How practical is judo in a fight
Worth knowing about judo
Judo (jap. 柔道 jūdō [dʒɯːdoː] = (literally) gentle way) is a Japanese martial art whose principle is “winning by giving in” or “maximum effect with a minimum of effort”. The founder of judo is Professor Dr. Jigoro Kano. The Judo / Jiu-Jitsu forerunner forms based on it were adapted for competition at the beginning of the 20th century, that is, many weapons, kicking and punching techniques that were originally included were removed in order to make an art primarily for self-defense, to do a holistic lesson for body and mind. The remaining techniques are mainly throws, holding and choking techniques as well as arm levers.
Judo is not only a way of physical training, but also a philosophy for personal development. Judo is essentially based on two philosophical principles:
- Mutual helping and understanding for mutual progress and well-being (jita-kyoei).
- The best possible use of body and mind (sei-ryoku-zenyo).
The aim is to carry these principles in as an attitude and to consciously put them on the judo mat (tatami) everyone Expressing movement. A judo master therefore never stops practicing judo, even if he is not in the dojo (training hall).
The three pillars of Kodokan Judo are Kata, Randori and Shiai.
The development of judo
With the rise of the warrior class at the end of the 12th century, the martial arts experienced a strong boom. The cultural events were increasingly determined by the spirit of the Bushi. During this time the origins of Bushido developed.
In Japan during the Ashikaga era (1136-1568) a wide variety of unarmed close combat systems developed. One variant was Kogusoku (small armor). This type of fighting was named after the lighter armor that was newly developed during this period. In the literature and historical documents from this period there are other close combat systems such as Tai jutsu ("Body art"), Torite ("Grasping the hands"), Koshi-no-Mawari ("Hip turning"), Hobaku ("Grab"), Torinawajutsu (Art of grasping and connecting ”).
In the mid-16th century, the Portuguese introduced the firearms to Japan and the martial arts - bugei sword, bow and arrow lost their importance on the battlefield. However, their traditions were continued in the Edo period and made compulsory in accordance with the principle of Bunbu (literary education and military practice).
For the principle of giving in Ju There are various influences, explanations, legends and anecdotes in martial arts: Im Konjaku monogatari one finds the term for the first time yawara (soft) in connection with a story about Japanese wrestling. The Chinese influences were certainly also great, because trade with China was officially started from the Ashikaga epoch and expanded until the end of the 16th century.
There are different reports about the origin of Jiu-Jitsu, which have a legendary character. Its historical veracity is difficult to prove. The most beautiful poetically is certainly that of the doctor Akiyama Shirobei out Heatingwho studied medicine and the art of self-defense in China. Back in Japan, he retired to a temple called Dazai-tenjin back. According to the anecdote, it was winter and there was heavy snowfall on the 21st day in the temple. He looked at the trees; He noticed that many branches broke under the weight of the snow, but that the willow tree gave way because of their elasticity and let the snow slide off. On the basis of this process, the doctor Shirobei is said to have introduced the principle of "Ju" - giving in - in martial arts. In the first half of the Edo period (17th / 18th century) countless Jiu-Jitsu or related schools - ryu - developed.
How Judo originated and prevailed / Judo in today's Japan
With the end of the Tokugawa period and the opening of Japan, there were also major changes in Japanese society. The Meiji Reform resulted in a plethora of government, economic, and cultural reforms. The Japanese arts were strongly pushed back everything "western" took precedence. But already at the beginning of the eighties there was a return to spiritual and moral values.
Jigoro Kano (1860-1938) grew up in this extreme change Japan. He learned Jiu-Jitsu at different schools like the Tenshinshinyo-ryu and the Kito-ryu.
In 1882 Jigoro Kano founded his own school, the Kodokan ("place to study the way") near the Eisho Temple in the Shitaya district of Tokyo. He called his art Judo - "the gentle way". In judo, he freed the old Jiu-Jitsu styles from dangerous elements. Bumps, punches, kicks and many lever techniques, especially the small-joint levers, were either deleted or integrated into the kata. The remaining techniques made a sporty duel possible without fear of major injuries.
It is claimed that Kano designed judo as a serious self-defense art including punches and kicks (without which a victory over "Ryoi-Shinto Ryu" would not have been possible).
