Is Mirpuri Pothwari the same as Urdu

encyclopedia

Spoken in the Pothohar Plateau in the far north of Pakistani Punjab as well as most of Pakistani Azad Kashmir and the western areas of Indian Jammu and Kashmir, the Indo-Aryan language is known by a variety of names, one of which is the are common Pahari ()[2] and Pothwari (or Pothohari).

The language is transition between Hindko and standard Punjabi. Efforts have been made to cultivate itself as a literary language, although a local standard has not yet been established.

Grierson assigned it to a so-called "Northern Cluster" of Lahnda (Western Punjabi) in his Linguistic Survey of India from the early 20th century, but that classification as well as the validity of the Lahnda grouping in this case have been taken into question.

In Kashmir, speakers of Pahari-Pothwari are known as Pahari.

Geographical distribution and dialects [edit]

Azad Kashmir and the surrounding area with some of the locations mentioned in this section. Places where Pahari-Pothwari is spoken are dark red.

There are at least three main dialects: Pothwari, Mirpuri and Pahari.[b] They are mutually understandable, but the difference between the northernmost and southernmost dialect (from Muzaffarabad or Mirpur) is enough to cause difficulties in understanding.

Pothwari [edit]

Pothwari (پوٹھواری), also written Potwari, Potohari and Pothohari ((پوٹھوہاری),[9] is spoken on the Pothohar Plateau in northern Punjab, an area that includes parts of the Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Chakwal districts. Pothwari extends south to the Salt Range, with the town of Jhelum marking the border with Punjabi. To the north, Pothwari merges into the Pahari-speaking area, with Bharakao near Islamabad being generally considered to be the point where Pothwari ends and Pahari begins. Pothwari has been represented by the Punjabi language movement as a dialect of Punjabi, and in census reports the Pothwari areas of Punjab have been identified as a Punjabi majority.[c]

Mirpuri [edit]

East of the Pothwari areas, across the Jhelum River into the Mirpur District in Azad Kashmir, the Pothwari language is more similar than the Pahari spoken in the rest of Azad Kashmir. It is known locally by different names:[d]Pahari, Mirpur Pahari, Mirpuri,[e] and Pothwarias some of its speakers call it Punjabi. Mirpuris have a strong sense of Kashmiri identity that overrides linguistic identification with closely related groups outside of Azad Kashmir. The Mirpur region was the source of most of Pakistani immigration to the UK. This process began when thousands were displaced by the construction of the Mangla Dam in the 1960s and emigrated to make up for the labor shortage in England. Britain's Mirpuri diaspora is now several hundred thousand and Pahari was considered the second most common mother tongue in Britain, but the language is little known in local society and its status remains a mystery.

Pahari / Dhundi-Kairali [edit]

Pahari (پہاڑی) is spoken north of Pothwari. The central group of the Pahari dialects is around Murree. This area is located in the Galyat: the hill country of Murree Tehsil in the northeast of the Rawalpindi district (north of the capital Islamabad) and the adjacent areas in the southeastern Abbottabad district. A name that is occasionally found in the literature for this language is is Dhundi-Kairali ((Ḍhūṇḍī-Kaiṛālī), a term first used by Grierson, who based it on the names of the region's two main tribes - the Kairal and the Dhund. Its spokesmen call it Pahari in Murre tehsil, while in Abbotabad district it is known as both Hindko or Ḍhūṇḍī.[22]

Even so, Hindko - actually the language of the rest of Abbottabad District and the adjacent areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa - is generally considered to be a different language. It forms a dialect continuum with Pahari, and the transition between the two is in the north of Azad Kashmir and in the Galyat region. On the road from Murree to the northwest towards Abbottabad, Pahari gradually turns into Hindko between Ayubia and Nathiagali.

A closely related dialect is spoken across the Jhelum River in Azad Kashmir north of the Mirpuri areas. Names associated with this dialect in literature are Pahari (even the term most commonly used by the speakers themselves), Chibhālī, named after the Chibhal region or the Chibh ethnic group, and Poonchi ((پونچھی, also written Punchhi). The latter name has been used in various ways either for the Chibhali variety specific to the Poonch district or for the dialect of the entire northern half of Azad Kashmir.[28]

This dialect (or these dialects) was either considered to be a separate dialect from that in Murree or as part of the same central group of Pahari dialects. For example, the Bagh District dialect shares more vocabulary with the core Murree dialects (86–88%) than with the Muzaffarabad (84%) or Mirpur (78%) varieties.[30]

In Muzaffarabad the dialect shows lexical similarity[f] 83-88% in the central group of Pahari dialects, which is high enough for the authors of the sociolinguistic survey to classify, is a central dialect in itself but low enough to warrant establishing its border status. However, the speakers tend to mention their language Hindko and identify more with the Hindko spoken in the West, despite the lower lexical similarity (73–79%) with the Hindko core dialects of Abbottabad and Mansehra. Further north into the Neelam Valley the dialect, now known locally as ParmiHindko gets closer.[35]

