Why do Masons use Egyptian symbols

4. CRATA REPOA GERMAN FREEMASONS STAGE EGYPTIAN MYSTERIES The literary production in the last third of the 18th century in the vicinity of the lodge of the “African builders” .1 In particular, a font from the pen of Karl Friedrich Köppen and Bernhard von Hymmens caused a sensation and kept people busy the commentators: Crata Repoa or initiations in the old secret society of the Egyptian priests.2 Crata Repoa first appeared in 1770 and subsequently in numerous editions and translations. This text belongs to a different genre than the examples considered so far. No story is told, but a ritual is described. There is no hero here, but any initiate who has completed the seven degrees of consecration to the Mysteries. The description is backed up with numerous footnotes, which substantiate all the details on the basis of ancient and modern authors. It claims to be a scientific reconstruction of the Egyptian ritual and was mostly understood as such in its time. At the same time, it is intended to serve as a kind of script for the rituals of the lodge, which sees itself as the successor to the Egyptian priests. THE PROCESS OF THE RITUAL Following the example of Pythagoras, the initiate travels from the temple of Heliopolis to Memphis and on to Thebes, is circumcised and has to fast before he is led into the temple of initiation. His steadfastness is tested in the first degree in wind, rain, lightning and thunder scenarios, he submits to the "Constitution of the Crata Repoa", is warned against prejudices and admonished to contemplate the divine before he is instructed about the origin of the names of gods . In the second grade it is important to fast and to practice sexual abstinence. After he has shown himself to be fearless against snakes, the initiate learns the mathematical sciences. Through the «Gate of Death» it goes in the following degree into the underworld and into a room in which The Sphinx as a symbol of Egyptian secrets on the title page of the second edition of the Crata Repoa. C R ATA R E P O A 92 In the middle of the coffin of Osiris stands. The initiate is ritually slain and thus reaches the fourth degree, in order to be defeated in a "battle of the shadows [...] people in horrible forms". He kills Gorgon and experiences a spectacle in which Horus kills Typhon, the Osiris murderer, while receiving "instructions on chemistry". The instruction on the “origin of the whole doctrine of the gods [… and the] star art” in the sixth degree is followed by a priestly dance “in the corridors of which the career of the stars was presented”, and in the seventh degree he is given permission to read the secret books . ON THE CULTURAL-HISTORICAL ENVIRONMENT Before he worked out Crata Repoa, Karl Friedrich Köppen dealt with a French high-grade ritual and investigated the question of possible Egyptian origins of Freemasonry.3 In 1768 Köppen first submitted an explanation of an Egyptian pointed column.4 Recourse to Horapollon, Jamblichos and other authors of Greco-Roman antiquity, he interpreted the Lateran Obelisk in Rome as a representation of an ancient Egyptian initiation ritual: Man has a disposition to evil, but also a curiosity that leads him to the mysteries in which he speaks the "order of the parts of the human body and the correspondence with the whole of nature" as well as in agronomy, astronomy, geometry and architecture are taught. Ultimately, humans have to acknowledge their mortality. As banal as this draft of an initiation may seem, the subtitle refers to Warburton. And in the spirit of Warburton, the secret of the Egyptian mysteries is not seen in a doctrine of the hereafter, but in sober science. Obviously, this is the template for the Crata Repoa, published two years later.5 In the legend of the legitimation of the “Lodge of African Builders” 6, Köppen outlined an extensive history of the development of the Egyptian mysteries: Noah's son Ham went to Egypt after the end of the Flood, cultivated the country and ruled with 93 CR ATA REPOA sen laws, supported by an advisory commission entitled “Crata Repoa”. Under Hermes Trismegistus, this commission became a secret and "learned society" into which, besides Pythagoras, many other ways of the Greco-Roman world were initiated. The school of wisdom came to the Knights Templar through the Essenes and also the therapists, was restituted under Pope Pius II in Italy in the form of an "Academy of Sciences" and caused a sensation under the name of the Rosicrucians.7 According to legend, Köppen was founded in 1759 by Gottlob Samuel Nicolai instructed in the secrets of the Order; he became a grandmaster and a member of the «Society of Fine Arts and Fine Sciences». The lodge of the «African builders» is therefore the heir to the «Crata