The famous Japanese director Akira Kurosawa made his first film Sanshiro Sugata 1943 about judo.
The greatest judoka of all time is Masahiko Kimura, who only lost 4 fights in his judo career.
The way to the west
In 1906 Japanese warships came to Kiel on a friendship visit. The guests demonstrated their hand-to-hand combat skills to the German Kaiser. Wilhelm II was enthusiastic and had his cadets instructed in the new martial art. The most important German student at the time was Erich Rahn from Berlin, who founded the first German Jiu-Jitsu school in 1906. Further pioneers in judo are Alfred Rhode and Heinrich Frantzen (Cologne). In 1926, the first German Judo (Jiu-Jitsu) championships took place in Cologne as part of the 2nd German Fighting Games. In 1932 the first international judo summer school was held in Frankfurt's Waldstadion. On the occasion of the Judo Summer School, the German Judo Ring was founded on August 11, 1932. Alfred Rhode became the first chairman. As in the rest of Europe, the term judo is also gaining ground in Germany. In 1933 Jigoro Kano visited Germany with some students on a trip to Europe and gave courses in Berlin and Munich.
In August 1933, judo was incorporated by the National Socialists into the heavy athletics department of the German Reich Federation and thus lost its independence. The last German championships during the Nazi era took place in Essen in 1941. The first European Judo Championships were held in 1934 in the Kristallpalast in Dresden.
After World War II, judo was banned by the Allies until 1948. In 1951 the first German championships after World War II took place in Frankfurt. In 1952 the German Dan College (DDK) was founded (chair: Alfred Rhode) and in 1953 the German Judo Federation (chair: Heinrich Frantzen). In 1970 the first German women's championships were held in Rüsselsheim.
At the Olympic Games in Tokyo in 1964, judo was first seen as an Olympic sport. Information on the successes of German-speaking athletes can be found in later sections.
Today judo is practiced in over 150 countries, making it the most widespread martial art in the world.
Traditionally, judoka wear ankle-length white cotton trousers (Zubon) and over them a half-length white jacket (uwagi) made of cotton, which is held together by a colored belt (obi) (Judo gi). In order to better distinguish the two opponents in competitions, a judoka wears a blue judogi at international championships. If this is not possible, the fighters are distinguished by an additional red or white belt. The level of training of a judoka can be recognized by the color of the belt. There are student and master degrees. The student grades go up to the brown belt. The master degrees begin with the black belt. Every beginner starts with a white belt. The examinee demonstrates drop exercises, standing and floor techniques, which become more and more difficult according to the level of the graduation. Since August 1, 2005, the uniform kyu examination regulations of the DJB have been in effect in Germany, according to which a kata must also be presented in every belt examination from the 3rd kyu (green belt), i.e. That is, a precisely prescribed sequence of forms of movement and techniques. The Kata training often leads to an even better mastery of the respective techniques, since an absolutely clean execution
implementation of the respective technology is respected. There are floor and standing kata.
Student belt (kyu)
|Degree||9. Kyu||8. Kyu||7. Kyu||6. Kyu||5. Kyu||4. Kyu||3. Kyu||2. Kyu||1. Kyu|
Master Belt (Dan)
|Degree||1st Dan||2nd Dan||3rd Dan||4th Dan||5th Dan||6th Dan||7th Dan||8th Dan||9th Dan||10th Dan|
|colour||black||black||black||black||black||Red White||Red White||Red White||red||red|
Belts above the 5th Dan (grandmaster belt) cannot be achieved by taking an exam. They are only awarded. The 2nd to 5th Dan degrees can also be awarded, whereas an examination must be taken in any case to obtain the 1st Dan. A higher graduation than the 10th Dan is not carried out worldwide - even if this would theoretically be possible, as there are no official limits. However, this would mean downgrading the existing 10th Dan bearers. Professor Jigoro Kano, the founder of Judo, has no Dan in Judo, neither the 1st nor the 10th Dan: From the Japanese point of view, nobody has the authority to award him a Dan degree because nobody is above him in Judo.
