Persians are half Asian and half Caucasian
Human races. The first who attempted a scientific division of the human race in modern times was Linnaeus (1766); he shared his human sex, which was classified in the same order of primates as monkeys, monkeys and bats (Genus Homo sapiensL..) in two kinds: the day people (Homo diurnus L..) and the night owls (Homo nocturnus L..); the latter is the "orang-outang" of Bontius. The day person is divided into four races according to the known four continents, taking into account physical and mental (ethnographic) characteristics, the first being the color of the skin as well as the color and formation of the hair, and the latter the four temperaments and clothing: Americans, Europeans, Asians, Africans . Blumenbach (1795) added to the four geogr. RassenLinnés for the newly developed island world of the fifth continent a fifth M., the Malay. In his race constellation he mainly used the different head shapes. He listed: Caucasians, Mongols, Ethiopians, Americans, Malay (Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, Malay race). The Engl. Doctor and naturalist Prichard built an ethnolog on this basis. System of the M., followed by Horatio Hale et al. In Germany up to the end of the sixties of the 19th century the Blumenbach classification of races was adhered to, while in France one still follows Cuvier today, who follows the human race according to their skin color and different anatom. Marks divided into three races (after the three sons of Noah): into white, yellow and black, whereby for finer delimitations  also weight on the language differences and ethnogr. Relationships is laid.
The latest systems distinguish between those that are based on purely physical (somatic) features and others that focus on the linguistic (linguistic) differences alongside and in front of them. Among the purely somatic systems, the best known is A. Retzius' craniological system, which is based solely on the structure of the skull. He transformed Blumensbach's estimating method into a measuring, mathematical one by first expressing the ratio of the length to the width of the brain skull into a numerical expression (Skull index) brought; he called the relatively narrow skulls long heads, Dolichocephalic [Fig. 438], the relatively broad skull short heads, Brachycephala [Fig. 256], to which later, through Welcker and Broca, the group of middle heads standing between these extremes, Mesocephalic, came. At the end of the 18th century P. Camper had already observed a snout-like protrusion of the mouth part of the jaws in the negroes and taught the measurement of this in his "Camper's angle of view" (see Camper); Prichard saw the same protrusion of the mouth area in other lower M. and invented the term crooked tooth for it (Predictions), which people with vertically stacked incisors, the straight teeth (Orthognaths), face. Retzius now grouped people according to their skull formation, namely according to the relative length and width of the skull, taking into account the formation of the jaws at the same time. R. Virchow, Welcker, Broca, J. Kollmann and many others expanded this Retzius system.
In close connection with Linnaeus, Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and others, Franz Pruner, based on the nature of human hair, set up the following system: I. Woolly haired races: a. Tufted hair, b. Fleece-haired. II. Simple-haired breeds: a. Straight-haired, b. Curly haired. - Others try to use the different physical characteristics for their system together, like P. Topinard and Huxley: size and proportion of the body, skin and hair color, hair shape, hair abundance, skull shape and other skeletal peculiarities, etc. Accordingly, Huxley differentiates between four or five races or types: 1) australoid type (V, X, XI F. Müller, see below); 2) negroid type (I-IV F. Müller); 3) Mongoloid type (VI-IX F. Müller); 4) and 5) the white type (XII F. Müller), namely 4) the xanthochroic type, the blond-whites, and 5) the melanochroic type, the brunette-whites, the latter being Huxley for a mixture of the blond-whites holds with the australoid type. These purely somatic systems are opposed to linguistic and mixed somatic-linguistic systems.
The most important attempt at a systematic arrangement of the peoples, mainly according to the point of view of language, was made by F. Müller, who (1868 and 1873, respectively 1879) set up the following system (12 races): A. Woolly haired races. a. Tufted hair: I. Hottentots and Bushmen, II. Papua. b. Fleece-haired: III. Africa. Negro, IV. Kaffirs (Bantu). B. Plain-haired breeds. a. Straight-haired: V. Australians, VI. Hyperboreans, VII. Americans, VIII. Malays, IX. Mongols or High Asians. b. Curly-haired: X. Nuba-Fulbe, XI. Drawida, XII. Mittelland. Müller's classification was adopted by O. Peschel (1874), but with the omission of the reason for the classification according to the condition of the hair and with several races contracted into one. This system has so far found the most widespread use in Germany, as it was adopted by E. Haeckel. Peschel put the following seven races on [Map: population II, 3]: I. Australians, II. Papua, III. Mongols, IV. Drawida, V. Hottentots and Bushmen, VI. Negro, VII. Mediterranean race.
