Is drinking raw oil beneficial?
Crude oil - a precious raw material
What is petroleum
Petroleum is a fossil fuel that occurs in the earth's crust. The raw material is millions of years old and mainly consists of hydrocarbons.
The crude oil that has been extracted from a deposit as a raw material and has not yet been treated further is also called crude oil designated. In world trade and on the stock exchanges, a distinction is made between two different types of crude oil, "sour" and "sweet" crude oil.
How is oil made?
The oil that is so valuable to us today was formed from tiny sea plants and marine animals, the plankton. For millions of years these tiny creatures lived and died in the world's oceans. After their death, they sank to the sea floor. When living things die, they usually rot. For example, on the compost heap, where old leaves and kitchen waste turn into earth after a while.
At the bottom of the sea, however, many layers of mud and sand deposited over the dead plankton. The accumulation initially resulted in kerogens, the raw material for crude oil and natural gas. There was no oxygen underneath, it was getting warmer and warmer and the pressure rose sharply due to the many layers of mud. Under such conditions, the small organisms could not rot. They started to rot and turned into a viscous, black liquid, petroleum.
Petroleum has long been precious to people
Thousands of years ago, the Chinese, Egyptians and Romans used oil. They made medicines from it and burned it in kerosene lamps. The word petroleum already reveals where these ancient cultures got their oil from. "Petra" is the Greek word for rock, "oleum" means oil. In some places on earth, oil emerges from the rock by itself.
Unfortunately, the crude oil that voluntarily emerges in some places on earth is nowhere near enough for our consumption. We have to get the vast amounts of oil that we use deep out of the earth. And where oil is hidden deep in the rock is not so easy to find out.
Oil production: It is not easy to get to oil
Specialists from a wide variety of sciences work together to find deposits for crude oil. Geologists examine areas for their rock composition and measure the depth of rock layers.
Paleontologists study the age of fossilized plants and animals. In this way you can find out whether the rock layers have existed long enough to contain oil. Explosives experts carry out test explosions. On the basis of the resulting pressure waves, they can determine where crude oil could be hidden.
If the experts suspect that there is a lock hole in petroleum, a derrick will be built there. With a huge drill, workers dig up to 8,500 meters from the derrick. If the drill pipe hits the oil with the drill bit, it is pumped upwards with a particularly powerful pump.
The largest oil reserves are in the Arab countries. But the USA, Russia and Venezuela are also important oil producers. In Germany, oil is mainly produced in the North Sea.
Sometimes, like in the North Sea, oil deposits are located under the sea floor. Then large oil companies, such as Shell or Esso, build drilling rigs in order to get to the valuable raw material with the drill bit. Oil rigs are artificial islands in the sea that stand on huge concrete pillars. Drilling ships can also be used when drilling in a place where the sea is not so deep.
How does the oil get to our home?
If the oil is freshly pumped out of the earth, it is still quite dirty. So it is still cleaned of water and debris. Since oil is usually extracted far away from Germany, it has to be brought to us afterwards. Pipelines, large pipelines, can transport the oil over thousands of kilometers. If the road is still further, oil tankers have to take on this task. They bring the oil to Germany by sea.
Here in Germany there are huge industrial plants for oil processing, the refineries. By heating and vaporizing the petroleum, gas, gasoline, heating oil, lubricating oil and petroleum (lamp oil) can be produced in the refineries. We fill up our cars with petrol and our apartments are cozy and warm with the heating oil. While one can still imagine that, one would certainly not have suspected petroleum in other products.
The black, greasy liquid can be found in many more things that we use every day. It is the raw material for the production of plastic: So we drink from a "petroleum cola bottle" and carry our purchases home in a "petroleum shopping bag". Even the CD of the hottest bands need petroleum as a raw material. You can even rub oil on your face. It is also found in face creams.
There is not an infinite amount of oil in the world
Pretty versatile, this oil. And it is hard to imagine everyday life without it. But that is exactly what we will have to learn all too soon. Today we are consuming crude oil that was created a few million years ago. From an economic point of view, crude oil is the most important commodity traded worldwide. Worldwide, the daily consumption is almost 89 million barrels (1 barrel corresponds to about 159 liters).
However, oil stocks are limited. Millions of years must pass for crude oil to be produced. In the past 100 years, the industrialized nations in particular, such as Germany, have already used up a large part of this supply. Some scientists even say that in 50 years there will be no more oil.
Therefore it is very important to find a substitute for petroleum. There are already numerous ideas and attempts for this. Electricity generation with wind turbines or solar energy, for example. Or hydrogen-powered cars. And as for the face cream: Products based on natural oils, such as almond oil, are much better for the skin anyway.#Subjects
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