstheorie und Entwicklungspolitik, Göttingen 1982. OECD, The measurement of scientific and technical activities. Frascati-Handbuch 1980 (Ed .: Federal Ministry for Research and Technology), Bonn 1982. Schmookler,]., Invention and Economic Growth, Cambridge, Mass. 1966.

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