Is the standard model complete
In the interplay between many experimental results and various theoretical models, in several steps between 1961 and 1973 the "Standard model of particle physics". Although it has kept this modest name, it is today, over 40 years later, the deepest knowledge that natural science has produced about the origin, structure and behavior of matter in our universe. All the subatomic processes observed so far correspond perfectly the predictions of the Standard Model.
The revolutionary finding of the Standard Model is that these relationships are clearly based on Symmetries let back. A symmetry is understood to be a process, the application of which remains ineffective. For example, if you turn a circle, it will look exactly the same afterwards. A circle is said to be "rotationally symmetrical". The standard model has recognized that nature tries to be so perfectly flexible that "local re-calibration" of cargoes taking place differently everywhere is completely ineffective. That is why the basic principle of the standard model and thus of the structure of our world is also called "local gauge symmetry". How to imagine these gauge symmetries as rotations can be learned in a degree in physics or mathematics. What is fascinating, however, is that such local symmetries always result in interactions, the properties of which can be completely predicted from the symmetries.
Imagine that every piece is a Bundesliga soccer club and the loads are their coaches. Applied to the Bundesliga would be a local re-calibration (rotation of the coaches) if these change differently in each place: Tuchel goes from Mainz to Bavaria, Guardiola from Bavaria to Dortmund, Klopp from Dortmund to Schalke, etc. etc. And the Bundesliga would be symmetrical as a coach if all games still delivered exactly the same result. That works with particles! But it makes interactions between the particles necessary. It would be similar in the Bundesliga, because the coaches of the clubs would have to talk to each other e.g. via What's App, so the clubs would interact with each other: Tuchel would have to ask Guardiola, "Hey, how do I best prevent Schweini only playing bad passes?" The great thing about these calibration symmetries is that they dictate exactly which media (messenger particles) the conversations (interactions) between the clubs (particles) take place and help to classify them based on their coaches (charges) in categories such as Bundesliga or second division (Quarks or leptons).
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