Who crowned Napoleon the Emperor of France

Napoleon's coronation as emperor

On December 2, 1804, Napoleon was crowned Emperor of France.

Securing rule

He was the first of the three consuls to secure his rule. His military successes as a general also helped him. In a referendum, a large majority supported Napoleon, as it did in the vote on the consulate constitution. This can be explained by the fact that the people longed for order and peace after all the turmoil of the revolution.

In addition, a hereditary empire also seemed to the senators to be a suitable means of preventing attempts by supporters of the Bourbons (who had provided the French kings for decades) to overthrow.

The new constitution

As early as the spring of 1804, the Senate had approved a new constitution that made Napoleon emperor and made the imperial dignity hereditary for his family. His brothers became princes, and Napoleon placed other confidants in important posts. Six ore offices were newly created as the highest offices at the court, named after the example of the Holy Roman Empire. The revolution calendar, however, was abolished.

The coronation

In the presence of Pope Pius VII, Napoleon crowned himself emperor. He then crowned his wife Josephine as empress. The pompous ceremony took place in the Notre Dame church in Paris and lasted several hours. The people cheered and bells rang all over Paris.

The emperor

As once the French king, Napoleon now lived in the Tuileries Palace and had a court. Many court offices were given to old noble families. In the following years Napoleon drew more and more power to himself by z. B. Abolished the Tribunate (the legislative assembly since 1799). Political opponents were again suppressed as before. The censorship of the press increased, as did the personality cult around Napoleon. Napoleon ruled like a dictator.

Foreign policy of the emperor

Napoleon continued the campaigns of conquest as emperor. In the next coalition wars, France achieved brilliant victories on land. The naval power of England, however, was not defeated. In the Battle of Trafalgar, Napoleon suffered a heavy defeat against the English fleet under Lord Nelson. Nevertheless, the French gradually occupied large parts of Europe, including Portugal, parts of Italy and northern Germany. With the Confederation of the Rhine, Napoleon secured the approval of some German princes. Other states such as Spain were not occupied but were dependent on France, the so-called satellite states.