Judo technique (Waza)
The judo techniques can be roughly divided into 4 basic types:
- Nage Waza - throwing techniques
- Ne Waza - floor techniques
- Ukemi Waza - Fall Technique
- Atemi Waza - Striking Techniques (Only in Kata)
The focus of modern judo is on athletic training and not necessarily on self-defense. Jigoro Kano said that judo should primarily serve to strengthen body and mind through the training of attack and defense forms.
Throwing Techniques (Nage-waza)
Main article: Throwing technique (judo)
Throwing techniques are used to bring the partner from the stance to the floor position. There are a variety of ways to achieve this goal.
Fall Techniques (Ukemi-waza)
Main article: Fall school
In order not to injure themselves during the throws, all judoka must learn falling techniques. Techniques are practiced to fall in such a way that one does not injure oneself. Falling is trained in all directions: sideways (Yoko-ukemi; to the right and left), backwards (Ushiro-ukemi) and forwards (Mae-ukemi). The forward fall technique is also known as the "judo roll". Wearers of higher belt grades train it first as a fall over an obstacle and then as a "free fall" in the air.
Similar falling techniques can be found in all other martial arts that use throwing techniques. Often only the details, such as getting up afterwards or the way to protect yourself from further attacks by your partner after the fall, are different. In the fall school, for example, judoka stand up in the running direction, but jiu-jitsuka turn around while standing up to have the attacker in view again immediately.
Soil Techniques (Ne-Waza)
Osae-komi-waza (Holding techniques) With holding techniques, the thrown partner is fixed in the supine position on the floor. If done well, it is very difficult to get out of them, even with special release techniques.
The holding techniques are divided into four groups: Kesa-gatame, Yoko-shiho-gatame, Kami-shiho-gatame and Tate-shiho-gatame. Each group consists of a basic technique, which is supplemented by numerous variations. There are also numerous more or less special liberation techniques.
Kansetsu-waza (Lever techniques) Lever techniques are only used on the elbow in Judo, whereby controlled pressure is applied to the joint and the partner is fixed at the same time. Moving against the anatomically intended direction of movement leads to a sharp pain which forces the partner to give up. He signals this by knocking, i.e. knocking with the flat of the hand on the mat or on the partner or by shouting "Maitta" ("I give up") if, for example, one has no free hand. There are two types of lever techniques: extension lever (Gatame groups) or flexor lever (Garami groups). In addition, the lever techniques are subdivided according to the lever principle.
In other sports, e.g. Jiu-Jitsu, levers are also used against the legs, wrist, fingers and neck (practically every joint in the body). For safety reasons this is forbidden in judo.
Although this group of techniques sounds dangerous, injuries are very rare: Experienced judoka know how far they are allowed to go - both when trying to get out of a lever and when levering the lever itself Most children have too little experience to know how much force to use or when to give up.
Shime-waza (Choking techniques) In the so-called “choking” technique, pressure is exerted on the carotid artery that runs to the side of the larynx using special techniques with the hands or forearms. The resulting insufficient supply of the brain with oxygen gives the choked person the impression that they are not getting enough air. Other techniques (Hadaka-Jime) can also attack the windpipe and thus directly prevent the attacked person from breathing. Hence these techniques are known as choking techniques.
Similar to the lever techniques, the choking techniques are divided into several groups depending on the principle of action.
Here, too, is given up by knocking off. In competition, stranglers are often much more difficult to place than lever or holding techniques, since the neck can be protected relatively well with your own hands or forearms.
Striking techniques (Ate-Waza / Atemi-Waza)
Main article: Kata (judo)
Striking techniques are now only passed on in the form of katas and are the legacy of Japanese Jiu-Jitsu. Some clubs still teach them as part of self-defense. In Germany, the association “Kodokan Judo Kidokai” or “Judo Inyo-Ryu Renmei” has made an outstanding contribution to the preservation of judo as an art of self-defense. To be more precise, it is an exhibition match that is only performed during kyu and dan acceptance.