Repoa», the true Rosicrucian brotherhood and has nothing in common with the Gold and Rosicrucians. In addition, a large number of scholars and philosophical and theological schools are named who belong in the history of the development of the lodge and this Egyptian Freemasonry. Of course, none of this should be taken too seriously, because Köppen wants to give his own lodge a reputation for an impressive historical deduction in the struggle for self-assertion against competitors. Such excessive legends of legitimation are common in Freemasonry in the last decades of the 18th century. It is significant, however, that Egypt and its mysteries are claimed here as the origin of their own Masonic lodge. Because of the numerous processes of transformation, the school of wisdom of «Crata Repoa» has changed again and again, but is still considered a living legacy in the second half of the 18th century, the mysteries of which are still celebrated. In doing so, Köppen refers to an Egypt that follows the tradition of Noah's son Ham and in which the wise men believed in the "Mosaic tale of creation". Only later did Egypt become the land of polytheism and idolatry. It is important to Köppen not to see his lodge exposed to suspicion of mystomania or alchemy, and rather seeks closeness to learned societies such as the alethophiles8 or the "Friends of the Fine Sciences and Liberal Arts", as their successor he looks at the builders. As an consecration of the mysteries, Crata Repoa is at the same time a scientific curriculum. Consequently, Köppen clearly distinguishes himself from the hermeticism of the Gold and Rosicrucians working on the Philosopher's Stone, which was incompatible with the scientific standards of the time, and sees himself in the tradition of the natural philosophical and medical teachings of Alchemo-Paracelsism, which he considers eminently scientifically capable holds. WORKING ON TRADITION While Köppen referred to William Warburton for his first draft of an Egyptian consecration of the mysteries, Noel Antoine Pluche's Histoire du Ciel (1739) is the central source for Crata Repoa. Pluche's story of heaven is actually a story of the Egyptian religion, in which he assumes the primacy of the Hebrew religion in order to defend the Judeo-Christian tradition against the relativization of religious history. He wants to show the "truth of the Mosaic narrative" and provide material for the "proof of the truth of the Gospels". Pluche uses these guidelines to reconstruct the history of Egyptian religion: As the descendants of Noah's son Ham, the Egyptians perfected nature observation in the most ancient times. The connections between the movements of the stars, the flood of the Nile, sowing and harvesting were recorded by the caste of priests specially set up for this purpose in the symbolic and pictorial form of hieroglyphs. Over hundreds of pages, Pluche interprets Egyptian culture, the images of gods, myths and hieroglyphs as natural history.9 The religion of the Egyptians was therefore originally very simple: They worshiped the Creator God and thanked him for his work at the new moon. They also believed in the resurrection of the body and in the retribution of good and bad deeds in the hereafter. Over time, the common people believed that hieroglyphs were images of deities, and the priests left them in superstition while keeping their natural history hidden in the mysteries. Gradually, even the priests forgot the true meaning of hieroglyphics and succumbed to superstition in the images of gods. Crata Repoa seems to be largely a translation of Pluche's religious history into ritual practice. Köppen has not only adopted the description of the "Gate of the Gods" 10 or the title Crata Repoa, the teaching associated with the various levels of initiation also corresponds to the natural science of Egyptian priests described by Pluche. And it becomes understandable why the traditional concepts of God are questioned in two places in Crata Repoa. The Egyptian polytheism is exposed as a deception for the people and the truth about the one Creator God and natural history as the essence of religion are revealed to the initiates. How this ritual could have looked in practice is described by Johann Georg von B., who claims to have witnessed it in 1768 in Lusatia: The lodge sessions were therefore held in an Egyptian-style temple11 and in Latin.12 How much the Platonic ritual is Philosophy is obligatory becomes clear when we hear that the “dark chamber” into which the initiate was led for meditation was interpreted as “Plato's cave”. 