Is existence physically metaphysical or both

Psychology and philosophy, textbook [philosophy part]

242 completely hidden. The physical world is just a world of appearances that partly confirms what is happening elsewhere and is otherwise even void. Metaphysical approaches run the risk of slipping into religious or quasi-religious spheres. In doing so, however, they may give up the critical claim of philosophy and go into the world of certainties of faith or ideology. Both are highly unsatisfactory from a philosophical perspective. However, this development is not compulsory and a threat does not have to become striking. It is up to the representatives of metaphysical positions whether they remain in the sphere of philosophy or move to another. While metaphysical perspectives were very influential within European philosophy in earlier centuries, this influence has steadily declined since the late 19th century. Although there are still chairs for metaphysics at many universities with philosophical institutes, most of the philosophical directions and schools that exert influence today are rather distant. Suggestions for independent further work Do you think metaphysical thinking is possible in today's world? Find arguments for your attitude and discuss them together! 3.5 Criticism of metaphysics Above all, many philosophers of the Enlightenment turned away from metaphysical approaches and questions. In a way, it seems that the history of modern European and North American philosophy is one of the increasingly strong demarcations from metaphysical models. Of course, this view of things only covers a certain aspect, but not an unimportant one. Immanuel Kant's criticism of metaphysics undoubtedly had a great influence. Kant remained conceptually within the metaphysical usage and did not strive for a complete departure from metaphysics. But it should shift its demands and priorities. Instead of wanting to know metaphysical beings, it should concentrate on the human means of knowledge. Above all, Kant's still current view should be emphasized that it is not objects (this was intended to be physical) that determine human cognition, but our possibilities of cognition decide about the perceived objects. Metaphysics should therefore take into account the types and modes of human knowledge and their prerequisites (time and space, for Kant a priori forms of perception). To give up old, familiar certainties such as the existence of human freedom, of which one must, however, pretend that it exists because there is no other way to act. In this context, Kant speaks of regulative hypotheses of reason, which take the place of unreachable certainties. IN-DEPTH 2 T BASICS For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv

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