Can sulbutiamine be helpful in ADHD
What are nootropics!
What are nootropics ???
Roughly speaking, a nootropic is a substance that improves cognitive function, helps increase memory, focus, motivation, mood, and everything else that has to do with thinking!
Nootropics, also called smart drugs or cognitive improvers, work with neurochemicals to make the brain work differently. Some nootropics work by changing the neurotransmitters and thereby stimulating! By positively changing the brain, it helps you to better support your needs.
When / where did nootropics originate?
While cognitive improvements with various substances had been documented in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine for hundreds of years, the term was first introduced in 1972 by nootropic Dr. Corneliu Giurgea coined.
Dr. Giurega was a Romanian scientist for the synthesis of piracetam, he managed to synthesize nootropes for the first time in 164.
The substance should help improve memory and the ability to learn.
The substance should help improve brain function under disturbing conditions such as hypoxia (low oxygen) and electroconvulsions.
The substance should protect the brain from chemical and physical attacks such as anticholinergic drugs and barbiturates.
The substance should increase the effectiveness of neuronal excitation control mechanisms in cortical and subcortical regions of the brain.
It should have few to no side effects and be practically non-toxic.
1. The substance has no direct vasoactivity (vasodilation or vasoconstriction).
2. The substance should not change the basic EEG rhythm.
3. The substance has to know how to cross the blood-brain barrier.
4. The substance must have metabolic activities in the human brain.
5. The substance must have little to no side effects.
6. The substance must undergo clinical studies that show metabolic cerebral improvement.
Probably the biggest difference between the definitions is that researcher Dr. Giurega thought the material can help improve learning and memory,
while Dr. Skondia thought a substance to improve the metabolism in the brain via glucose or oxygen update. The racetams (Piracetam, Pramiracetam, Oxiracetam, Aniracetam) would both define Skondia and Giurega as "true nootropics" but many commonly used "cognitive enhancers" would not fit. So we can state that all nootropics are cognitive enhancers, while all cognitive enhancers are not strictly nootropics.
Relaxation of the criteria - the gray area
While both the researcher's definitions are helpful, they are somewhat restrictive and allow many compounds to be in a gray area with some nootropic properties, not entirely meeting all criteria. Both ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine cross the blood-brain barrier, neither stimulate nor quieter and both are supposed to increase memory. However, both are brain vasodilators that directly improve blood flow to the brain too so Skondia's criteria fail. Strictly speaking, are they nootropics? No. Practically speaking? Pretty sure.
My current working definition of A Nootropic!
In my own mind, I classify a nootropic as a substance that should:
1. Improve cognitive function and / or protect, or repair the brain
2. Have no tolerance and no mild side effects
If the substance meets criteria 1 but does not meet criteria 2, it is likely a sedative stimulator
Some common nootropics
Racetams - Piracetam, Aniracetam, Oxiracetam, Pramiracetam, noopept. Racetam are a group of nootropics that started with Piracetam
Choline Supplements - GPC and CDP Choline are both bioavailable forms of choline that nourish the brain and provide it with the raw materials for acetylcholine and cell membrane synthesis.
Herbs - Vinpocetine, Ginkgo, Bacopa, huperzine-A - herbs that have traditionally been used for hundreds of years to strengthen the mind, reduce stress, support cognitive functions.
Modified Vitamins and Nutrients - Both Sulbutiamine and Pyritinol are man-made semi-synthetic forms of Vitamin B1 and B6 which are. Sulbutiamines play a role in modulating dopamine in the brain, while pyritinol raises acetylcholine levels. Creatine, a common sports supplement, also has cognitive enhancing properties.
Some Common Cognitive Enhancing Stimulants
Adderall - a mixture used to treat ADHD in children and adults.
Selegiline - A stimulant drug that inhibits monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) in the brain. Monoamine Oxidase- works to accelerate the breakdown of neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and adrenaline. From MAO selegilineInhibiting it raises neurotransmitters,
Modafinil - A relatively new stimulant that touts wakefulness as a stimulant. Modafinil is believed to be caused by the histamine levels in the brain. Modafinil has fewer side effects than conventional amphetamine based stimulants.
Caffeine - The World's Most Popular Drug. Caffeine relieves fatigue by inhibiting adenosine binding in the brain. Caffeine increases levels of the major neurotransmitters acetylcholine, serotonin and dopamine.
Phenlypiracetam - A modified form of Piracetam that is far more stimulating than other racetams. Phenylpiracetam is motivating and stimulating.
Some Common Cognitive Enhancing Sedatives
Picamilon - A combination of the neurotransmitters GABA and vitamin B3 niacin. While GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that slows neural activity, niacin has a vasodialator that improves blood flow to the brain.
Phenibut - A powerful form of GABA that is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and bind to GABA receptors in the brain.
L-theanine - a naturally occurring amino acid that promotes GABA release in the brain. Theanine is found naturally in teas (green, black, and oolong) and is often stacked with caffeine to promote a "clean" jitter free experience.
Lesser Known Cognitive Enhancers and Nootropics
Selank - an anxiolytic peptide developed in Russia. Selank is based on an endogenous peptide tuftsin that makes something immune system natural.
Sunifiram - An ampakine research nootropic, sunifiram appears very stimulating. Little / no human research available.
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