Ude-Ate-Waza (Arm techniques)
- Fingertip Techniques: Yubisaki-Ate-Waza
- Knuckle techniques: Kobushi-Ate-Waza
- Hand edging techniques: Tegatana-Ate-Waza
- Elbow tip techniques: Hiji-Ate-Waza
- Ball of the hand techniques: Shotei-Uchi-Waza
Ashi-ate-waza (Leg techniques)
- Tip-knee techniques: Hizagashira-Ate-Waza
- Ball techniques: Seikito-Ate-Waza
- Heel Techniques: Kakato-Ate-Waza
- Foot edge techniques: Sokuto-Ate-Waza
- Sole techniques: Sokutei-Ate-Waza
Judo is a one-on-one sport. The aim is to use a technique to throw the opponent on the back in a controlled manner with strength and speed. If this succeeds, the fight is won, like a knockout in boxing. It is usually irrelevant how the throw was made and what technique was used, as long as the thrower clearly controls the person being thrown and does not violate any rules. In fact, some techniques from other martial arts have also found their way into competitive judo. As a rough guide: the better the opponent falls on his back, the better the scores you get. So the fight, after the end of the fight time (4 min.in the adult area, between 2 and 3 minutes in children's and youth sports), also based on scores or judges' decisions. A tie (hiki-wake) is only pronounced in friendship or team fights. If none of the opponents was able to achieve a lead before the end of the full fight time, the scores already obtained will be reset and a fight in the "Golden Score" follows, which lasts a maximum of 2 minutes. However, this is ended immediately if one of the fighters receives a rating or is punished.
However, the fight does not only take place while standing, but also continues on the ground. There are basically two ways to achieve a victory. If the opponent is held on his back on the ground for 20 seconds, the fight is won. As with the throws, ratings are given for possibly shorter holding times. As an alternative, there is still the possibility of forcing the opponent to give up using an arm lever or a stranglehold. However, as soon as one of the opponents returns to the stand, the fight must be interrupted and restarted while standing.
There are three different ratings, which can all be awarded independently of one another. The highest rating that can be given is the Ippon. If a fighter receives this, the fight is over immediately. The next lowest rating is that Waza-ari, two waza-ari are added to an ippon. The lowest rating is that Yuko. An addition to the next higher rating is not possible here. That means: A waza-ari is always worth more than several (no matter how many) yuko.
Ippon (whole point)
The highest rating for a fighter is given for:
- a throwing technique, which the opponent with control, force, speed throws mostly on his back,
- holding the opponent with a holding technique (Osae-komi) for 20 seconds,
- Use of a lever or choke technique until the opponent gives up or is unable to fight,
- win a waza-ari or twice
- Disqualification of the opponent by Hansokumake.
Landing in the bridge
All situations in which a landing is made in a bridge position should be regarded as -Ippon-.
Since this is considered a dangerous technique to avoid being thrown, any attempt to land in a bridge position (by Uke - whoever is throwing) will be considered an Ippon for Tori (whoever is making the throw).
Waza-ari (half point)
A waza-ari is given for:
- a throwing technique that only partially fulfills one of the three criteria for an ippon (a typical and quite common situation for a waza-ari is when the partner's back only partially touches the mat),
- holding the opponent with a holding technique (Osae-komi) for at least 15 seconds
Yuko (smallest technical advantage)
A yuko is given for:
- a throwing technique that only partially fulfills two of the three criteria for an ippon (a typical situation would be a throw on the side without any part of the back touching the mat),
- holding the opponent with a holding technique (Osae-komi) for at least 10 seconds
Fighting takes place on medium-hard mats (tatami), which enable a stable and secure stance and still soften falling accordingly. The Competition area should be 11 × 11 m in size for youth tournaments) and between 13 × 13 m and 16 × 16 m in adult tournaments. The fight takes place on the Fighting area instead of. The Safety area forms the outer edge and is intended to avoid injuries if the opponents accidentally get outside the edge area. Both surfaces should have a different color. (After that there is a 3 meter safety zone, where you may still fight.) This was newly stipulated by the DJB (German Judo Association) so that the fight does not always have to be interrupted.
If the competition rules are violated, the respective fighter will receive a warning (Shido) or will be disqualified (Hansokumake). If there are more than three violations, a Hansokumake pronounced and the fight ended in favor of the opponent. For particularly serious rule violations, the Hansokumake can also be assigned directly. Direct disqualification from a fight also means disqualification from the entire tournament. The older names for the middle warning levels - Chui and Kei
Koku - are no longer used in competitive judo.
