How many diamond companies are there in Surat
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De Beers is the largest diamond producer and dealer in the world, based in Luxembourg, with around US $ 6.5 billion in sales and 20,000 employees. The company supplies about a third of the world's production of rough diamonds. The company takes its name from its first mine in Kimberley on the farm of the brothers Johannes Nicolaas and Diederik Arnoldus de Beer.
For more than 100 years, the South African company had a monopoly on the diamond trade, which is now under severe pressure from traders from Asia. De Beers began in Kimberley, 100 km west of Bloemfontein in the southern Orange Free State in the Republic of South Africa. When diamonds were found on the grounds of the de Beer brothers' farm in 1866, it spread immediately, with diamond seekers coming from all corners of South Africa and starting to dig uncontrollably. The de Beers sold the farm and left the area. The farm was immediately divided into prospecting fields that were auctioned off to diamond seekers. After initial sensational discoveries, they soon reached their technical limits, because with increasing depth, more and more heavy rubble had to be cleared in order to get to the diamonds. The necessary capital expenditure could not be raised by individual diamond prospectors.
"The Big Hole" in Kimberley still bears witness to the enormous earth movements that were necessary for the final exploitation of the deposits until the mine was closed in 1914. That was the hour of Cecil Rhodes, but also of Barney Barnato and a few others. They bought the mining rights of the diamond seekers, which had become practically worthless to them. In 1880 their battle for the diamond fields began. Rhodes tried coalitions, in April 1880 he and Charles Rudd combined their shares to found the new group. Barnato caught up in the same year and founded the Barnato Diamond Mining Company with his family in order to strengthen their claim in the high-yielding Kimberley mine. After a series of mergers, Barnato succeeded in gaining a dominant position in the Kimberley Mine in 1887, but that did not give him a final majority. He was a simple man from the people who had made a fortune by discovering diamonds of his own. But he lacked social recognition, membership in the English clubs, support at court and in the banks of the British Empire. However, Rhodes had all of this, so both of them merged their shares in the mine in Kimberley out of economic opportunity to form De Beers.
De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd. was founded on March 12, 1888 with Cecil Rhodes as chairman. De Beers included the entire De Beers mine, three quarters of the Kimberley mine and controlled interests in the Bultfontein and Dutoitspan mines. Cecil Rhodes, Barney Barnato, F.S. Philipson-Stow and Alfred Beit were now the main shareholders and directors of De Beers. In 1890, the London Diamond Syndicate was formed, which bought up all of De Beers' production. This syndicate was the cornerstone on which Ernest Oppenheimer created the Diamond Corporation, which later became the "Central Selling Organization". From August 1893 De Beers was listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. In 1889, Rhodes acquired the Barnato Diamond Mining Company for £ 5,338,650 - the highest check in history at the time. All of South Africa's diamond mines were now under his control. In the same year Ernest Oppenheimer came to Kimberley as an agent for A. Dinkelsbuhler & Co. (buying diamonds). Anglo American holds 45% of De Beers, another 45% is owned by the Oppenheimer family. Nicky Oppenheimer is chairman of the supervisory board. The De Beers Centenary (Switzerland) also owns 50% of the Debswana (Botswana), 50% of the Nambdeb (Namibia) and 75% of the Williamson (Tanzania) mine in Africa. Since 2001 De Beers has ceased to be a public company and has been delisted from the Johannesburg and London stock exchanges. De Beers owns 40% of the shares in Anglo-American Corporation, which in turn owns a large stake in de Beers. Both companies are under the control of the Oppenheimer family in South Africa, which in turn holds shares in both companies. De Beers was and still is criticized by human rights groups. On the one hand, it is denounced that there are still blood diamonds on offer. De Beers states that the percentage of blood diamonds would be a maximum of 4%, which has not been proven and is questioned by human rights activists. On the other hand, the harsh working conditions for the people in the mines are also criticized. In addition, de Beers is considered a tough business partner: Anyone who is approved as a buyer must always pay cash and may reject a maximum of 5% of the rough diamonds on offer.
With its subsidiary Element Six in Burghaun near Fulda, Germany, De Beers maintains a production site for synthetic diamond materials with 350 employees. Today De Beers is a very diverse company. Although the company's monopoly in the diamond trade has been broken over the past 50 years, De Beers still has a market share of around 35%. Since the 1970s, the degree of utilization of the natural rough diamonds obtained as gemstones has risen continuously through more efficient mining and new processing and processing methods, from 20-25% back then to around 50% today. In addition, however, a diamond loses between 50 to 60% of its weight when it is cut into a brilliant shape. This drastically reduces the amount of polished diamonds that are sold every year.
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