Warum werden Menschen fettleibig und ungesund

Adipositas

Global BMI Mortality Collaboration, Di Angelantonio E, Bhupathiraju Sh N, Wormser D, Gao P, Kaptoge S, et al. Body-mass index and all-cause mortality: individual-participant-data meta-analysis of 239 prospective studies in four continents. Lancet. 2016;388(10046):776-86.

Winter JE, MacInnis RJ, Nowson CA. The Influence of Age the BMI and All-Cause Mortality Association: A Meta-Analysis. J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21(10):1254-8.

Jayedi A, Rashidy-Pour A, Khorshidi M, Shab-Bidar S. Body mass index, abdominal adiposity, weight gain and risk of developing hypertension: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of more than 2.3 million participants. Obes Rev. 2018;19(5):654-67.

Mongraw-Chaffin ML, Peters SAE, Huxley RR, Woodward M. The sex-specific association between BMI and coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 95 cohorts with 1.2 million participants. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015;3(6):437-49.

Aune D, Sen A, Schlesinger S, Norat T, Janszky I, Romundstad P, et al. Body mass index, abdominal fatness, fat mass and the risk of atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Epidemiol. 2017;32(3):181-92.

Wanahita N, Messerli FH, Bangalore S, Gami AS, Somers VK, Steinberg JS. Atrial fibrillation and obesity--results of a meta-analysis. Am Heart J. 2008;155(2):310-5.

Strazzullo P, D'Elia L, Cairella G, Garbagnati F, Cappuccio FP, Scalfi L. Excess body weight and incidence of stroke: meta-analysis of prospective studies with 2 million participants. Stroke. 2010;41(5):e418-26.

Li L, Liu DW, Yan HY, Wang ZY, Zhao SH, Wang B. Obesity is an independent risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: evidence from a meta-analysis of 21 cohort studies. Obes Rev. 2016;17(6):510-9.

Pedditzi E, Peters R, Beckett N. Corrigenda: Corrigendum to 'The risk of overweight/obesity in mid-life and late life for the development of dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies'. Age Ageing. 2016;45(5):740.

Wang Y, Chen X, Song Y, Caballero B, Cheskin LJ. Association between obesity and kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Kidney Int. 2008;73(1):19-33.

Sermondade N, Faure C, Fezeu L, Levy R, Czernichow S. Obesity and increased risk for oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(5):440-2.

Bell JA, Kivimaki M, Hamer M. Metabolically healthy obesity and risk of incident type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Obes Rev. 2014;15(6):504-15.

Abdullah A, Peeters A, de Courten M, Stoelwinder J. The magnitude of association between overweight and obesity and the risk of diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010;89(3):309-19.

Aune D, Norat T, Vatten LJ. Body mass index and the risk of gout: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Nutr. 2014;53(8):1591-601.

Silverwood V, Blagojevic-Bucknall M, Jinks C, Jordan JL, Protheroe J, Jordan KP. Current evidence on risk factors for knee osteoarthritis in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015;23(4):507-15.

Jiang L, Rong J, Wang Y, Hu F, Bao C, Li X, et al. The relationship between body mass index and hip osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Joint Bone Spine. 2011;78(2):150-5.

Allen AM, Therneau TM, Larson JJ, Coward A, Somers VK, Kamath PS. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease incidence and impact on metabolic burden and death: A 20 year-community study. Hepatology. 2018;67(5):1726-36.

Aune D, Norat T, Vatten LJ. Body mass index, abdominal fatness and the risk of gallbladder disease. Eur J Epidemiol. 2015;30(9):1009-19.

McTigue K, Larson JC, Valoski A, Burke G, Kotchen J, Lewis CE et al. Mortality and cardiac and vascular outcomes in extremely obese women. Jama 2006; 296(1): 79-86.  doi:10.1001/jama.296.1.79.

Deutsche Adipositas-Gesellschaft (DAG). Adipositas - Prävention und Therapie [online]. URL: http://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/050-001.html. [Zugriff: 20.02.2018].

Luppino FS, de Wit LM, Bouvy PF, Stijnen T, Cuijpers P, Penninx BW et al. Overweight, obesity, and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010; 67(3): 220-229.  doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.2.