13 At the entrance of the lodge temple there should be a black plaque with the following words have: «Whoever walks this path alone without looking behind him: shall be purified by fire, air and water, and wherever he can overcome the horror of death, he shall emerge again from the bosom of the earth and see the light , also have the right to prepare one's soul for the greatest secrets. ”14 With minor deviations, this is a reproduction of passages from Terrasson's novel on Sethos, which are also used in the Magic Flute Libretto have been received. About the content of the Mysteries we only learn that it was a lesson in astronomy: «One then begins to teach the newcomer lessons in the ancient Egyptian secrets […]. It contains the oldest knowledge of astronomical science. " The author does not disclose the exact content of this lesson, but he interprets the first four of the seven degrees: CR ATA REPOA 96 The first degree is intended to use a hieroglyph to prove, like the Heyden, mainly through the Egyptian secrets, much of the [...] have discovered true religion, and the password Sesiom means nothing else than Moises, from whom the Egyptians undoubtedly learned a great deal. The second degree indicates that Moses wanted to teach the Jewish people the teachings of religion mainly from knowledge of nature and the world. [...] Thirdly, according to the rules of world wisdom, the necessity of self-knowledge is demonstrated because most moral teachers fail to state that the nature of man is completely corrupt, since man can still be a great instrument of God. In the fourth degree it is presented [...] that Christ is the cornerstone of true religion. (P. 51 f.) Here, too, we encounter the key words that Pluche provided: Religion arose from natural history, the Egyptians preserved a noble wisdom within their mysteries. Moses was not a pupil but a teacher of the Egyptians, and Christianity is considered the binding foundation of the lodge. Here, too, all of this is linked to the learned societies of the time. In this way we learn that the laws of the inner order are those which the aletophiles established.15 And the initiates are given a patent signed “Friends of the Fine Sciences and Liberal Arts ”.16 Of course, this document alone does not prove that Crata Repoa was actually performed as a ritual. Rather, we have good reasons to assume that the ritual practiced merely offered Egyptian ornamentation, but that the degrees of initiation followed a model common in Freemasonry. At the same time, the ritual will certainly have been understood as it was laid out by Pluche in his religious history, as Köppen then translated it into literature in Crata Repoa and described by Johann Georg von B. 97 C R ATA R E P O A Since the 19th century, Crata Repoa has been received primarily in esoteric circles. At the end of the 18th century, however, this was completely different when the description of an Egyptian consecration of the mysteries was discussed in the context of enlightenment discourses. In the Freymäurer library in 1782 Terrasson's Sethosroman was interpreted together with Crata Repoa as "ancient Egyptian philosophy", which combined pantheism with a Gnostic doctrine of emanation17. Many authors followed the thesis that the Egyptians originally had a simple concept of God and carefully observed nature until superstition arose through the worship of the stars and symbols. In contrast to Pluche, they understood the natural history of the Egyptian priests to be Dei smus with enlightening features.18 Christian Ernst Wünschs (1744–1744–) shows how consistently Pluche's writing could be interpreted against their intentions and how the Egyptian mysteries and the Egyptian Freemasons finally became 1828) Book of Horus. 19 In his reconstruction of the Egyptian religious history, he follows Pluche, but assumes that even Moses did not understand the true meaning of the hieroglyphs. This error can be seen in the Old and New Testaments. The Mosaic and Christian religions contained nothing more than misunderstood allegorical terms for natural phenomena and the starry sky. Since he combined his thesis on the deism of the Egyptians with a biblical criticism following Reimarus and Lessing and also represented Spinozist positions, he led the discussion about "Egyptian Freemasonry" to the main arenas of the late Enlightenment. SELECTION OF LITERATURES Florian Ebeling, “Egyptian Freemasonry in the Second Half of the 18th Century”, in: Journal for International Freemason Research 22, (2009), 9–28 Karlheinz Gerlach, “The African Builders. The client's lodge of secrecy of the friends of the fine arts and beautiful sciences 1765–1775 in Berlin », in: Quatuor Coronati Jahrbuch, vol. 33 (1996), pp. 61–90 CR ATA REPOA 98 ANONYMUS [CARL FRIEDRICH KÖPPEN AND JOHANN WILHELM BERNHARD VON HYMMS] CRATA REPOA OR INAUGURATION IN THE OLD SECRET SOCIETY OF THE EGYPTIAN PRIEST, OO1770 PREPARATION FOR INAUGURATION OF CRATA REPOA. If anyone wanted to enter the company