Is overdose with beta blockers painful

Dry eyes from medication

Birth control pills

Women are more likely to suffer from dry eyes than men. Mainly for hormonal reasons, because that female sex hormone estrogen can affect the production of tears and thus lead to the eyes drying out. Even when estrogens are taken as drugs, for example in the treatment of menopausal symptoms, dry eyes are possible as an undesirable effect. Likewise, dry eyes can be favored by taking the birth control pill, because female hormones are also supplied to the body with the pill.

Beta blockers

Beta blockers have a wide range of uses. They are mainly used in diseases of the Cardiovascular system such as high blood pressure or cardiac arrhythmias, but also for the treatment of migraines, hyperthyroidism or glaucoma (glaucoma). As a side effect, beta blockers can suppress the function of the lacrimal glands, so that adequate eye hydration is no longer guaranteed. Frequently observed consequences are dry eyes, pain in the eye and visual disturbances.


Anticholinergics are used to treat colic or chronic bronchitis. They interrupt the involuntary contraction of the smooth muscles that surround the internal organs and thus have an antispasmodic effect. In addition, anticholinergics inhibit the function of the glands in the body by preventing the transmission of signals that the glands need to release secretions. The lacrimal glands and, for example, the salivary glands are affected by this effect. Dry mouth and dry eyes are the result.


Allergic diseases such as hay fever are often treated with antihistamines. They inhibit the release of the body's own messenger substance histaminethat mediates allergic reactions. When histamine is blocked, allergy symptoms improve significantly. But antihistamines can also inhibit the tear glands, so that there is not enough tear fluid to moisten the eyes.

Tri- and tetracyclic antidepressants

These psychotropic drugs are prescribed for depression and anxiety. Depression occurs, among other things, because there is a lack of messenger substances (neurotransmitters) in the brain. Tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants inhibit the reuptake of neurotransmitters in the nerve cells of the brain. This compensates for the lack of neurotransmitters in the patient's brain. As a side effect, the antidepressants reduce the secretion of tears from the lacrimal glands, which can lead to eye discomfort.


The drug ergotamine is used for acute migraine attacks, with or without aura (visual disturbance of perception), and cluster headaches. Since the agent can be life-threatening if overdosed and has many side effects, it is rarely used. Ergotamine narrows the blood vessels, which can also lead to dry eyes.


The medicinal group of neuroleptics is one of the Psychiatric drugs and is used for delusions, confusion, high levels of excitement and hallucinations. Many neuroleptics prevent the transmission of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain, which is also known as the happiness hormone and is responsible for generating motivation and attention.

The side effects of psychotropic drugs are manifold: hormonal disorders and movement disorders up to depression and functional disorders of certain organs are possible. The eyes can also dry out when using neuroleptics.


Reserpine lowers blood pressure, but because of its numerous, sometimes severe, side effects, it is rarely used in the treatment of high blood pressure used. The mode of action of reserpine in the body is complex, it affects both the central and the peripheral (external) nervous system. Among other things, reserpine promotes the activity of the parasympathetic nerve, the so-called rest nerve, which is responsible for the recovery of the body. This can lead to undesirable effects such as pupil constriction, drooping eyelids or dry eyes.


Thiazide diuretics (thiazides for short) are used for dehydration and are mainly used for High blood pressure and water retention ingested in the body. Thiazides promote the formation and excretion of urine. Thus, they lower the blood volume and, after prolonged use, also the blood pressure. Since thiazides interfere with the body's metabolism, prolonged use can lead to dry eyes, among other things.


Trihexyphenidyl is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The drug has a relaxing effect on the unconsciously controllable muscles of the internal organs (smooth muscles) by inhibiting the release of the messenger substance acetylcholine. This is present in increased amounts in people with Parkinson's disease. Among other things, the salivary and lacrimal glands can be inhibited in their secretion by trihexyphenidyl, resulting in a dry mouth and dry eyes.

Note: With the drugs mentioned, dry eyes occur mainly as a result of one Long-term use on. Dry eyes are stressful and can seriously affect the quality of life. Therefore, consult a doctor if you have problems with your eyes. You can alleviate the discomfort by using moisturizing eye drops.