Small rule violations
The judo association endeavors to make the judo competition more interesting, especially for television and thus also for the audience in general. In the upper performance range, the differences in terms of strength, speed and technique are usually very small, so that a decision can take a long time without being prompted to fight aggressively. Because of this, a whole series of rules have been enacted that urge fighters to attack and at the same time forbid them to maintain a steady defensive stance.
A first possibility would be, for example, to keep the partner at a distance by keeping your own and especially the Grip of the opponent avoids. You can't attack yourself, but neither can your opponent. Most of the time, however, you will choose your own grip in such a way that the opponent hardly has a chance to implement his attack. For example, both will Sleeve ends held tight, in this way the grip of the opponent can be avoided. Of course, like most of the actions in this group, this is allowed first, but only if you then start an attack. According to the rules, you have up to 5 seconds for this. However, this also depends on the situation and assessment of the judges and can vary. There are a number of other violations that are very similar to the above. That would also have to be mentioned Entanglement of the fingers, one other type of barrel as the normal to choose, and as an overarching rule, one in general defensive stance to take. Faking an attack is also usually punished, as is clearly avoiding attacks. For example, a fighter is punished if he has not attempted an attack for several seconds.
Leaving the mat without a combat action will be punished as well as deliberately pushing the opponent out. However, the stated times are at the discretion of the judges.
Of course there are also techniques in judo that can endanger the fighters. It is forbidden to use leg scissors on the head, neck or trunk with straight legs. Bending your fingers back or kicking your opponent's hand to loosen his grip is also not permitted. Reaching into the end of the sleeve or even into the end of the trouser leg is just as impossible as reaching into the inner part of the judogi. Parts of the clothing must also not be put in the mouth. Strangling the opponent or wrapping the end of the belt or jacket around his extremities is also not permitted.
Addition due to a rule change by the DJB on 01.01.2013:
There can be three Shido during the fight, the 4th being Hansoku-make (3 warnings and then disqualification). The other fighter receives no points for a Shido, only technical scores can be displayed as points on the battle board. At the end of the fight, if the scores are the same, the fighter with fewer shidos wins. If the fight continues in Golden Score, whoever gets Shido first loses or whoever scores first wins.
In order to prevent an increasing number of fighters from attempting to win through penalties instead of a rating and to create a balance to the advantage of ratings that have been achieved through a judo technique, the penalty philosophy is completely changed. Penalties still exist and after four penalties the athlete will be disqualified as it has been until now. But there are no longer any parallels between the ratings (Yuko, Wazaari) and the penalties. The advantage is for the fighter attacking and scoring. If there is no scoring (no technical advantage), the winner is with the fewest penalties. Again, this gives the benefit to the fighter who tries most to apply techniques and who practices the least anti-judo.
Punishments with Shido
Loosen the handle with both hands.
You have to attack immediately with Cross Grip. Same rule as when grasping the belt or one-sided grasping.
The referees should consistently punish the fighter who does not take kumi-kata quickly or tries not to let the opponent grasp.
Clasp the opponent to throw (Bear Hug).
Taking the grip (kumikata) is part of a judo competition. Finding the best kumikata for performing beautiful judo techniques is logical and necessary. But preventing your opponent from grasping if you are not attacking directly is not constructive. Lately it has been found that the process of blocking the enemy became rampant in many fights, resulting in long and boring fights. Therefore, decisions have been made with the aim of correcting this. The goal is not to prevent Kumikata, but to make the grip fight active and constructive.
B.punishment with Hansoku-make
Any attack or blocking below the belt in tachi-waza, with one or both hands or one or both arms.
The aim of judo, as already pointed out, is simple: to throw ippon. There are many ways that judo can turn it into a spectacular sport, but still a technical sport. Greater clarity is necessary to make it more understandable to judoka, to make it easier to assess and to make it more accessible to the public. Direct leg attacks were removed from judo a few years ago. The effects are obvious: some techniques have disappeared in favor of the return of spectacular movements that could not be performed because of the position of the fighters. The exception made for leg gripping at Cross Grip made it very complicated at times, despite the video intervention. Therefore, every attack or every block below the belt in Tachi-waza is now punished with Hansoku-make, without exception.