of Crata Repoa, he must first be specially recommended by such an initiate. This was generally done by the king himself, in a letter to the priests. But the priests first turned him away from Heliopolis, to the teachers of Memphis; | He was expelled from Memphis to Thebes.a At last he was circumcised.b Immediately afterwards certain foods were forbidden to him, c and he was no longer allowed to drink wine until he was only allowed to do so now and then in the higher degree. At last he had to leave his own thoughts for some time, like a prisoner, for many months, in an underground cave. They gave him permission to write down his thoughts, which were carefully examined to get to know the mind of the new member. Then he was led into a corridor filled with Hermes columns, whereupon there were moral sayings that he had to learn by heart a Porphyrius de vita Pythagorae. b Herodotus Lib. 2. Clemens Alexandr. Stromat. I. c namely legumes and fish. d Jamblychus de Mysteriis. Pausanias Lib. I expressly states that they were in certain underground containers near Thebes. 4 99 C R ATA R E P O A As soon as he knew them by heart, Thesmosphoresa came to him. He held a strong whip in his hand to stop the mob in front of the gate of the profane, through which he led the new entrant. The initiate was blindfolded and his hands were tied with strong linen ribbons. FIRST DEGREE OF PASTOPHORIS OR APPRENTICE WHO HAS TO GUARD THE DOORS OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE THOR OF MEN. As soon as the apprentice was prepared in the grotto, the Thesmos | phores took him by the hand, b and led him to the gate of the people. C On his arrival, the Thesmosphores struck an older Pastophoris, who was placed outside to guard the door , on the shoulder, who then reported the apprentice by knocking on the door of the entrance. After a few questions had been asked, the gate of the people opened and the newly initiated was admitted. Here he was asked by the Hierophantes about various things, to which exactly he had to give an answer.e Then the apprentice was led around the Birantha.f During this time an artificial wind was created and it was raining over the initiate.The lightning flashed in his face and terrible thunders rattled his hearing. The introdocteur. The endings of the names, which are usually used to go to us, are here for the most part, in Egyptian dialect, transformed into es and os. b Apulejus de Metam Lib. XI. c Cicero de Legibus, Lib. 2. Mysteriis ex agresti imanique vita exculti ad humanitatem, et mitigati sumus. d vide explanation of an Egyptian pointed column, on which this action is of course depicted. e Plutarch in Lacon: Apoph. verb. Lysander. f vide Histoire du Ciel Tom. I. p. 44. g Euseb. Caesar. Preparation. Evangel. Clemens Alexand. Admonit. ad Gent. 5 6 7 C R ATA R E P O A 100 If the apprentice could not be frightened by anything, the menies or law reader read to him the constitutions of Crata Repoa, which he had to approve. When he had completely submitted to them, the Thesmosphores led him to the Hierophant, before whom he had to prostrate himself with bared knees, and by putting the point of a sharp sword on his throat, the apprentice had to pledge allegiance and secrecy, wobey sun, The moon and the stars were invoked as witnesses of the truth After this oath the apprentice's eyes were opened and he was placed between two pillars, so called Betilies and which were square.b Between these two pillars was a ladder of seven rungs, with eight doors from different mats. C But this was not explained immediately Apprentice these figures, but the Hierophantes gave the following speech: «I turn to you who have the right to hear me. Close all doors so that the profane and the mockers may not come in. But you, Mene Musée or children of the work of the heavenly inquiry, hear my speech! I am telling you great truths. Beware of prejudices and passions which remove you from the right path to happiness 21 Direct your thoughts to the divine being, and let it always be before your eyes, in order thereby to direct your heart and senses. If you want to tread the sure path of bliss, remember that you are always walking in front of the eyes of the Almighty who created the world. It is the only being who receives and has produced all things, and who exists of itself. He sees everything. No mortal can see him, and no meneh will escape his sight ».d22 a Alexander from Alexandro Lib. V. Cap. 10. b Euseb. demonstr. Evang. Lib. I. c Origines cont. Cel. P. 341 de Trad. de Bouhereau. Diction. de Chauffepié Tom. IV. P. 834. d Euseb. Preparation. Evang. I. 13. Clemens Admonit. ad Gent: 8 9 101 C R ATA R E P O A After this speech, they indicated to the apprentice that the ladder over whose rungs he had to walk was a symbol of the