Gariepy G, Nitka D, Schmitz N. The association between obesity and anxiety disorders in the population: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Obes (Lond) 2010; 34(3): 407-419.  doi:10.1038/ijo.2009.252.

Afshin A, Forouzanfar MH, Reitsma MB, Sur P, Estep K, Lee A et al. Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years. N Engl J Med 2017; 377(1): 13-27.  doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1614362.

Romero-Corral A, Montori VM, Somers VK, Korinek J, Thomas RJ, Allison TG et al. Association of bodyweight with total mortality and with cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease: a systematic review of cohort studies. Lancet 2006; 368(9536): 666-678.  doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(06)69251-9.

Hilbert A, Rief W, Braehler E. Stigmatizing attitudes toward obesity in a representative population-based sample. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008; 16(7): 1529-1534.  doi:10.1038/oby.2008.263.

Sikorski C, Luppa M, Kaiser M, Glaesmer H, Schomerus G, Konig HH et al. The stigma of obesity in the general public and its implications for public health - a systematic review. BMC Public Health 2011; 11: 661.  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-661.

World Health Organization (WHO). BMI classification [online]. URL: http://www.assessmentpsychology.com/icbmi.htm. [Zugriff: 09.02.2018].

Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hamalainen H, Ilanne-Parikka P et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 2001; 344(18): 1343-1350.  doi:10.1056/nejm200105033441801.

Diaz VA, Mainous AG, 3rd, Everett CJ. The association between weight fluctuation and mortality: results from a population-based cohort study. J Community Health 2005; 30(3): 153-165. 

Guagnano MT, Ballone E, Pace-Palitti V, Vecchia RD, D'Orazio N, Manigrasso MR et al. Risk factors for hypertension in obese women. The role of weight cycling. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000; 54(4): 356-360. 

Rzehak P, Meisinger C, Woelke G, Brasche S, Strube G, Heinrich J. Weight change, weight cycling and mortality in the ERFORT Male Cohort Study. Eur J Epidemiol 2007; 22(10): 665-673.  doi:10.1007/s10654-007-9167-5.

Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Weight cycling and risk of gallstone disease in men. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166(21): 2369-2374.  doi:10.1001/archinte.166.21.2369.

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung e. V. Vollwertig essen und trinken nach den 10 Regeln der DGE [online]. URL: https://www.dge.de/fileadmin/public/doc/fm/10-Regeln-der-DGE.pdf. [Zugriff: 20.02.2018].

Raynor HA, Jeffery RW, Ruggiero AM, Clark JM, Delahanty LM. Weight loss strategies associated with BMI in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes at entry into the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial. Diabetes Care 2008; 31(7): 1299-1304.  doi:10.2337/dc07-2295.

Aucott L, Poobalan A, Smith WC, Avenell A, Jung R, Broom J. Effects of weight loss in overweight/obese individuals and long-term hypertension outcomes: a systematic review. Hypertension 2005; 45(6): 1035-1041.  doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000165680.59733.d4.

Stenius-Aarniala B, Poussa T, Kvarnstrom J, Gronlund EL, Ylikahri M, Mustajoki P. Immediate and long term effects of weight reduction in obese people with asthma: randomised controlled study. Bmj 2000; 320(7238): 827-832. 

Miller GD, Nicklas BJ, Davis C, Loeser RF, Lenchik L, Messier SP. Intensive weight loss program improves physical function in older obese adults with knee osteoarthritis. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006; 14(7): 1219-1230.  doi:10.1038/oby.2006.139.

Faulconbridge LF, Wadden TA, Berkowitz RI, Sarwer DB, Womble LG, Hesson LA et al. Changes in symptoms of depression with weight loss: results of a randomized trial. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009; 17(5): 1009-1016.  doi:10.1038/oby.2008.647.

Brinkworth GD, Buckley JD, Noakes M, Clifton PM, Wilson CJ. Long-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate diet and a low-fat diet on mood and cognitive function. Arch Intern Med 2009; 169(20): 1873-1880.  doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.329.

Harrington M, Gibson S, Cottrell RC. A review and meta-analysis of the effect of weight loss on all-cause mortality risk. Nutr Res Rev 2009; 22(1): 93-108.  doi:10.1017/s0954422409990035.

Everhart JE. Contributions of obesity and weight loss to gallstone disease. Ann Intern Med 1993; 119(10): 1029-1035.