What causes poor personal hygiene
Kitchen and food hygiene
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Spoiled and inedible foods often change in appearance, consistency, smell or taste. This includes the formation of mold, milk that has become “sour”, rancid foods and products with freezer burn or rot. You should dispose of such products completely. Pay particular attention to the appearance and smell of meat and fish.
In the case of packaged foods, the best-before date indicates the point in time up to which the manufacturer guarantees that the product will retain its perfect condition and properties such as appearance, smell and taste if stored appropriately. In most cases, however, you can still consume the food for a certain time beyond this date without having to fear any health problems.
In the case of perishable goods such as minced meat, on the other hand, a use-by date is given. After the end of the period, you should no longer consume the food, as the goods can become harmful to health after a short time.
When shopping, make sure that the packaging is undamaged. You should not buy canned food that is defective, dented, or with a bulging lid.
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Infants are more prone to infections and gastrointestinal diseases in particular can be severe. Therefore, you should observe the following hygiene instructions when bottle feeding:
- Do not prepare baby milk in advance, always prepare it fresh before a meal. Don't forget to wash your hands beforehand!
- Only use drinking water freshly taken from the tap for the preparation. First let some water run out until it flows cold out of the tap. Then heat or boil the required amount of cold water. To avoid scalding, the water should have a maximum of 40 ° C before you mix the powdered milk with it.
- If the tap water is of unsuitable quality, you should use commercially available packaged water that is labeled as being suitable for the preparation of baby food. You should keep opened water bottles in the refrigerator. Water from it should be boiled before further use for baby food.
- If your child drinks slowly, you can warm up the bottle again in between. However, the food should be fed within two hours. Do not keep leftovers for the next meal, dispose of them!
- Even when you are out and about or at night, you should not store any pre-mixed bottle food in warming containers. It is better to have boiled water in a clean thermos bottle and the right amount of powder in the boiled bottle separately.
- Keep the opened milk powder packaging tightly closed and dry.
- Make sure that the bottle food does not come into contact with raw food.
The bottle and teat should be rinsed under running water immediately after use to prevent the food residue from drying on. The cleaning should be done with warm water and washing-up liquid or in the dishwasher.
Rubber suction cups should occasionally be boiled out or sterilized in a steamer. This is not necessary with silicone teats. However, rubber teats can become porous over time, so that bacteria can collect in the cracks.
Place the cleaned bottles upside down on a clean cloth to dry. Clean bottles and teats should be kept dry.
You can find more information about bottle feeding on the Internet portal www.kindergesundheit-info.de of the Federal Center for Health Education (BZgA).
Raw milk is the term used to describe untreated milk from cows, sheep or goats, which is given directly from the producer to the consumer without homogenisation or heat treatment (e.g. pasteurisation). Untreated raw milk can be contaminated with pathogenic germs such as Campylobacter, Salmonella or enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Some of the pathogens can be excreted directly from the animal through the mammary gland. Most of them get into the milk through contamination during milking. Raw milk from dispensing machines can also be contaminated with pathogens, since the cooling reduces the multiplication of germs, but does not kill existing germs.
The only way to protect yourself from infection is to boil the milk before consuming it. Raw milk that is used for foods such as yogurt, cocoa drinks or milkshakes that are not heated before consumption should also be boiled beforehand. School classes and other groups of children visiting farms should refrain from consuming unheated raw milk.
With packaged raw milk from specially controlled farms, which is available in stores as so-called preferred milk, the risk of food infection is lower. However, since it cannot be ruled out that pathogens also occur in preferred milk, people at particular risk such as infants, toddlers, senior citizens and people with a weakened immune system should only consume preferred milk after it has been boiled. If you want to use preferred milk, you should also observe the storage instructions on the packaging: Preferred milk may be stored at a maximum of 8 ° C and must be consumed by the stated use-by date.
Further questions and answers on the consumption of raw milk can be found on the website of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR).
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Gastrointestinal infections are very contagious. If a family member has caught Noroviruses, Salmonella or Campylobacter, for example, these can be transmitted to other people mainly via a smear infection. Regular and thorough hand washing as well as hygiene in the household and also when handling food are therefore particularly important. If possible, sick people should not prepare food for others.
If you come into contact with food at work, you are not allowed to work in the case of contagious vomiting and / or diarrhea according to the Infection Protection Act. Ask your doctor or the local health department in the specific case.
In the case of other communicable infectious diseases, patients should also pay attention to regular and thorough hand washing and hygiene in the household and when handling food. For example, one should turn away from food when coughing and sneezing. Wounds on the hands or arms should be covered with a waterproof plaster or bandage while the food is being prepared.
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