What is the use of EV vehicle

EV, HEV, PHEV etc .: A definition

The market for EV and HEV vehicles is undoubtedly growing rapidly. While we're still in the early stages, there are signs that the hybrid (HEV) market is picking up momentum. Figures from the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) confirm this. As recently as 2010, the global market for electric vehicles was still almost zero, but by 2015 more than half a million electrified cars had already found buyers - and sales are continuing to rise.

HEV

Several factors are driving the growth in the HEV market, with the more stringent CO2-Emissions regulations are the most important. In addition, the available fossil fuels are declining and there is a general trend towards greener, more energy efficient lifestyles.

From micro hybrid to fully electric car

The major vehicle manufacturers are confident that they will turn their forecasts into reality. BMW has high expectations for sales of 100,000 electric cars this year, and electric vehicles are expected to account for 25% of BMW sales within eight years. Renault-Nissan and Tesla expect one million electric cars to be sold annually within three years, while the Chinese auto industry plans to bring a total of 4.5 million electric vehicles to potential buyers annually over the same period.

Ford doesn't forecast sales, but plans to bring 13 new electric vehicles to market over the next three years. Honda sees two-thirds of its sales in electric vehicles by 2030.

As is common in a rapidly evolving market, there is a wide range of products that are constantly evolving. To give an overview of the HEV market, the different types of EVs can be summarized as follows:

Micro-hybrid (μHEV)

The initial HEV, which hit the market more than a decade ago, had a start / stop system with a 12V battery. These cars were equipped with a normal internal combustion engine but used electrical assistance to stop and start - a function that required significant energy. The introduction of the μHEVs enabled some quick successes in reducing CO2Emissions and helped the auto industry meet the norm in the mid-2000s.

Mild Hybrid (mHEV)

A mild hybrid is more or less the same concept as the μHEV, but with a 48 V battery instead of a 12 V battery. The 48 V battery is a small battery, but it is constantly charged (for example through regenerative braking) and discharged. A booster motor with an output of 5 to 13 kW is also available.

Full hybrid (fHEV)

Basically this is an mHEV, but with a high-voltage battery and a slightly larger electric motor with an output between 20 and 40 kW. The best known is the Toyota Prius, which came on the market before the mHEV. The mHEV is an intermediate step that is mainly marketed in Europe in order to comply with the more stringent regulations.

Plug-in hybrid (PHEV)

A PHEV is an fHEV with a larger electric motor and an internal combustion engine as a backup in case the batteries run out. A PHEV uses rechargeable batteries that can be connected to an external power source.

Electric vehicle (EV)

There are two sub-categories of electric vehicles (EV): real, locally emission-free electric vehicles and EVs with a range extender, in which an internal combustion engine installed in the vehicle can charge the battery. The former are primarily known as battery electric vehicles (BEV), which have a particularly large high-voltage battery. The most famous model is undoubtedly from Tesla, but other automakers have a larger market share. For example, Renault is doing very well with the Renault ZOE. There are also fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), but they are less common. They use fuel cells and a hydrogen tank as an energy source.

Electrification lowers CO2Emissions

It should be noted that there is a close relationship between HEVs / EVs and lowering CO2-Emissions exist. As electrification increases, so does CO2Emissions. While the micro-hybrid in the European driving cycle leads to a reduction in CO2Emissions by 3 to 4% result in a reduction of 13 to 21% for the mild hybrid, 20 to 30% for the full hybrid and even 50 to 75% for the plug-in hybrid. A fully electric vehicle produces no emissions at all (the energy production required to charge the battery is ignored).

Usually the CO depends2-Emissions strongly depend on the weight of the car. An interesting development is that the full-size HEV or EV models do not necessarily produce more emissions, even though they are heavier. For example, the Volvo V40 with an internal combustion engine generates much higher CO2Emissions than the Volvo V60 plug-in hybrid.

More new entrants

The HEV / EV market is expected to grow 25% over the next eight years. The market share of full hybrid vehicles will remain stable. The growth is mainly achieved through mild hybrids, plug-in hybrids and BEVs. With an estimated 20 million vehicles by 2024, the (H) EV market will be the same size as the diesel car market today, accounting for 20% of the total market.

The HEV / EV market is a good example of a snowball effect. In 2001, only two electric vehicles were available for the European market: the Toyota Prius and the Honda Insight. The Toyota Prius was the clear market leader with a market share of 95%. In 2009, Toyota's market share shrank to 53% when, for example, Mercedes-Benz and Lexus came onto the market with corresponding HEV models. Japan was clearly the trendsetter, with 75% of HEV manufacturers being Japanese companies. In 2014, a large number of newcomers appeared, including Citroën, Peugeot, Mitsubishi and Volvo. This is a clear sign of the transition from an emerging to an established market.

New business opportunities

There are still some obstacles to overcome before the electric vehicle can really convince consumers around the world. Above all, the range and the charging time are decisive. Nowadays, electric car owners are concerned about not getting to their destination or having to wait hours for the battery to recharge. However, plug-in hybrids and EVs with range extenders help to alleviate these fears. In the meantime, manufacturers from many different fields are working hard to find plausible solutions to these problems, so it is only a matter of time before these obstacles are overcome.

Initially, the market was extremely skeptical about the Toyota Prius, but Toyota was not deterred and succeeded with more than four million models sold. Today, other car manufacturers - including many European ones - are following Toyota's lead.

More (H) EVs = more sensors

It is therefore obvious that the advance of electric vehicles can no longer be stopped. This is good news for sensor manufacturers, because electrification goes hand in hand with the use of significantly more sensors. Since fast charging of the battery is important, cooling will also be important to avoid thermal problems. This will definitely increase the demand for motor driver ICs, and the demand for current, position and speed sensors will also be significant. So the market for automotive sensors is well on the way to creating new business opportunities in the next few years!