What is Na in chemistry


sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na, atomic number 11 and an atomic weight of 22.9898. It's a soft metal, it's reactive, and it has a low melting point with a specific gravity of 0.97 at 20 ° C (68 ° F). From a commercial point of view, sodium is the most important of all alkanic metals.

Sodium is the sixth most common element in the earth's crust, of which 2.83% occurs in any form. After chlorine, sodium is the second most common element that is dissolved in seawater. The most important sodium salts found in nature are chloride (rock salts), sodium carbonate (soda), sodium borate (borax), sodium nitrate and sodium sulfate. Sodium salts are found in sea water, in salt lakes, in alkane lakes and in mineral spring water.

Sodium reacts quickly with water - as well as snow and ice - to produce sodium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate. When exposed to air, the metallic sodium loses its silver appearance and acquires a dark gray color due to the sodium oxide coating. Sodium does not react with nitrogen, especially not at high temperatures, but it does react with ammonia to form sodium amide. Sodium and hydrogen react at around 200 ° C (390 ° F) where sodium hydride is formed. Sodium reacts poorly with carbon, but it reacts with halogens. It also reacts with various metallic halides to produce the metal and sodium chloride. Sodium does not react with paraffinic hydrocarbons, but it does form additional compounds with naphthalene and other aromatic polycyclic compounds and with adic alkenes. The reaction of sodium with alcohol is similar to the reaction of sodium with water, only slower. There are two general reactions with organic halides. One of them requires the condensation of two organic compounds which, when eliminated, form halogens. The second type of reaction involves the replacement of halogens from sodium to create an organic compound.

GHealth Effects of Sodium

Sodium is part of many foods, such as B. common salt. It is of great importance for the fluid balance in the body, and it is also important for the functioning of the nervous system and muscles. However, too much sodium can cause kidney damage and increase the risk of high blood pressure.

Contact of sodium and water, including perspiration, causes the formation of sodium hydroxide smoke, which causes severe irritation to the skin, eyes, nose and throat. This also causes sneezing and coughing. Acute exposure leads to heavy breathing, coughing, and chronic bronchitis. Contact with the skin leads to itching, tingling, thermal and corrosive burning sensations and permanent damage. Contact with eyes leads to permanent damage and loss of vision.

Environmental effects of sodium

Ecotoxins: Median Tolerance Limit (TLM) for the mosquito fish, 125 ppm / 96 hr (fresh water); Median Tolerance Limit for the Seed Cracker, 88 mg / 48 hr (tap water).

Ecological destinies: this chemical is immobile in massive states, although it can absorb moisture very easily. Once in a liquid state, sodium hydroxide quickly leaches into the soil and may even contaminate water sources.

Sodium and water

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