Pahari is also spoken further east across the control line into the Pir Panjal Mountains in Jammu and Kashmir, India. The population, estimated at 1 million,[36] is found in the region between the Jhelum and Chenab rivers: most importantly in the Poonch and Rajouri districts, to a lesser extent in the neighboring Baramulla and Kupwara areas;[37] and also - dispersed in the rest of Jammu and Kashmir as a result of the influx of refugees during the partition of 1947.[38] Pahari is one of the regional languages ​​listed in the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir.[39] This Pahari is sometimes associated with the western Pahari languages ​​spoken in the mountainous region of southeastern India's Jammu and Kashmir. These languages, which include Bhadarwahi and its neighbors, are often referred to as "Pahari" but are not closely related to Pahari-Pothwari.

Comparison with Punjabi [edit]

Potohar landscape with Pahar background

- Use of Sī-endings for Future Tense

PothwariPunjabi
TransliterationShahmukhiGurmukhiTransliterationShahmukhiGurmukhi
Mai karsā̃ مَیں کرساںਮੈਂ ਕਰਸਾਂ Māi karāngā مَیں کرانگاਮੈਂ ਕਰਾਂਗਾ
Asā̃ karsā̃ اَساں کرساںਅਸਾਂ ਕਰਸਾਂ Asī̃ karānge اَسِیں کرانگےਅਸੀਂ ਕਰਾਂਗੇ
Tū̃ karsãi تُوں کرسَیںਤੂੰ ਕਰਸੈਂ Tū̃ karengā تُوں کریں گاਤੂੰ ਕਰੇਂਗਾ
Tusā̃ karso تُساں کرسوਤੁਸਾਂ ਕਰਸੋ Tusī̃ diamond تُسی کروگےਤੁਸੀਂ ਕਰੋਗੇ
Ó karsi اوه کرسیਉਹ ਕਰਸੀ Ó Karega اوه کرے گاਉਹ ਕਰੇਗਾ
Ó karsan اوہ کرسنਓਹ ਕਰਸਨ Ó karaṇge اوه کرݨ گےਉਹ ਕਰਣਗੇ

Object marking

The property market in Pothwari is ‘‘((ਕੀ / کی) in contrast to '‘((ਨੂੰ / نوں)

Genitive marker [edit]

The genitive marker in Pothwari is indicated by the use of ‘N / A‘((ਨਾ/.نا) in contrast to 'There‘((ਦਾ/.دا).

For example:

The sentence: “Lokā̃ There“(ਲੋਕਾਂ ਦਾ/.لوکاں دا) - Importance "People"Or"of the people“In standard Punjabi would” become Lokā̃ N / A“(ਲੋਕਾਂ ਨਾ/.لوکاں نا).

The word for "my" will māhaṛā ((ਮਾਹੜਾ / ماہڑا) (m.) or māhaṛī ((ਮਾਹੜੀ / ماہڑی) (f.).

Vocabulary [edit]

A very clear starting point is the use of Acchṇā (ਅੱਛਣਾ / اچھݨا 'to come') and Gacchṇā (ਗੱਛਣਾ / گچھݨا 'to go') as opposed to Saraiki Āvaṇ (ਆਵਣ / آوݨ) and Vaññaṇ (ਵੰਞਣ / وڄݨ) and Punjabi Āuṇā ( ਆਉਣਾ / آؤݨا) and Jāṇā (ਜਾਣਾ / جاݨا)

  1. ^Baart (2003, p. 10) provides an estimate of 3.8 million, presumably only for the population in Pakistan. Lothers & Lothers (2010, p. 9) estimate the Pakistani population at well over 2.5 million and the British diaspora at over 0.5 million. The population in India is given in Ethnologue (2017) to be around 1 million as of 2000.
  2. ^According to Lothers & Lothers (2010, p. 2). Abbasi (2010, p. 104) adds the as a fourth dialect Poonchi spoken by Poonch in the Neelam Valley. Another classification is reportedly presented in Karnai (2007).
  3. ^ For example, according to the 1981 census report for Rawalpindi district, 85.1% of households were Punjabi as their first language. In each census, only a small number of the major languages ​​were counted separately, and there was no separate option for either Pahari or Pothwari.
  4. ^A language activist from the diaspora in Britain “[has] said that he does not give the language a single name because those who speak the language call it many different things. “(Lothers & Lothers 2012, p. 3).
  5. ^Some, at least in the British diaspora, consider this term a misnomer when applied to the language. (Lothers & Lothers 2012, p. 3).
  6. ^The similarity between word lists with 217 basic vocabulary from each place. (Lothers & Lothers 2010, pp. 15-16)

References [edit]