Serious rule violations
A serious violation of the rules occurs when the health of one of the fighters is extremely endangered by one of the following actions or it is a matter of gross unsportsmanlike conduct. There are a number of techniques whose use repeatedly caused injuries and were therefore prohibited. A special form of the Kawazu-Gake, the Ude-hishigi-waki-gatame (lever from the stand to the ground) and the Dipping into the mat (Here a fighter tries to support his technique by just, bends sharply forward and down and in some cases endangers themselves.) separately named. All other techniques or actions can be categorized as “grossly unsporting” or as obviously dangerous for injury and are usually easy to recognize as such. Insulting the opponent or a referee is also part of this.
Judo in Germany
The national association in Germany is the German Judo Federation (DJB). The DJB has around 200,000 members, making it the largest martial arts association in Germany. The 18 state judo associations are subordinate to this, of which the North Rhine-Westphalian Judo Association (NWJV) is the largest state association with 592 clubs and almost 62,000 members. The DJB organizes the national and international championships of Germany. The regional associations organize the regional championships and provide the regional referee and belt examination regulations.
Another organization is the German Dan College (DDK), which was founded a year before the Judo Federation as an association of Dan bearers. The DDK became a member of the German Judo Association in 1956 and was entrusted with the implementation of graduations as well as with teaching tasks. In this capacity, it was recognized by the Kodokan and - already when it was founded - was expressly given the right to graduate.
In 1982 the contract between the Kodokan and the DDK was renewed and the DDK continued to have the right to graduate in the field of German judo. At the beginning of the 1990s there was a legal dispute over the right to graduation within the German Judo Association. The main point of the dispute was the question of whether the graduation is a terminable contractual relationship or a special right of the DDK in its capacity as DJB that cannot be revoked under the BGB. After it was judicially determined that it was not a matter of a special right, but of an order, the German Judo Association withdrew the responsibility for the examination system from the DDK. From then on, responsibility for graduations was given to the regional associations of the DJB, where it is to this day. The simultaneous development of a new examination regulation did not take place, despite occasionally different opinions, not because of this dispute, but in the course of the unification of the German Judo Association with the Judo Association of the GDR.
After this change, the DDK also began to accept clubs as members (until then, only judoka who were also members of a member club of the Judo Federation could be members of the DDK) and thus positioned itself as a competitor to the Judo Federation. This inevitably led to the exclusion of the DDK from the judo federation. Since then there have been two separate associations in Germany. However, only the German Judo Association is organized in the German Sports Association and only the German Judo Association is recognized by the Kodokan as a national association with the relevant graduation rights.
Judo is still the most active martial arts sport in Germany today.
At the Olympic Games in Tokyo in 1964, judo was first seen as an Olympic sport. Wolfgang Hofmann from Cologne was the first German judoka to win a medal (silver) at the Olympic Games. Klaus Glahn was the first German judoka to win two medals at the Olympic Games in Tokyo in 1964 with bronze and in 1972 in Munich with silver. At the Judo World Championship in Paris in 1979, Detlef Ultsch won the first judo world championship title for the GDR (he won his second world championship title in 1983). The first German Olympic champion was Dietmar Lorenz, also for the GDR, 1980. The current national coach Frank Wieneke, who won a silver medal in 1988 in Seoul, won the 1984 Olympic champion. Barbara Claßen from Grenzach Wyhlen won the first women's world championship title for the DJB in Paris in 1982 . In 1987 Alexandra Schreiber won the gold medal at the Judo World Championships in Essen. In 1996 Udo Quellmalz won the gold medal in Atlanta. Udo Quellmalz had already won the bronze medal in Barcelona in 1992. With two world championship titles in 1991 and 1995, he is still the most successful German judoka of all time. The most successful lightweight (up to 60 kg) is Richard Trautmann from Munich, who won bronze at the Olympic Games in 1992 and 1996. In 2004 Yvonne Bönisch became the first female Olympic champion in judo in Germany. In 2008 Ole Bischof won the gold medal and gained additional fame through the action published in the media world when he carried his coach Frank Wienecke on his shoulders through the hall after winning the final. Four years later he managed the same feat as his former national coach Wienecke and won an Olympic silver medal after gold.
The greatest successes of German judoka in recent decades:
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