transmigration of souls. They also taught him that the names of the gods meant something quite different from what the people believed. | They explained to him the causes of the winds, lightning and thunder. In short, this degree was devoted to the study of nature. They included anatomy and the arts of medicine. They also taught the symbolic language and the usual hieroglyphic writing.a23 Immediately after his admission the hierophant gave him the password, by which all the initiated recognized themselves, and which was called Amoun, and meant as much as being silent.b24 They recognized each other a special handle.c Then he received a kind of cap, which was shaped like a pyramid. They girded his hips with a protective cloth, | so they called Xylon. He wore a kind of collar around his neck, which was smoothly attached to his chest. Otherwise he would go unclothed and have to guard the gate of the people as often as his turn came. THE SECOND DEGREE. NEOCORIS. If the Pastophoris gave signs of his abilities in his apprenticeship, a strong fast was imposed on him. After the completion of this, the Neocoris was placed in a black chamber, so called Endimion. refreshed his | exhausted forces. These were the wives of the priests who, like Diana's companion, visited him and incited him to love in every possible way. a Iamblichus in vita Pythagor. b Plutarch de Iside et Osiride. c Iamblichus in vita Pythagorae. d Arnobius Lib. 5. e Endimion means imitated grotto. Nothing more complicated about her is found, except what belongs to the well-known fable. 10 11 12 C R ATA R E P O A 102 When he had endured this trial, the atmosphere came to him again and put a few questions to him. After the correct answer was given, the Neocoris was brought into the meeting. The stolista or water bearer doused him with water. He then had to assure that he had lived chaste and chaste. When this act was done, the Thesmosphores came running up to him with a living snake, threw it on his body, and pulled it out again through his apron. The whole place of the meeting was also filled with snakes to close the neocoris scare.b | The more steadfastly he endured this trial, the more praise he received after his acceptance. He was again led to two high columns, in the middle of which a griffin was seen driving a wheel in front of him.c This column was explained to him as Orient and Occident. The griffin was the symbol of the sun, and the wheel with four spokes, the four seasons. But it was precisely at this point that he was taught the art of adjusting the spirit level. Geometry and architecture were shown to him there and he learned to deal with all the standards and types of calculation that he subsequently had to use. For his characteristic he received a staff with a serpent wound around it, and the word Heve was his watchword, and he was told of the fall of the human race. His sign was to cross both arms over his chest The office consisted of washing the column. a Julius Firmicus Maternus, Cap. 2 says it was a made and gilded serpent. b The Egyptians still have the art of stealing poison from snakes. But this, as a great secret, is not discovered to anyone who does not belong to a particular sect among them. c One finds the same idea in le grand Cabinet Romain p. 94. d Clem. Alex. in Protrapt. tells something similar about this. You can still fi nd some drawings of these in the work of Mr. North. 13 14 103 C R ATA R E P O A THIRD DEGREE. THE THOR OF DEATH, WOBEY THE NEW INITIATED MELANEPHORIS HAS BEEN CALLED. The skill and good performance of the Neocoris made him capable of this degree. He was shown the time of his admission himself. He was led from the Thesmosphores into an anteroom, over the entrance of which was written the Gate of Death. This room was filled with images of various kinds of embalmed bodies and coffins. All the walls were covered with such drawings. And since it was the place where the corpses were delivered, the new Melanephoris found the Paraskistena25 and all the heroibs in the works there. In the middle, however, stood Osiris's coffin, which was still overflowing with blood from suffocation. The new melanephore was asked whether he had taken part in the murder of his master? When this question was answered in the negative, two tapireytes seized him.c26 They led him into a room where all the other melanephores were dressed entirely in black. The king himself, who was present at all times, addressed him in a very friendly manner, according to outward appearance, and asked him, if he did not think he had enough heart, to endure the test that should be carried out with him he should rather accept the golden crown, if he handed it to him. | The new Melanephor, however, had been instructed beforehand to throw this crown from himself and to trample it. The king immediately exclaimed: Insult, vengeance! and picked up a sacrificial ax, and with it struck the melanephores very softly in the head.e a people who cut open the body. b holy men handling embalmers. c People who had to bury the dead. d Tertullianus de Baptismo Cap. V. e The Kayser Commodus, who had to administer this office at one point, made it serious. Aelius Lampridius de Commodo Imperatore. 