On the origin M.'s views are still very divided. The old, Cuvier view, based on the biblical tradition, assumes a simultaneous creation several different Types of people an (polygenetic origin); thereafter the races are said to be unchangeable Permanent type have. The new view based on Darwin's theory of development only takes an archetype of humans (monogenic origin), from which the different racial forms have formed through adaptation. The latter view may be described as the one now prevailing. We should also mention Kollmann's pygmy theory, according to which all current groups of people are said to have emerged from dwarf races. The most important support for the newer conception of the M. and their monogenetic origin was the scientific proof that crosses of all M. with each other are possible and reproductive.
In 1881 Fritsch separated from the three main race types (Cuviers) the metamorphic or mixed races on the basis of this fact. It was not until 1901 that Stratz expanded this conception further by including the remnants of older races as protomorphic races in addition to the three main races or archimorphic races and the metamorphic or mixed races. In 1902 Klaatsch entered the anthropol with a complete makeover. Science on the basis of the results of the history of development and comparative anatomy, with which further and strictly scientific goals are set for new research (origin and development of mankind in: "Weltall und Menschheit", II, vol. 2, Berl. 1902, p. 1 -339). He was joined by Stratz ("Naturgeschichte des Menschen", Stuttg. 1904), who made the first attempt to convert the M. in purely anatom. To unite senses into groups of older and younger racial forms [Map: population II, 2].
You can see from everyone systematic If you look at flawless photographs, the result is a continually progressive perfection of the human body with increasing development, which is particularly marked in the face by the finer elaboration of the features. On the adjacent boards: Human races I and II are (deliberately) portrayed female heads because they express the racial character much more sharply and purely, if only because of the lack of facial hair.
The lowest type (Klaatsch, Huxley, Peschel, Stratz) is represented by the austral. Primal race shown [1 and 2], to which the Papuan primal race  is very close; metamorphic forms of this race are the Melanesians . The next higher type are the Koi-koin or Bushman primal race (Fritsch, Peschel ), whom the Akka, a Central African. black dwarf people, seem very closely related . The Niamniam  and Herero  show transitional forms of this primal race to the actual black main race (mixed races). Pure representatives of the black The main breed is the Bantu in South Africa  and Madagascar ; The Togonegians  and the Sudanese  show metamorphic forms with an approximation of the type of the main white race.
The americ. Primal racewhich probably arose after the split off of the black main race, as it combines the most important elements of the later yellow and white main race (Stratz), is most purely preserved in America [13, 14 and 15]. The oceanic groups of Maori , Samoans , Dayak  and Batak  seem to be closely related or equivalent, while the Javanese  are closer to the yellow Mongol. Show main breed.
The yellow Main breed is represented by Figs. 21-28; The oldest original form, which is closest to the Americans, is shown by the Eskimo , the Samoyed  and Chinese  have the most pronounced racial type, while the Japanese  as well as the Siamese  have a stronger affinity for it show white racial form. The Burmese  in the southern border areas, the Lapps  and Tatars  in the northern ones are to be regarded as distinctly metamorphic forms.
The white Figs. 29-40 belong to the main breed. The Ainu (Baelz, ten Kate, Koganei ) and the Wedda (Sarasin ) can be regarded as the original races belonging to the white tribe. The Wedda follow the Drawida, Tamil (Tamulen ) and Sinhalese  in a higher development. Asian. Representatives of the pure white race are the Persians  and Arabs (Beduins ). From Asia the white (Mittelländ.) Race branches out around the Mittelländ. Sea and there has been black metamorphisms in the south and yellow in the north. Representatives of the southern branch are the Egyptians  and Moors .  In Europe, the most important representatives are the Romans (Spain, Italy, Greece, France ), the Slavs (Russia-Poland ) and the Teutons (Austria, Germany, England, the Netherlands, Denmark, Scandinavia [39 and 40]); in the south the darker type  prevails, in the north the blond type . (See also plate: ethnography I, 1-8 and the individual articles of the races. Statistical see earth; Literature see human.)
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