Which statistics cannot be manipulated
bettermarks »Math book» Data and chance »Data and chance» Descriptive statistics »Manipulations
Here you can find out how to read and interpret diagrams or pictograms correctly and how to recognize manipulations in graphical representations.
Manipulative display of diagrams
With diagrams, pictograms and graphs you can present data series clearly. You can better derive correlations, trends or conclusions from these representations. However, the facts can also be falsified by a graphic or give the viewer an impression that does not correspond to the facts. If you look at graphical representations, then pay attention to the following points :
Measurement accuracy: An overly precise specification simulates a non-existent exactness.
A type of manipulation that is often used is the zero shift on the y-axis.
A few days ago, Lukas wrote a difficult thesis in mathematics. When he takes a look at the regional newspaper, he sees an article and is amazed:
Symbols (so-called pictograms) that match the topic are often used in the presentation. A common mistake here is that not only the height of the pictograms is changed for values of different sizes, but also the width.
The table shows the percentage distribution of employees in Germany across the various employment relationships.
If statistics are evaluated by specifying percentages, it depends on which base value is used; if an incorrect base is used, the percentage values can become extremely large or extremely small.
Ms. Müller reads the following in a brochure from a pharmaceutical manufacturer:
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