15 16 C R ATA R E P O A 104 The two tapireyts threw the new melanephores onto the ground from behind, and the paraskists wrapped mummy ribbons around it. While doing this, the others all wept for him. Then they brought him back to a gate on which the sanctuary of the spirits was written. When it was opened, lightning bolts and powerful thunderbolts drove around the supposed dead man. Charon took the corpse, as a ghost, into his boat and brought him to the underground judges. Pluto sat on his judgment seat, Rhadamantus and Minos were at his | Seite, as well as Aethon, Nycteus, Alaster and Orpheus. Very hard questions were given to him about his whole life and at last he was condemned to stay in these underground passages. He was freed from the wrapping of the shrouds, and received new instruction, which consisted in the following sentences: 1. Never thirst for blood, and jump on his members in the danger of death. 2. Never leave a dead person unburied. 3. To expect a resurrection from the dead and an upcoming judgment. After that he had to lie down on the grinding for a while to be able to pull out the coffins of the mummies and the ribbons. He received instructions on a special script, which was called the hierogrammatic, and which he soon needed; for with that the history of the land of Egypt, the description of the earth, the beginnings | the star art formulated. He was also instructed in eloquence in order to be able to give public funeral speeches in the future. His mark consisted of a special kind of embrace to express the violence of death. The word was: Monach Caron Mini. I am counting the days of anger. Here in these underground passages he stayed until one could see whether he was capable of further sciences or whether he was just an Apulejus Lib. Metam II. Prope fi nem. b Diod. Siculus Lib. I. v. Orpheus. 17 18 105 C R ATA R E P O A Paraskiste or Heroi had to become; for he never got out of here unless he had true skill. FOURTH DEGREE. THE BATTLE OF THE SHADOWS.a CHRISTOPHORIS. When the days of anger, which usually lasted a year and a half, were over, the atmosphere came to him again and greeted him him kindly, and asked that he should follow him, giving him a sword and shield. They walked down dark corridors with one another until at last certain clothed persons appeared in hideous shapes, carrying torches and snakes, and, calling Panis, attacked him. The Thesmosphoris ordered him to fight back valiantly and to face all danger. At last he was captured by them, his eyes blindfolded again, and a rope tied around his neck, but in such a way that he could not be strangled. Then they drew him to the earth as far as the hall where he was to receive a new degree. The shadows receded with a new scream that arose quickly. He was straightened up and, exhausted, led to the meeting. His eyes were tied open to him and here he saw the most beautiful decoration of a room hung with the most splendid consortia. The king himself was present with the Demiurgus. B They all wore their alydei. C Around them sat the stolistä or water-bearers, the hierostalista with the pen on his hat, as secretary, the Zacoris, who ran the cash register, and the Komastis, who had to take care of the meals. a Tertullianus de militis Corona. b Demiurges was the highest overseer in society. c Alêtheia truth. An Egyptian order. Aelianus var. Histor. Lib. XIV. Cap. 34. writes of it: Eum omnium hominum justissimum et tenacissimum oportebat, qui circa collum imaginem ex Sapphiro Gemma confectam gestabat. 19 20 C R ATA R E P O A 106 The Odos or speaker (singer) then gave a speech in which he wished the new Christophoris luck in his resolution. But he would only have survived half of his work, of which he would also have to take samples. Then he was given a drink which was very bitter and was called Cice. He had to empty it completely. Thereupon the shield of Minerva, also called Isis, was given to him, and the boots were placed on him of Anubis, who was at one with Mercury, and Orci's cloak with the cap. He received a heavy weight and was ordered to chop off the head of the person he would meet there in hell and bring it to the king. Every member shouted from Niobe: there is the enemy's hell. In this cave an extraordinarily beautiful woman appeared, who seemed to be alive, and was very artificially made of fine blisters and skins. The new