What are the two alloys of iron

List of alloys

This is one in alphabetical order according to the respective base metal List of alloys.


  • Aluminum. With the exception of pure aluminum (foils), it is only used in the form of its alloys with copper, magnesium, silicon and other elements, for example AlMg3, as an alloy with 3% magnesium.
  • Duralumin is a wrought alloy made from aluminum, copper, magnesium, manganese and silicon.
  • Hydronalium: trade name for a cast aluminum alloy with 3-12% magnesium
  • Silumin: Brand name for a range of sub-Eutectic to eutectic aluminum-silicon casting alloys.


  • Hard lead consists of lead and antimony
  • Shot is an alloy of lead, arsenic and antimony.
  • Tin solder is a lead-tin alloy. For some time now, tin alloys containing copper or silver have also been used.
  • Sodium-lead alloys are used as drying agents and in the manufacture of tetraethyl lead.

Bismuth (bismuth)

Cobalt (cobalt)

  • Vitallium is a metal alloy made from cobalt, chrome and molybdenum (see chrome-cobalt-molybdenum alloy)


  • Steel is a collective name for plastically deformable alloys made of iron and a maximum of 2.06 percent carbon.
    • Stainless steels are alloys of iron with chromium and nickel and other additives.
    • Invar consists (mainly) of iron and nickel.
    • Kovar consists (mainly) of iron, nickel and cobalt.
  • Cast iron is a collective term for non-plastically deformable alloys made of iron and 3 to 5 percent carbon.


Gallium is very similar to aluminum in terms of its properties. In connection with some elements, including gadolinium, but also iron and magnesium, magnetic materials are created (see Römpp, Chemie Lexikon, 9th edition, published by J. Falbe and M. Regitz, Thieme.Verlag Stuttgart 1989.92).


Main article seeGold alloys

  • Titanium gold: Alloy: 99% gold, 1% titanium, is mainly used in the manufacture of wedding rings and in medical technology. In terms of color, it is comparable to 750 yellow gold, but a little grayer.
  • Color gold (general) is an alloy of gold, silver (to lighten the yellow and to improve the mechanical workability) and copper (for the "noble" intense gold color or for the red tint).
    • Yellow gold: the proportion of silver corresponds to that of copper.
    • Red gold: the proportion of silver is much lower than that of copper (also known locally as Turkish gold).
      • Russian gold: slightly lighter red gold with the unusual gold content of 583.
    • Pale gold: the proportion of silver is much higher than that of copper.
  • Green gold Gold with predominantly or exclusively silver. Small amounts of cadmium are often added to intensify the green tone, but this has been banned across the EU since 2011.[1]
  • White gold and gray gold are alloys of gold, with platinum, palladium or silver. But there are also white gold alloys with cobalt, chromium, manganese-germanium and other metals. Nickel was also used in the past.
  • Electrum is an alloy of gold and silver that was already known in ancient times. The term is also used for amber. Since 1920, electron has been the protected name for a magnesium alloy from what was then I.G. Paint industry, Griesheim plant.
  • Normmetall or Norm-Metall (in Switzerland also: guarantee metal) is an alloy containing gold with less than 333 ‰ gold content.
  • "Fool's gold" is not an alloy containing gold, but the common name of the mineral pyrite.
  • Hard gold: gold produced by electroplating with small proportions (a few atomic percent) of cobalt, nickel or iron.


According to the technical importance of copper, there are a large number of alloys, whereby often special alloys of the same or almost the same composition are only known under their protected brand names or names referring to the manufacturer. In this respect, this list is only indicative. There is a fundamental distinction between pure copper and low-alloy copper. With reference to the most important accompanying element, the mass of alloyed copper is assigned to either the bronzes or the brass, with tin determining the bronzes and zinc the brass. Among the numerous special forms, the utility alloy “gunmetal” (copper, zinc, lead) is probably the best known.

  • Bronze (real bronze) is an alloy that consists only of copper and tin.
  • Aluminum bronze is an alloy that can consist of copper and aluminum as well as parts of nickel and iron.
  • Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, widely used as a rolling and wrought material with an admixture of lead, including aluminum.
  • Lead bronze is an alloy of copper, tin and lead.
  • Isabellin is an alloy of copper, nickel and manganese, primarily for thermally resistant wires (heating conductor alloy)
  • Constantan is a comparable alloy of copper, nickel and manganese.
  • Nickelin is a comparable alloy of copper, nickel and manganese.
  • German silver (alpaca, pakfong) is an alloy of copper, nickel and zinc.
  • Gunmetal is an alloy of copper, tin, zinc and lead used for fittings, among other things.
  • Tombac is a copper-zinc alloy.
  • Beryllium copper made from copper and beryllium was especially used for non-sparking tools in mining.
  • White copper is a light-colored copper-arsenic alloy.


  • Electron is a name for a magnesium alloy that was protected in the 1920s.



Mercury alloys with many metals to form amalgams.

  • Until recently, the silver amalgam was technically important as a tooth filling.
    • Gold amalgam as a compound of mercury with gold is not a purpose-specific alloy, but merely an intermediate stage in gold extraction


  • Sterling silver: alloy with 925/1000 silver that is alloyed with copper or other materials. This alloy is mostly used to make coins, jewelry and cutlery.
  • Vermeil: silver that has been gilded.
  • Tulasilber: (mainly used in the Middle Ages for works of art and tableware) is made with silver, copper, lead, sulfur and ammonium chloride.
  • Tibet silver: alloy with a very low silver content of 250/1000.
  • "Nickel silver": a copper alloy with a proportion of nickel and zinc is sometimes incorrectly assigned to the silver alloys.

Silver-plating: Cutlery and tableware are either “semi-silvered” or “finely silver-plated” as jewelry and high-quality silver cutlery (produces a white, silver sheen). Furthermore coll. "Silvering" in the meaning of selling any valuable objects, i.e. to turn them into (silver) money.


Refractory or hard metal. Naming of the group derived from the high melting point. Refractory metals are a component of both high-quality steels and wire alloys used for lighting purposes (the Osram brand, as a combination of osmium and tungsten).


  • Fine zinc cast alloys are mainly used for die cast parts, including those in investment casting.
  • Titanium zinc is a zinc alloy that is preferred for galvanizing and has a very low copper and titanium content.

See also:Zinc alloy, zamak alloy, Alzen (ZnAl35), also Alzeen are brand names of zinc-aluminum alloys.


  • Britannia metal is an alloy of 90-95% tin with up to 9% antimony and one percent copper. According to the "Foundry Lexicon" (formerly) used for household goods and decorative objects ("false bronzes").
  • Pewter is an alloy of tin, copper and / or lead.
  • Tin solder is a lead-tin alloy. For some time now, tin alloys containing copper or silver have also been used.
  • "Potin gris" is a historical, French bronze (copper alloy with a proportion of tin).

Individual evidence

  1. REACH: EU bans cadmium in jewelry, in alloys for soldering and in PVC. Retrieved January 31, 2013.