  1. ^Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, ed. (2017). “Pahari Potwari”. Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^“Pahari”. Oxford English Dictionary (Online edition). Oxford University Press.(Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  3. ^The alternative English spellings come from Ethnologue (2017).
  4. ^Hindko according to Lothers & Lothers (2010, pp. 5, 39) and Dhundi according to Grierson (1919, p. 495). Pahari is reported in both sources.
  5. ^Abbasi 2010, p. 104; Abbasi & Asif 2010, pp. 201-202
  6. ^Lothers & Lothers 2010, p. 24. The word lists on which this comparison is based are from the Neela Butt variety.
  7. ^Lothers & Lothers 2010, p. 26; Akhtar & Rehman 2007, p. 68. The conclusion is similarly based on lexical similarity and the comparison is made on the one hand with the Hindko of the Kaghan valley and on the other hand with the Pahari of the Murre hills.
  8. ^A 2000 estimate published in Ethnologue (2017)
  9. ^Singh 2014, p. 18; Bhat 2014, ch. 1, pp. 38, 40
  10. ^Lists of regions and settlements can be found in Bhat (2014, Chap. 1, pp. 40, 43–44) and Kour (2014).
  11. ^“Archived Copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 3, 2014. Retrieved 2020-04-29.CS1 maintenance: Archived copy as title (link)

Bibliography [edit]

  • Rawalpindi 1981 census report. District census report. 44. Islamabad: Census Organization, Statistics Department, Government of Pakistan. 1984. p. 95.
  • Abbasi, Muhammad Gulfraz (2010). "Is it a language worth exploring?" Language in India. 10 (7).
  • Abbasi, Muhammad Gulfraz; Asif, Saiqa Imtiaz (2010). “Dilemma of Use and Transmission - A Sociolinguistic Study of Dhundi-Pahari in Pakistan”. Language in India. 10 (5): 197-214. ISSN 1930-2940.
  • Akhtar, Raja Nasim; Rehman, Khawaja A. (2007). “The languages ​​of the Neelam Valley”. Kashmir Journal of Language Research. 10 (1): 65-84. ISSN 1028-6640.
  • Baart, Joan LG (2003). Sustainable development and conservation of Pakistan's indigenous languages. Islamabad.
  • Bhat, Javeed Ahmad (2014). Policy of Reservations: A Comparative Study of the Gujjars and Paharis of Jammu and Kashmir (PhD). Aligarh Muslim University. hdl: 10603/167183.
  • Grierson, George A. (1919). Linguistic Survey of India. Volume VIII, Part 1, Indo-Aryan family. Northwest group. Specimens of Sindhī and Lahndā. Calcutta: Superintendent's Office for Government Printing, India.
  • Hussain, Serena (2015). "Missing in‘ Minority Mainstream ’: Pahari-speaking diaspora in Great Britain". Journal for Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 36 (5): 483-497. doi: 10.1080 / 01434632.2014.953539. ISSN 0143-4632.
  • Kaul, Pritam Krishen (2006). Pahāṛi and other tribal dialects of Jammu. 1. Delhi: Eastern Book Linkers. ISBN.
  • Kour, Updesh (2014). “Punchi”. In Devy, GN; Koul, Omkar N. (Ed.). The languages ​​of Jammu & Kashmir. Folk Language Survey in India. 12. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan. Pp. 261-78. ISBN.
  • Lothers, Michael; Lothers, Laura (2010). Pahari and Pothwari: A Sociolinguistic Survey (Report). SIL Electronic Survey Reports. 2010-012.
  • Lothers, Laura; Lothers, Michael (2012). Mirpuri Immigrants in England: A Sociolinguistic Survey. SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2012. SIL International.
  • Masica, Colin P. (1991). The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press. ISBN.
  • Shackle, Christopher (1979). “Problems of Classification in Pakistan Panjab”. Transactions of the Philological Society. 77 (1): 191-210. doi: 10.1111 / j.1467-968X.1979.tb00857.x. ISSN 0079-1636.
  • Shackle, Christopher (1983). “Language, Dialect and Local Identity in Northern Pakistan”. In Wolfgang-Peter Zingel; Stephanie Zingel-Avé Lallemant (Ed.). Pakistan in its Fourth Decade: Current Political, Social and Economic Situation and Perspectives for the 1980s. Announcements from the German Orient Institute. 23. Hamburg: German Orient Institute. Pp. 175-87.
  • Shackle, Christopher (2007). "Pakistan". In Simpson, Andrew (ed.). Language and National Identity in Asia. Oxford Linguistics Y. Oxford University Press. ISBN.
  • Simons, Gary F .; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2017). “Pahari-Potwari”. Ethnolog (20 ed.). (Access restricted).
  • Singh, Kuljit (2014). Identity Formation and Assertion: A Study of the Pahari-Speaking Community of Jammu and Kashmir (PhD). University of Jammu. hdl: 10603/78359.

Further reading [edit]

  • Karnai, Mian Karim Ullah (2007). Pahari aor Urdu: ik taqabali jaiza (in Urdu). Islamabad: National Language Authority.
  • Nazir, Farah (2014). Easy verb constructions in Potwari (PhD). University of Manchester.