Christophoris went to her, took her by the hair and cut off her head. He brought those to the king and the demiurges who praised his heroic deeds and told him that he had cut off the head of the Gorgob who was married to Typhon and had given rise to the murder of Osiris. He should always be an avenger of evil. He then retained permission to always go with the clothes that had been given to him. His name became | entered in a book containing all the judges in the country. He had freyen dealings with the king. He received his daily food from the court. C He received all of the country's statutes and a medal which he was only allowed to wear at the reception of a Christophoris or only in the city of Sais. He introduced Isis or Minerve in the form of an owl. He was given the following explanation, that at birth a person would be as blind as an owl, but would become a person through trials and through world wisdom. The helmet meant a Probably the same as the Kykeon potion. Athenaeus Lib. 9. b Gorgo, Gorgal and Gorgon are Egyptian names of the Medusa. c Diodorus Siculus Lib. I. de Judiciis Aegyptiorum. 21 22 107 C R ATA R E P O A the greatest degree of wisdom, the head of the Gorgon, the suppression of passions. The shield is the protection for mockery. The pillar is steadfastness. The water jug, the thirst for science. The quiver with the arrows, the eloquence. The spit, the persuasion from afar, since one could, as it were, wound others through one's reputation. The palm and olive branches peace. A They also taught him that the name of the great lawgiver was Joa. B This word was also the password. Sometimes they held meetings, in which none but all of Christophoris were allowed to come. Such a chapter was called Pyron.c They had a chapter word, namely Sasychis.d Otherwise he had to use the Ammanic language.e FIFTH DEGREE. BALAHATE. Christophoris had the right to demand this degree, which the Demiurges could not refuse. | He was therefore taken to the place of the meeting, where he was received by all members and introduced into the hall. Then a kind of drama happened, which he was only allowed to watch and from which he finally received the explanation. A person called Orus was walking around the hall with some Balahats carrying torches, and they seemed to be looking for something. Orus finally began to shrug his sword. One saw on it in a cave, over which flames broke out, the a Grand Cabinet Romain p. 26. b Diodorus Siculus Lib. I. de Aegyptiis legumlatoribus. It is special that when the word Jehovah is written without dots, it is called Joa. c Lit de Justice. d An ancient Egyptian priest. The Amman language was the secret one because he was now very close to learning the whole secret. 23 24 C R ATA R E P O A 108 Typhon sitting all sad as a murderer. Orus approached him. Typhon got up and showed himself in a terrible form. A hundred heads sat on his shoulders. His whole body was covered with scales, and his arms were of an astonishing length. Nevertheless, Orus went to him, threw him to the ground, and killed him. After chopping off his head, his body was thrown into the cave from which the now terrible | Flames broke out. But everyone's head was turned away without saying a word. The new Balahate then received the news that Typhon signified fire, which would be one of the most terrible elements, without which nothing could be accomplished in the world. Orus, work and industry, could derive great benefit from this if they knew how to kill its violence, as it were. The Balahat was then shown the instructions on chemistry, and if he felt like it, he was free to attend her examinations as often as he wanted. At this end his watchword was chymia. SIXTH DEGREE. ASTRONOMUS IN FRONT OF THE GATE OF THE GODS. This degree was connected with some preparations, and upon entering the meeting room it was immediately put in chains and bonds. | The thesmosphores then led him back first to the gate of death, which had many steps which one had to climb down because at the inauguration of the 3rd degree the cave was filled with water. Here he saw corpses which had been killed as traitors to society. He was threatened with the same fate, and now he was brought back again to swear a new oath.After doing this, he was told the origin of the whole doctrine of the gods, and he was given instructions for practical star art. He had to attend the observations at night and help them work. 25 26 109 C R ATA R E P O A He was warned about the astrologer and horoscopes; for they had a real hatred and loathing against them, being the originators of all idolatry and superstition. These false teachers of the people had chosen the word phoenix as their watchword, which the astronomers only scoffed at Immediately after his admission he was led to the gate