What is the best exercise for general fitness
Strength or endurance: choose the right fitness training
For years, doctors and health insurance companies have been calling for: "More exercise!" But what does the best program look like if you want to stay healthy or tackle certain ailments?
Back pain, diabetes, depression: Doctors denounce the steadily increasing lack of exercise that promotes these and other complaints. "The computer workstation has been a problem for years," says orthopedic surgeon Christian Sturm, "the use of cell phones has made things more difficult. This has increased bad posture enormously." According to the campaign for healthy backs (AGR), more than 21 million Germans spend their working day in the office, most of them sitting down.
Basic fitness through exercise in everyday life
"The basis is 10,000 steps," says cardiologist Melanie Hümmelgen. Running the equivalent of about seven kilometers - that alone is a challenge for many today and involves considerable changes in everyday life. But the effort is rewarded with more fitness and more life, explains Hümmelgen: "We now know that every step counts. It's like an account that you pay into. And sufficient exercise in everyday life is the basis for us to be able to train injury-free . " The less you have moved, the higher the risk of injury when you get back on track.
Training plan with the right mix for prevention
Which sport is recommended in addition to everyday exercise depends on the goals pursued as well as on personal preferences. From a prevention perspective, the motto is: It's all in the mix! In general, sports medicine professionals recommend a combination of strength and endurance. Studies show that there are hardly any differences between the two forms of training with regard to the long-term effect on chronic diseases such as diabetes: the mean blood sugar level drops, the blood lipid values improve. Strength and endurance sports thus have a preventive effect on most chronic diseases.
Endurance sport for the heart and circulation
If there are already complaints, the situation should be assessed differently. "In the case of cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure or cardiac insufficiency, endurance sports are generally preferable," says Hümmelgen, a movement doctor. "Running, Nordic walking, cycling and swimming are wonderful sports because we can control them so well and overloading the cardiovascular system is very rare." Blood pressure peaks, such as those that can occur during strenuous holding exercises, are undesirable with such previous illnesses. Endurance athletes do not need to use a lot of force, but have to persevere regularly and over a longer period of time.
|has a positive effect on the cardiovascular system||Successes can be measured, but are not noticeable|
|increases lung volume||hardly any muscle building possible|
|lowers blood sugar - thanks to the muscle replenishing effect, even on the day after endurance training||very intensive endurance training even hinders muscle building (apparently inhibits the energy-sapping protein synthesis in the body)|
|optimizes the supply of oxygen to the muscles|
|burns more fat during exercise than weight training|
|Particularly suitable for switching off due to the uniform movements|
Weight training for the bones and the supporting apparatus
To minimize the risk of injury when jogging or cross-country skiing, endurance sports should be combined with vigorous muscle training if possible. With suitable exercises one can also improve the perception and control function (proprioception) of the legs.
Targeted, correctly dosed strength training is also the method of choice for many joint problems - such as osteoarthritis -, for osteoporosis, muscle loss in old age and generally for pain in the musculoskeletal system. "The real pain problem is often a muscular cause," explains movement doc Christian Sturm. The widespread unspecific back pain usually arises from poor posture, cramps and hardening. This is where stretching and subsequent strengthening of the muscles help. If done correctly, strength training can eliminate and prevent pain because it stabilizes the holding apparatus and thus counteracts incorrect movements or poor posture. But this is also where the crux lies: Incorrectly executed exercises are counterproductive. Intensive strength training therefore always requires good instruction.
|produces visible results after just a few weeks (muscle growth)||Duration of exercise is not enough to train the cardiovascular system|
|stabilizes the ligament and holding apparatus and thus prevents injuries||intense holding exercises cause blood pressure peaks - bad for the heart|
|prevents an excessive decrease in bone density|
|increases the basal metabolic rate in the long term by building muscle mass and thus promotes a healthy weight|
|lowers blood sugar in the long term by building muscle mass|
The optimal way to lose weight
Anyone who primarily wants to fight obesity needs a so-called multimodal concept: As a rule, in addition to exercise, a change in diet is unavoidable so that the calorie balance becomes negative. When running at 60 to 70 percent of the maximum pulse rate, the body burns a lot of fat. If you want to melt a kilo of body fat, which contains the equivalent of 7,000 calories, you would have to run for around 20 hours. In relation to the time required, strength training helps you lose weight better than endurance training, because the muscle mass created pays off for the beach figure in the long term due to its higher basal metabolic rate (energy consumption at rest). Only those who want to lose weight have to be patient, as the muscle gain is more likely to be reflected on the scales with a few kilos more at the beginning.
Exercises That Really Help
To participate and imitate: The best exercise strategies for a wide variety of diseases can be found here summarized and explained in short videos. more
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The Movement Docs | 03/08/2021 | 9:00 p.m.
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