When was Christianity born as a religion?
Zeitbilder 2, textbook
Module 5: Significance of Religions in Different Cultures of the Past 107 Christianity Christianity - Judaism Christianity emerged from Judaism. According to Christian belief, Jesus Christ is the Son of God, the one God of Israel. He is the Messiah, the Redeemer of humanity. According to the Gospels, Jesus Christ was born in Bethlehem at the time of Augustus. Around the year 30 he was crucified in Jerusalem. According to Christian belief, God raised him to eternal life. With his commandment to love one's neighbor, he taught a new approach to life: As "brothers or sisters in Christ" - whether man or woman, master or slave - all people count equally as children of God. This belief promised all of them redemption in eternal life in the hereafter after the hardships of daily life. Based on this belief, his followers spread this teaching throughout the Roman Empire. Faith in one God - persecution of Christians Their strict belief in only one God forbade the Christians to worship all the gods they called "pagan" and thus also to worship the emperor. This made them suspicious. When Rome burned for days in 64, Emperor Nero * accused the Christians of arson. This is why the first major persecution of Christians took place: Nero had many of them executed because of their faith - the apostles Peter and Paul are said to have died in the process. In the following centuries there were repeated persecutions of Christians. The last was ordered by Emperor Diocletian around 300. Christianity allowed Diocletian's successor, Emperor Constantine *, granted Christians the freedom to practice their religion throughout the empire (313). Although the emperor still allowed the old religions, the Christians were now preferred: They were given their own houses of worship, Sunday became a public holiday and much more his rule. Christianity as the state religion Finally, in 391, Emperor Theodosius * declared Christianity the sole state religion. All non-Christian cults, including the Olympic Games, were banned, and temples were closed or destroyed. The Popes The bishops of Rome called themselves successors of the Apostle Prince Peter. They therefore claimed the priority of honor over the other bishops and ultimately also the leadership of the church as popes. After the division into a Western and an Eastern Roman Empire (395), the Patriarch of Constantinople * headed the Church in the Eastern Roman Empire. He never submitted to the Pope in Rome. From the law of the emperor Theodosius (391) Q It is our will that all the peoples that we govern most graciously should profess the religion as taught by the holy apostle Peter to the Romans. All who obey this law should, according to Our command, bear the name Catholic Christians; the remainder, whom we declare to be insane and deranged, should take the shame of their deviant faith upon themselves; they should above all suffer the divine punishment, but then also our disgrace ... (Codex Theodosianus XVI 1,2) From the Milanese edict of Emperor Constantine (313) Freedom should be denied to obey the custom and cult of Christians, so that everyone should be given the freedom to turn his heart to that religion which he himself considers to be appropriate. (Lactantius, De mortibus persecutorum) In small groups, formulate at least three questions that you can ask of the two text sources. Work out the main message and comment on it. Work according to M1 Discuss the possible consequences of establishing Christianity as the state religion. Working according to A2 Christ monogram * on a late antique coin. (1st millennium AD, Museo Cristiano, Vatican) approx. 1500 BC Chr. Today For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv
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