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What is the color structure histogram and how does it work?

The color structure histogram has been proposed to alleviate the problem of the regular histogram in that it does not reflect any of the spatial distribution of colors in the image. That is, given a color histogram, the colors could each be grouped together as blobs of color, or they could be randomly spread across the entire image, with each pixel being a different color; The color histogram says nothing about this "structure".

The suggested histogram works as follows: You have a "structuring element", basically a kernel or sliding window, that you slide over your image like when filtering. At each position of the structuring element, check whether the color X is displayed in the window and increase the bin value if necessary. You do this for all of the colors in your histogram.

The effect of this process, i.e. using a window to count colors instead of counting them pixel by pixel, is as follows: when a color is spread across the entire image, each pixel of that color appears in a sliding window (actually many times, as the window slides over it) by itself. So every single pixel contributes significantly to this. On the other hand, if the color is displayed as a single spot in the image, the pixels of that color will only count as one in the bin when the sash is over it. In short, the color structure histogram increases the weight of a color in the histogram if this color is well distributed over the image and is not accumulated in a single place.