of the gods and opened to him. There he found them all ground down, and the Demiurgus himself gave him all the explanations of their history without hiding anything from him. They also showed him the number of their superintendents they had already had, and the list of their members scattered all over the world. They also taught him a priestly dance, in the corridors of which the career of the stars was presented.b The watchword was ibis, which meant crane, and completed the symbol of vigilance. SEVENTH DEGREE.c PROPHETA OR MORE THAN SAPHENATH PANCAH, A MAN WHO KNOWS THE SECRETS. The last and most excellent degree in which all the secrets were explained in more detail. The astronomus could not obtain this degree without the permission and approval of the king, the demiurges, and all the higher members. Thereupon they held public corridors, showing all the sanctuaries to the people at all times. This association was called Pamylach. As soon as these were over, they went secretly out of the city at night, where there were certain houses which were built in a square and had different rooms, all of which were magnificently painted, and represented human life. ea Heliodorus Hist. Ethiop. Lib. 3. b Lucian de Saltatione. c Jamblychus de Mysteriis Egypt. d is called Oris Circumcisio. Circumcision of the tongue. e Voyage de Lucas en Egypt. 27 28 C R ATA R E P O A 110 These houses were called maneras, because the common people believed that they had a special way of dealing with the departed Manes. When they arrived in these houses, which were surrounded by many columns, on which alternately a sphinx and a coffin stood, the new prophet was given a drink of Oimella, b | and told him that now all rehearsals had come to an end. After that he received a cross of special importance, which he had to wear constantly. He was given a beautiful white striped and quite wide dress, so Etangi's name was. His headdress was square. His main sign was that he usually tended to stick his hands crosswise in his wide arms. Then all his hair was cut off. After this he was given permission to read all the secret books which were written in the Amonian language were, for which he received the cipher, so called royal building beam f | The greatest privilege they received was that they could help the kings elect. Their word was Adon. He could also, after a certain time, hold offices in society and become demiurges. a houses of the dead. b Presumably oinogeli made from wine and honey. Athenaeus Lib 9. c Rufi nus Lib. II. Cap. 29. d Porphyrius de Abstinentia. e Pierius Lib. 22 Grand Cabinet Romain p. 66. f Plutarch de amore fraterno. Diodorus Siculus in Additionibus. g Synesius de Providentia. h Historiae Deorum Syntagma primum Lilio Greg. Autore p. 2. 29 30 111 C R ATA R E P O A THE CONTROLS IN ADDITION TO THE CLOTHING. 1. Demiurges, the company's chief overseer, wore a sky-blue skirt embroidered with stars and a yellow belt. (Montfaucon Tom. II. P. 102. fi g. 1 / Ungerus Lib. De Cingulis.) He wore a sapphire with precious stones on a gold chain around his neck. He was also the highest judge in the whole country. 2. Hierophantes was dressed almost as the Demiurges, with the only difference that he wore a cross. | 3. Stolistas, the water bearer, wore a white striped skirt and a special kind of boots. He had all his clothes under his custody. 4. The Hierostolistas carried a pen on his hat, and a vessel, which was called Canonicon and had a cylindrical shape, in which ink could be written. 5. The Thesmosphores was the one who had to introduce all initiates. 6. The Zacoris ran the till. 7. The Komastis had to get the table. All the pastophores stood under him. 8. Odos of speakers and singers. ENJOY THE MEAL. They all had to wash beforehand before they sat down at the table. They were not allowed to drink wine, only beer. | At the tables either a whole skeleton or a butoi, (Sarcopeja) coffin, was shown around, 27 whereupon the Odos intoned the maneros, that is, oh death come to us at the right hour, as was sung by all the members. 28 After the At mealtimes they went to their business and contemplations, or had 31 32 CR ATA REPOA 112 to rest unless they opened for astronomical examinations of the divine gate of the Biranta, in which case they had to keep watch all night and make observations. GLOSSARY OF RITUAL NAMES IN CRATA REPOA Köppen designed many ritual names as free variations of his models, for example he was based on the description of a procession of Egyptian priests in Clemens Alexandrinus ’Stromata, as well as on Pluche's story of heaven. for singers, with Clemens the lowest priestly rank) Ritual places: Biranta (place of the examination of the apprentice / Pastophoris) 40 Endimion (black chamber, in the second degree) 41 113 C R ATA R E P O A