How does communism become capitalism?

communism

K. is 1) a socio-philosophical utopia,

2) a political-economic doctrine and ideology and

3) a political movement and form of rule. The basic idea of ​​K. is the abolition of private property and the formation of common property.

4) As a social utopia, the K. to Plato's ideas of justice and early Christianity, but also to utopians (e.g. T. More) and utopian socialists (e.g. C. Fourier). Their model is roughly that of a village community that has all the means of production necessary for a living (land, animals, houses), produces practically all things itself and distributes them fairly among each other.

5) As a political-economic doctrine and ideology, the K. (also: scientific socialism) v. a. a critique of capitalism first put forward by K. Marx (Marxism). According to this, capitalism is the last stage in a series of previous relations of exploitation "of man by man".

In capitalism, a (socially) small group of capitalists succeeds in taking over all available property. Decisive for this are the enormous technical-industrial progress and the increasing division of labor, so that the capitalists need more and more capital in order to build ever larger and more efficient production facilities and thereby largely eliminate their competitors; The framework is formed by a property system that is advantageous only for capitalists and protected by the capitalist state, which allows an increasing number of the dispossessed (proletarians) to be exploited.

Through the capitalist economic process, on the one hand, the capitalists decimate themselves and, on the other hand, deprive themselves of their sales opportunities due to the mass poverty and impoverishment of the broad masses of the population. The resulting crisis of capitalism leads to a revolution of the proletariat that is understood to be necessary. Private property is being abolished and technological progress can benefit everyone. The historical sequence of relations of domination and exploitation is over, the classless society of K. is created.

6) This basic idea is varied and further developed in the K. as a political movement and in the communist states as a form of rule, for example a) to win the concrete political struggle for power (Marxism-Leninism), b) to consolidate communist rule (Stalinism) , c) adapting the K. to non-European contexts (Maoism) or d) avoiding the hegemony of the Soviet Union (Titoism) etc. In this respect, the currents of the Euro-K are also here. (e.g. ITA, FRA), even though they admitted in principle to the Western understanding of democracy.

With the end of the Soviet Union (USSR) as the protective power of K., the communist movements worldwide came to a standstill, and K. is only rarely represented as a doctrine.
See also:
ideology
property
Community
socialism
capitalism
Marxism
capital
Country
revolution
proletariat
society
Domination
Maoism
Soviet Union (USSR)
democracy
People's Democracy

Source: Schubert, Klaus / Martina Klein: Das Politiklexikon. 7th, updated and exp. Edition Bonn: Dietz 2020. Licensed edition Bonn: Federal Agency for Civic Education.